جستجوی مقاله
عنوان فارسی
عنوان انگليسی
سال انتشار یا ارائه مقاله (شمسی)
سال انتشار یا ارائه مقاله (ميلادی)
چکيده فارسی
چکيده انگليسی
زبان مقاله
ردیف زبان عنوان فارسی مقاله عنوان انگلیسی مقاله مشاهده
1 فارسی بیماریهای عفونی در دامپزشکی برای حیوانات THE PERSONALITY CONGRUENCE OF IRANIAN VETERINARY STUDENTS WITH THEIR FIELD OF STUDY 1350-1359 2000 اکتینوباسیلوز بیماری عفونی مشخصی است که خصوصیات آن در گاو التهاب زبان و بمیزان کمتری التهاب عقده های لنفاوی حلقی و ناودان مری می باشد. در گوسفندان جراحات بیماری محدود به بافتهای نرم سر و گردن و ندرتا بینی می شود و معمولاً ابتلاء زبان صورت نمی گیرد. اکتینوباسیلوز در گاو معمولاً بصورت انفرادی در یک گله ظاهر می شود و نظر به اینکه قابل درمان می باشد خسارات کمی وارد می سازد. بیماری در گوسفند بطور تصادفی و انفرادی بروز می کند ولی رد بعضی از گله ها ممکن است میزان ابتلاء به 25 درصد بالغ شود. Introduction: Evidence shows problems like feelings of dislike for the profession, job inconsistency, and low rate of career success have increased among the Iranian vets in the recent years. We have studied the correlation between personality congruence of Iranian veterinary students with their field of study to find the cause of the mentioned problems. Methods: In this survey study, we administered the Holland Personality-Career Test (Self-Directed Search or SDS test) to 250 students of 6 faculties of veterinary medicine including 3 state universities (Tehran, Shiraz and Shahrekord) and 3 Azad universities (Shahrekord, Karaj, and Kazeroon). Results: The personality type of the majority of the students was investigative, realistic and social, respectively. Congruence between students’ personality types and their field of study (veterinary medicine) was obtained as 59.09 for perfect congruence, 17.36 for average congruence, 12.81 for low congruence, and 10.74 for no congruence. Conclusion: On the basis of the results of this study which indicate one forth (1/4) of the students have shown low congruence or no congruence, we suggest that tests such as Holland test be used in the admittance procedure to select the most prosperous students in the future, and therefore, students themselves feel satisfied to study and work in this field, which could improve the quality of veterinary medicine in general. مشاهده
2 فارسی گزارش یک مورد رخداد تورم دوازدهه و ژوژنوم قدامی (DPJ) در اسب... DPJ OF HORSE 1350-1359 2000 تورم دوازدهه و ژوژنوم قدامی (DPJ) و به عبارتی تورم روده قدامی، سندرم بالینی است که با ادم و التهاب دوازدهه و ژوژنوم قدامی، ترشح مقادیر فراوان مایعات و الکترولیت ها به درون روده باریک و بازگشت حجم بالایی از محتویات آن به معده شناخته می شود. در بهمن ماه 1381، یک راس سیلمی 15 ساله از نژاد آنگلوعرب که از آن برای پرش و نسل کشی در یکی از اسبداری های اطراف تهران بهره گرفته می شد به دل درد حاد مبتلا گردید بدون آنکه سابقه ای از مسافرت، تغییر ناگهانی جیره و نظایر آن داشته باشد. حیوان مبتلا با استفاده از مایعات ایزوتونیک، فلونکسین مگلومین، رامپون، روغن های معدنی و پنی سیلین درمان شد اما به درمان پاسخ نداده و به دلیل وضعیت بدنی نامساعد، سن بالا، هزینه زیاد و پیش بینی ضعیف جراحی یوتانایز گردید. در کالبدگشایی، ابتدای روده باریک به شدت متسع و از یک مایع خون آلود بدبو انباشته شده بود. دیواره این قسمت از دستگاه گوارش ادم دار و ضخیم، سطح مخاط آن به رنگ قرمز تیره و سطح سروزی آن دارای خونریزی های پتشی و اکیموز فراوان بود. ضایعات ماکروسکوپیک محدود به معده، دوازدهه و ژژنوم قدامی بود. سایر بافت های بدن پرخون و ادماتوز بودند. از کشت هوازی و بی هوازی محتویات روده و مغز استخوان متاتارس، Clostridium perfringens به طورخالص جدا گردید. در بررسی هیستوپاتولوژیک روده، پرخونی شدید، نفوذ سلول های نوتروفیل و ادم غنی از رشته های فیبرین در زیر مخاط، نکروز و کنده شدن سلول های پوششی درسطح مخاط و خونریزی های گسترده در لایه های عضلانی و سروز جلب توجه می کرد. این بیماری، با توجه به نشانه های بالینی، نتایج باکتریولوژیک و بویژه یافته های کالبدگشایی و هیستوپاتولوژیک، به عنوان تورم فیبرینونکروتیک دئودنوم و ژوژنوم قدامی (Duodenitis/Proximal Jejunitis (DPJ تشخیص داده شد. AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA مشاهده
3 فارسی Pregnancy rates of frozen embryos recovered during winter and summer in Sistani cows Pregnancy rates of frozen embryos recovered during winter and summer in Sistani cows 1350-1359 2000 During spring, summer and winter seasons, Sistani donor cows, with normal reproductive status, were superovulated and embryos were recovered non-surgically on day 7. Grade A blastocyst embryos were either transferred fresh (spring) or frozen (summer and winter). Recovered embryos during summer and winter were exposed to glycerol and frozen using conventional method. During spring season, recipient females (n = 70) were synchronized using two consecutive injections of prostaglandin F 2α analogue, 14 days apart. On day 7 after the ensuing cycle, the females were assigned into three groups to receive single embryo, either fresh (n = 14; control; recovered embryos in spring) or frozen blastocyst recovered and frozen in summer (n = 27) or winter (n = 29). Pregnancies were diagnosed by ultrasound examination, 30 days after non-surgical embryo transfer. Pregnancy rates following transfer of fresh embryos (64.3) were higher than those that received frozen-thawed embryos (17.86; P0.05). There was not any significant difference between pregnancy rates of recipients receiving embryos frozen in summer (18.5) or winter (17.2; P0.05). During spring, summer and winter seasons, Sistani donor cows, with normal reproductive status, were superovulated and embryos were recovered non-surgically on day 7. Grade A blastocyst embryos were either transferred fresh (spring) or frozen (summer and winter). Recovered embryos during summer and winter were exposed to glycerol and frozen using conventional method. During spring season, recipient females (n = 70) were synchronized using two consecutive injections of prostaglandin F 2α analogue, 14 days apart. On day 7 after the ensuing cycle, the females were assigned into three groups to receive single embryo, either fresh (n = 14; control; recovered embryos in spring) or frozen blastocyst recovered and frozen in summer (n = 27) or winter (n = 29). Pregnancies were diagnosed by ultrasound examination, 30 days after non-surgical embryo transfer. Pregnancy rates following transfer of fresh embryos (64.3) were higher than those that received frozen-thawed embryos (17.86; P0.05). There was not any significant difference between pregnancy rates of recipients receiving embryos frozen in summer (18.5) or winter (17.2; P0.05). مشاهده
4 فارسی افزایش حساسیت میگوی وانامیآلوده به ویروس لکه سفید Increased susceptibility of white spot syndrome virus-infected Litopenaeus vannamei to vibrios infec... 1393 2014 با ورود گونه جدید میگوی سفید غربی L. vannamei به سیستم پرورش کشور بعد از تلفات در مزارع آبادان در سال 1381 و در بوشهر در سال 1383، شناسایی احتمالی ورود آلودگی های عفونی بخصوص ویروس ها و ارتباط آن با باکتری جنس ویبریو مد نظر قرار گرفت. لذا ازاستخرهای پرورش میگو در سایت چوئبده آبادان، 240 نمونه از میگوهای پرورشی جهت ردیابی ویروس لکه سفید و 120 نمونه برای شناسایی باکتریهای جنس ویبریو استفاده گردید. همچنین بافت های آبشش، هپاتوپانکراس و کوتیکول از میگوها برای ردیابی ویروس لکه سفید با روش آسیب شناسی بافتی جدا و در محلول دیویدسون تثبیت گردید. با استفاده از کیت تشخیصی IQ2000 WIT Multi Vir و روش آسیب شناسی بافتی، ویروس WSSV شناسایی گردید. در این مطالعه باکتری های جنس ویبریو در میگوهای وانامی تشخیص داده شد. همزمان با افزایش تنوع ویروس ها بخصوص WSSV تعداد ویبریوها در بافت هپاتوپانکراس بهcfu/gr 105 × 9/4 رسید. نتایج حاصل از آسیب شناسی بافتی و کیت تجاری نشان داد که 40 درصد نمونه های مورد آزمایش به ویروس لکه سفید آلوده بودند. No مشاهده
5 فارسی مطالعه هیستوپاتولوژیک پوست و روده در ماهی قزل آلای رنگین کمان پرورشی مبتلا به Lactococcus garviea... - 1393 2014 قزل آلای رنگین کمان (Oncorhynchus mykiss) یکی از گونه های مهم ماهیان در صنعت آبزی پروری است و بیماریهای باکتریایی یکی از عوامل کاهش تولیدات ماهی می باشد. باکتری Lactococcus garvieae یکی از مهمترین عوامل عفونی است که سبب بروز خسارات اقتصادی فراوانی در مزارع پرورشی می باشد. Streptococosis بیماریی با علائم مشابه Lactococcosis بوده که تشخیص قطعی را پیچیده می کند. در 5 سال اخیر بیماری مشکوک به Streptococosis در مزارع پرورشی قزل آلای رنگین کمان ایلام به صورت اپیدمی شایع شده است. در این تحقیق، تعداد 60 عدد ماهی قزل آلای رنگین کمان بیمار با علائم بالینی نظیر شنای نامنظم، اگزوفتالمیو... از مزارع پرورشی جمع آوری شد. جهت تشخیص عامل بیماری، نمونه هایی از طحال، کلیه و کبد ماهی جمع آوری شد. بر اساس آزمایشات بیوشیمیایی و روش Multiplex PCR با استفاده از سه مجموعه پرایمر طراحی شده 16SrRNA، 23S rRNA - 16S و (lctO) مربوط به، S. iniae ،L. garvieae و S. dysgalactiae ایزولههای جداشده در این مطالعه، باندهایی به طول(bp) 1100 تولید کردند و باکتری ایجاد کننده بیماری L. garvieaeشناسایی شد. برخی از نتایج هیستوپاتولوژیک مشاهده شده عبارتند از: نکروز سلولهای اپیدرمی، زخم در پوست و خونریزی، افزایش سلولهای موکوسی و ارتشاح سلولهای التهابی در روده. نتایج مطالعه حاضر با استفاده از روش m-PCR تایید کرد که باکتریL. garvieae عامل اصلی بیماری اپیدمیک در مزارع پرورشی قزل آلای رنگین کمان ایلام میباشد. Rinbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) is an important fish species in aquaculture. The bacterial disease caused the decline in the production of this fish. Lactococcus garvieae is one of the most serious infectious agents that caused disease with economical losses in fish farms. Streptococosis have signs similar to lactococcosis. Therefore the definite diagnosis is sometimes complicated. In the last 5 years, the disease suspected to be streptococosis was epidemic in rainbo مشاهده
6 انگليسی فارماکوکینتیک تتراسیکلین در گوسفندان دنبه‌دار Pharmacokinetics of tetracycline hydrochloride in fat-tailed sheep 1386 2007 آنتی‌بیوتیک‌های تتراسیکلینی را می‌توان در درمان تعدادی از انواع بیماری‌های باکتریایی مورد استفاده قرار داد. بعلاوه، تتراسیکلین برای افزایش رشد به غذا نیز اضافه می‌گردد. محدود گزارش‌هایی در مورد فارماکوکینتیک تتراسیکلین در گوسفند موجود است. بنابراین هدف از مطالعه حاضر بررسی خصوصیات فارماکوکینتیکی این دارو در گوسفند می‌باشد. به ده راس گوسفند نژاد مخلوط و به ظاهر سالم میزان 20 میلی‌گرم به ازای هر کیلوگرم وزن بدن از تتراسیکلین به طرق خوراکی و داخل رگی در دو مرحله و با فاصله زمانی دو هفته تجویز شد. نمونه‌های خون قبل و در فواصل زمانی مشخص پس از تجویز دارو جمع‌آوری گردید. سرم این نمونه‌ها جدا و در °C20- نگهداری و سپس با روش فلوئورسانس اسپکتروفتومتری آنالیز گردید. اطلاعات فارماکوکینتیکی جدیدی برای تتراسیکلین در گوسفند به دست آمد. حجم توزیع، ثابت سرعت حذف، نیمه عمر و کلیرانس تتراسیکلین بعد از تجویز داخل رگی به ترتیب L/kg 21/0،/hr 21/0، hr3/3 و ml/kg/min 73/0 تعیین گردید. در روش خوراکی، این پارامترها به ترتیب L/kg37/0، /hr12/0، hr8/5 و ml/kg/min 73/0 به دست آمدند. علاوه بر آن، فراهمی زیستی تتراسیکلین در تجویز خوراکی تقریبا 55 محاسبه شد. Pharmacokinetics of tetracycline hydrochloride in fat-tailed sheep مشاهده
7 فارسی افزایش حساسیت میگوی وانامی آلوده به ویروس لکه سفید نسبت به ویبریوها در مزارع پرورشی چوئبده آبادان... Increased susceptibility of white spot syndrome virus-infected Litopenaeus vannamei to vibrios infec... 1393 2014 با ورود گونه جدید میگوی سفید غربی L. vannamei به سیستم پرورش کشور بعد از تلفات در مزارع آبادان در سال 1381 و در بوشهر در سال 1383، شناسایی احتمالی ورود آلودگی های عفونی بخصوص ویروس ها و ارتباط آن با باکتری جنس ویبریو مد نظر قرار گرفت. لذا ازاستخرهای پرورش میگو در سایت چوئبده آبادان، 240 نمونه از میگوهای پرورشی جهت ردیابی ویروس لکه سفید و 120 نمونه برای شناسایی باکتریهای جنس ویبریو استفاده گردید. همچنین بافت های آبشش، هپاتوپانکراس و کوتیکول از میگوها برای ردیابی ویروس لکه سفید با روش آسیب شناسی بافتی جدا و در محلول دیویدسون تثبیت گردید. با استفاده از کیت تشخیصی IQ2000 WIT Multi Vir و روش آسیب شناسی بافتی، ویروس WSSV شناسایی گردید. در این مطالعه باکتری های جنس ویبریو در میگوهای وانامی تشخیص داده شد. همزمان با افزایش تنوع ویروس ها بخصوص WSSV تعداد ویبریوها در بافت هپاتوپانکراس بهcfu/gr 105 × 9/4 رسید. نتایج حاصل از آسیب شناسی بافتی و کیت تجاری نشان داد که 40 درصد نمونه های مورد آزمایش به ویروس لکه سفید آلوده بودند. The introduction of L. vannamei to Iran was initiated when high mortality occurred in shrimp farms of Abadan in 2002 then in Bushehr during summer of 2004.. Inspection of L. vannamei for infectious agents , specially virus and bacteria and relationship between them were the main objectives of this study. Therefore about 240 samples consisting of shrimps of L. vannamei were collected from farms in Abadan for virology studies by PCR procedure (Iq2000 diagnostic kits and WIT multi vir Iq2000). Also 120 shrimps of L.vannamei were tested for bacterial infection and for histopathology had been collected randomly and preserved in Davidsons fixation and then transferred to 75 ethyl alcohol for storage. (Hepatopancreas , gills and cuticule). Finally it has been detected vibrio sp.in various organs of L. vannamei. Histopathological studies have shown inclusion bodies of WSSV in various tissues. Also 40 shrimps with WSSV and histopathology infected. Total vibrio in hepathopancreas increase ( 4.9×105 cfu/gr) with intensity WSSV in tissue. مشاهده
8 فارسی مطالعه آناتومی و بافت شناسی غده اشکی در شترمرغ بالغ Anatomical and histological study of lacrimal gland in adult ostrich (Struthio camelus) 1393 2014 در این تحقیق خصوصیات مورفولوژی و بافت شناسی غده اشکی چپ و راست ده قطعه شترمرغ بالغ مورد بررسی قرار گرفت پس از بررسی توپوگرافی غده و اندازه گیری ابعاد آن، مقاطع بافتی تهیه و با روش های متداول بافت شناسی رنگ آمیزی شدند. غده اشکی به رنگ قهوهای تیره متمایل به سیاه و بصورت مورب در سطح پشتی جانبی حدقه قرار داشت. میانگین طول این غده در سمت چپ 06/2 ± 95/15 میلیمتر و در سمت راست 25/2 ± 80/16 میلیمتر تعیین گردید. میانگین عرض این غده در سمت چپ 66/0 ± 15/6 میلیمتر و در سمت راست 58/0 ± 25/6 میلیمتر تعیین گردید. از نظر آماری اختلاف معنی دار ی در پارامترهای اندازه گیری شده در بین غدد اشکی چپ و راست وجود نداشت. ازنظر بافت شناسی شکل واحدهای ترشحی این غده در شترمرغ لوله ای آلوئلی بود و سلول های بافت پوششی غدد از نوع استوانه ای ساده بلند و نحوه ترشح آنها آپوکرین و نوع ترشحات موکوز تعیین گردید.غده اشکی شترمرغ از نظر توپوگرافی مشابه سایر پرندگان بود و سلول های واحدهای ترشحی و مجاری غده اشکی با رنگ آمیزی های اسید پریودیک شیف و آلسین بلو واکنش مثبت نشان دادند. In this research, morphology and histology of the left and right lacrimal glands of ten adult ostrich were carefully studied. After the topographical study of the glands and measuring the dimension of them, tissue sections were prepared and stained by current histology. Results revealed that in ostrich, lacrimal gland was dark brown to black color and was located obliquely in dorsolateral part of orbit. The mean length of lacrimal gland was 15.95 ± 2.06mm and 16.80 ± 2.25mm in left and right side respectively. The mean width of it was 6.15 ± 0.66mm and 6.25 ± 0.58mm in left and right side respectively. There was no significant difference between length, thickness, weight and width of left and right lacrimal glands. In histological results, sceretory units of lacrimal gland were tubuloalveolar and mucous type. Epithelial cells were high simple columnar and mode of secretion was apocrine. In ostrich, topography of lacrimal gland was similar to other birds and the glandular cells were positive in periodic acid shiff and alcian blue stains. مشاهده
9 انگليسی استفاده از روش real time pcrجهت تشخیص موتانت های 16SRNA هلیکو باکترپیلوری مقاوم به تتراسیکلین... USING DEVELOPED REAL-TIME PCR METHOD FOR RAPID DIAGNOSIS OF MUTATION OF 1393 2014 The first stage of treatment of Helicobacter pylori infection usually involves an inhibitor proton (Antisecretory drugs) combined with two antibiotics. However, effectiveness of this triple treatment due to resistance against metronidazole and clarithromycin is decreasing. Therefore, today a quadruple therapy containing Bismuth and tetracycline components is often used as the second stage treatment. Yet, resistance against tetracycline is because of mutation in r RNA 16s ( rRNA and rRNB) genes and can lead to unsuccessful treatment of Helicobacter pylori. In this study, to identify resistance to tetracycline, the fluorescence resonance energy transfer method based on real-time PCR was performed. This method uses seven isolated H. pylori are resistant to tetracycline (TetR) with a pair of triple mutation AGA926-928 as well as eight different synthetic mutant synthetics that expresses the effects of mutations impacts on the position between 926-928 in the 16S rRNA genes and the isolated sample of H. pylori 150 were tested. The Real-time PCR method identified all artificial mutant isolated TetR sample and distinguished them from susceptible tetracycline (TetS). In addition, this method had the ability to pose on the extracted DNA from the cultured bacteria and extracted samples from the stomach. Therefore, real-time PCR is an excellent tool for detection of H. pylori resistance against tetracycline especially in cases the common susceptibility test fails. © Copy Right, IJCLS, 2014, Academic Journals. All rights reserved. مشاهده
10 فارسی Effects of Selenium Red Nanoparticles on Leishmania Infantum, Cellular 1393 2015 Leishmania is an intracellular protozoan and causative agents of visceral leishmaniaisis [VL]. Leishmaniasis is considered as one the most important tropical disease by World Health organization [WHO][1]. Leishmanial drugs are costly, high toxic, frequently have unpleasant side effects. In addition, drug resistance exits in region of endemicity. Perviously using nanoparticles in treatment of leishmaniasis has been became more attractive.Several researches reported recently, selenium nanoparticle has developed as promising tool for treatment leishmaniasis progression [10,11] Antioxidants effects of selenium has been shown that protect phagocytic cells and surrounding tissues from attacking free oxidative radicals produced by the respiratory chain of neutrophils and macrophages during phagocytosis. There is one kind of nano red selenium demonstrated to have comparable bioavailability with selenite and also low toxicity rather than selenite for normal cells [23, 24]. Unique properties in biological pathways and low toxicity red nanoselenium are attracting more attention in scientific circle [10]. In the present study we described selenium red nanoparticle on leishmania infantum مشاهده
11 انگليسی Differentiation of Mycoplasma synoviae strains in IRAN by PCR 1393 2015 Abstract: Mycoplasma synoviae is one of the most important economic challenges in keeping the chickens all over the world and particularly in Iran which leads to chronic respiratory disease in chickens and turkeys. Difference in mycoplasma synoviae methods particularly in the countries that Livestock and Poultry are vaccinated with a live vaccine is a matter of great magnitude. In this paper, 1600 serum samples of 80 broiler breeder flocks were sampled on which RSA test was carried out in the Serology Laboratory. Then sampling for PCR and DNA extraction was performed through proposed methods. The results of RSA test revealed that from among 1600 serum sample taken from 80 farms, 68 farms became positive in RSA test. In General, from 1600 obtained samples, 1327 samples were positive in RSA test, 216 samples were negative, and from 57 suspected serum samples, 31 samples were reported as positive in the one-eighth dilution. Comparison of bands, obtained from the primers VlhA-F and VlhAR2, indicates that there is a difference between different strains of Iran and the vaccine strains MS-H and standard strain in terms of size. In PCR test with external primers, MSCons -F and MSCons-R, the band 350-400 indicates presence of Mycoplasma synoviae and MS-H. In general, using the DNA-diagnosis-based methods like PCR and PCR_RLFP in order to detect the Mycoplasma synoviae directly from the laboratory tissue or strains seems necessary. These methods are able to provide the detailed results in the presence of infections mixed with several Mycoplasmas, facing with secondary bacterial infections, Mycoplasma growth inhibitor such as antibiotics, or other host factors within one to two days مشاهده
12 فارسی Plant-derived compounds in treatment of leishmaniasis 1394 2015 Leishmaniasis is a neglected public health problem caused by the protozoan species belonging to the genus Leishmania affecting mostly the poor populations of developing countries. The causative organism is transmitted by female sandflies. Cutaneous, mucocutaneous, and visceral clinical manifestations are the most frequent forms of leishmaniasis. Chemotherapy still relies on the use of pentavalent antimonials, amphotericin B, paromomycin, miltefosin and liposomal amphotericin B. However, the application of these drugs is limited due to low efficacy, life-threatening side effects, high toxicity, induction of parasite resistance, length of treatment and high cost. Given the fact that antileishmanial vaccines may not become available in the near future, the search for better drugs should be continued. Natural products may offer an unlimited source of chemical diversity to identify new drug modules. New medicines should be less toxic or non-toxic, safe, more efficient, less expensive and readily available antileishmanial agents, especially for low-income populations. In the present review, special focus is on medicinal plants used against leishmanaiasis. The bioactive phytocompounds present in the plant derivatives including the crude extracts, essential oils, and other useful compounds can be a good source for discovering and producing new antileishmanial medicines. مشاهده
13 انگليسی A comparative study of parthenogenetic activation and in vitro 1394 2014 Summary The aim of the study was to compare the parthenogenetic activation and in vitro fertilization (IVF) of in vitro matured caprine oocytes. A total of 881 cumulus-oocyte complexes (COC’s) were collected from 243 ovaries. Oocytes were matured in TCM-199 medium containing eCG (20 IU/ml), hCG (20 IUμg/ml), oestradiol-17β (1 μg/ml), BSA embryo tested (3 mg/ml) supplemented with 10 fetal bovine serum at 38.5°C and 5 CO2 in an incubator under humidified air for 27 h. Based on cumulus expansion, the maturation rate was 86.86. Morphological matured oocytes (n=749) were selected, denuded and randomly divided into two groups. Group 1 (n=223) in vitro matured oocytes activated with 5 μm calcium ionophore for 5 min and cultured in mCR2aa medium containing 5 mM DMAP for 4 h. After 4 h of DMAP treatment, the presumptive zygotes were washed and cultured in the embryo culture medium. Group 2 (n=526) in vitro matured oocytes processed for IVF in mTALP using fresh semen of a fertile pure bred adult Sirohi buck and in vitro culture in mCR2aa medium. Development of putative zygotes was observed every 24 h till day 9 post activation or fertilization under inverted phase contrast microscope. The cleavage rate, morula and blastocyst percentage in groups 1 and 2 were 67.36, 23.07 and 9.23, and 30.99, 19.63 and 9.82, respectively. The results indicated that the cleavage rate was comparatively higher following parthenogenetic activation with ionomycin/6-DMAP than IVF. مشاهده
14 انگليسی Chemical composition and protein enrichment of orange peels 1393 2014 The present experiment aimed at increasing orange peel and sugar beet pulp protein content through solid-state fermentation by Trichoderma reesei and Trichoderma viride. In vitro digestibility and changes in the chemical composition of the fermented products were determined after seven days of fungal cultivation using gas production tests. The cultivation of T. reesei and T. viride on orange peels decreased neutral detergent soluble content (P0.01) and increased cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin contents (P0.01). Changes in fiber fractions were found to be more pronounced with T. viride. The cultivation of T. reesei and T. viride on sugar beet pulp increased neutral detergent soluble content (P0.01) and decreased cellulose and hemicellulose contents (P0.01). These changes were more pronounced with T. reesei. The cultivation of T. reesei or T. viride on orange peels or sugar beet pulp increased crude protein content (P0.01) compared with the unfermented materials; however, the increase was more pronounced for orange peels fermented with T. viride when corrected for weight loss (P0.05). After 24 and 48 h of incubation, significant decreases in cumulative gas production (P0.01) were observed in fermented sugar beet pulp and orange peels compared with the unfermented materials. Fungal treatment of orange peels and sugar beet pulp reduced the digestibility of in vitro organic matter, metabolizable energy and average fermentation and gas production rates (P0.01). The data showed that seven days of solid-state fermentation of orange peels and sugar beet pulp by T. reesei or T. viride can increase their crude protein content. Key words: مشاهده
15 انگليسی Detection and identification of Malassezia species in domestic 1393 2014 The present study aimed at detection and species-level identification of the Malassezia yeasts in domestic animals and aquatic birds by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP). Samples were collected using tape strips and swabs from 471 animals including 97 horses, 102 cattle, 105 sheep, 20 camels, 60 dogs, 30 cats, 1 hamster, 1 squirrel, 50 aquatic birds and 5 turkeys. Tape-strip samples were examined by direct microscopy. All samples were inoculated on modified Leeming and Notman agar medium. DNA extracted from the yeast colonies was amplified by PCR using primers specific for 26S rDNA. RFLP of the PCR products was performed using Hin6I enzyme, and PCR and RFLP products were visualized by agarose gel electrophoresis. Malassezia yeasts were detected at the following frequencies: 15.46 in horses, 12.74 in cattle, 12.38 in sheep, 28.33 in dogs, 26.66 in cats and 26 in aquatic birds. Eighty colonies of 6 species were isolated: Malassezia globosa 41.25, Malassezia furfur 22.5, Malassezia restricta 15, Malassezia sympodialis 15, Malassezia pachydermatis 5 and Malassezia slooffiae 1.25. Therefore different lipophilic Malassezia species are found in a wide diversity of animals and aquatic birds. PCR-RFLP is a suitable technique for identification of different Malassezia species. مشاهده
16 فارسی Effect of different activators on development of activated 1393 2014 Summary This study was designed to compare the effectiveness of different activation treatments for activation of in vitro matured oocytes and their developmental potency in mCR2aa medium so as to obtain maximum number of embryos. A total of 1090 cumulus oocyte complexes (COC’s) were collected from 480 ovaries. In vitro matured oocytes were randomly divided into four groups. Group 1 in vitro matured oocytes (n=226) were exposed to 7 ethanol for 5 min followed by treatment with 2.0 mM DMAP for 4 h in mCR2aa medium. Group 2 in vitro matured oocytes (n=294) were exposed to 7 ethanol for 5 min followed by treatment with 10 μg/ml CHX for 4 h in mCR2aa medium. Group 3 in vitro matured oocytes (n=325) were exposed to 7 ethanol for 5 min followed by treatment with 2.0 mM DMAP and 10 μg/ml CHX for 4 h in mCR2aa medium. Group 4 in vitro matured oocytes (n=108) were cultured for 4 h without any chemical treatment in mCR2aa medium (control). The cleavage rate in groups 1, 2, 3 and 4 was 54.42, 44.55, 51.69 and 0.00, respectively. The percentage of morula and blastocyst production in group 1, group 2 and group 3 was 26.01, 29.77 and 29.76 and 2.43, 1.52 and 1.78, respectively. These results suggest that the activation of in vitro matured oocytes by 7 ethanol for 5 min followed by treatment with 2.0 mM DMAP for 4 h in mCR2aa is most favorable for parthenogenetic caprine embryos production. مشاهده
17 انگليسی The estimation of ruminal protein degradation parameters of 1393 2014 IJVR, 2015, Vol. 16, No. 1, Ser. No. 50, Pages 47-52 47 The estimation of ruminal protein degradation parameters of various feeds using in vitro modified gas production technique Falahatizow, J.1; Danesh Mesgaran, M.2*; Vakili, A. R.2; Tahmasbi, A. M.2 and Nazari, M. R.3 1Ph.D. Student in Ruminant Nutrition, Department of Animal Science, College of Agriculture, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad, Iran; 2Department of Animal Science, College of Agriculture, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad, Iran; 3MSc Student in Ruminant Nutrition, Department of Animal Science, College of Agriculture, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad, Iran *Correspondence: M. Danesh Mesgaran, Department of Animal Science, College of Agriculture, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad, Iran. E-mail: danesh@um.ac.ir (Received 5 Feb 2014; revised version 2 Nov 2014; accepted 10 Nov 2014) Summary This study was conducted to determine in vitro crude protein degradation (IVDP) parameters and effective crude protein degradability (EPD) of various feeds using the modified in vitro gas production (GP) technique. Feed samples were alfalfa hay, soybean meal, soybean, rapeseed meal, sunflower meal and fish meal. Rumen fluid was collected before the morning feeding from four rumen fistulated lambs (49.4 ± 3.5 kg, body weight). Approximately 90 ml of buffered rumen fluid (BRF), 400 mg of feed samples and carbohydrates (maltose, xylose and starch) at four concentrations (100, 200, 300, and 400 mg) were added to screw-cap bottles. Gas production (ml) and ammonia nitrogen concentration (mg) in each bottle were measured at 4, 8, 12, 16, 24, and 30 h post incubation and IVDP was calculated via estimated intercept of linear regression between GP (as main variable, X) and ammonia nitrogen (as dependent variable, Y) using the linear regression procedure. Feed, time and feed × time interaction had significant effect on IVDP (P0.001). Estimated EPD values at the outflow rate of 0.06/h for alfalfa hay, soybean meal, soybean, rapeseed meal, sunflower meal and fish meal were 0.56, 0.77, 0.59, 0.45, 0.50 and 0.38, respectively. مشاهده
18 انگليسی Comparative efficacy of E-17β and GnRH administration on day 0 of a 1393 2014 Summary The study was undertaken to compare the efficacy of an estradiol-17β + CIDR based protocol with the conventional ovsynch + CIDR based protocol for synchrony of wave emergence and ovulation in Murrah buffalos. In group I (n=25), on day 0 (beginning of experiment), buffaloes were administered a CIDR device (1.38 g P4) and concurrently received 1.5 mg E-17β. On day 9, the CIDR was removed and a prostaglandin (PG) F2α analogue (500 μg) was administered. On day 11, buffaloes were administered a gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) analogue (20 μg) and inseminated twice at 12 h and 24 h following GnRH injections. Group II (n=25) protocol was based on an ovsynch regimen plus CIDR for 7 days followed by double insemination at induced estrus. Group III (n=10) served as control and was not given any hormone on day 0 of the protocol. In groups I, II and III, the duration of new follicular wave emergences were observed on days 4.22 ± 0.12, 3.12 ± 0.33 and 5.14 ± 0.42, respectively. In group I, synchrony of wave emergence was more and the diameter of pre-ovulatory follicles was larger (P0.05) compared to groups II and III. The first service conception rate (FSCR) was higher (P0.05) in group I while ovulation rates were not different between groups I and II. In conclusion, more synchrony of wave emergence, larger diameter of dominant follicles and higher first service conception rate was observed following the E-17β + CIDR based protocol in buffalos. مشاهده
19 فارسی Effects of Saccharomyces cerevisiae on survival rate and 1393 2014 Summary Using probiotics can control pathogens by a variety of mechanisms. Probiotics can promote growth performance and have, therefore, become increasingly important in the aquaculture industry. Convict Cichlid belongs to the family of Cichlidae and is known for its rapid development in laboratory conditions and is suitable for behavioral examinations. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of Saccharomyces cerevisiae on growth performance, survival rate and body composition of Convict Cichlids (Amatitlania nigrofasciata). One hundred sixty eight Convict Cichlids (mean weight: 2.1 ± 0.12 g and mean length: 2.2 ± 0.05 cm) were fed by commercial diets with different concentrations of S. cerevisiae (0, 0.5, 1, 2). At the end of the experiment, survival rate and growth indices were measured. Based on the results, growth performance significantly increased with probiotic, S. cerevisiae, specially, at the 2 probiotic level of concentration. In the present study, the best FCR (feed conversion rate), SGR (specific growth rate), CF (condition factor) and BWG (body weight gain) values were observed in a 2 concentration of S. cerevisiae. The results suggest that this yeast could improve feed utilization in this fish species. مشاهده
20 فارسی The influence of a slow-release multi-trace element ruminal 1393 2014 Published data on the effects of ruminal bolus on the number of ovulatory follicles in ewes does not exist. The present study determined the effects of a ruminal bolus on trace element status, follicular dynamics and reproductive performance in ewes. Eighty Afshari cycling ewes were synchronized during breeding season using CIDR for 14 days and assigned to 4 groups (n=20); group 1 received a single Ferrobloc bolus four weeks prior to CIDR insertion following 400 IU eCG on CIDR removal, group 2 received two boluses four weeks prior to CIDR insertion following 400 IU eCG on CIDR removal, group 3 received only 400 IU eCG on CIDR removal and group 4 (control) received no bolus and no eCG. Transrectal ultrasonography was done to monitor the ovarian follicles on the day of CIDR removal and a day later. Results showed that boluses increased the status of copper, selenium and iodine on mating day and days 90 to 100 of gestation. Ruminal bolus did not significantly increase the number of different classes of ovarian follicles in ewes fed a diet meeting all trace mineral requirements. All ewes eventually became pregnant with 1 or 2 boluses but the multiple births rate (80) was higher (P0.05) after 2 boluses compared to the other groups. مشاهده
21 فارسی Evaluation of humoral immunity and protective efficacy of 1393 2014 Summary Mastitis is a one of the major diseases of dairy animals. Staphylococcus aureus is the most common microorganism associated with this dairy scourge. Cure rates of mastitis associated with this pathogen are appallingly low. Biofilm is an important virulence factor and immunogenic structure of S. aureus that makes it resistant to phagocytosis and antibiotics. Reports on the efficacy of vaccine prepared from a biofilm producing S. aureus are infrequent. The present study was designed to evaluate the role of a bacterin-toxoid prepared from a strong biofilm producing S. aureus in effective immunization of rabbits. The strong biofilm producing S. aureus selected from 64 isolates of staphylococci was used to prepare bacterin-toxoid and aluminum hydroxide gel was added as an adjuvant. The vaccine was evaluated in rabbits by challenge protection assay and humoral immune response. The mortality rates in control and vaccinated groups were 80 and 10 at day 7 post challenge and 100 and 20 at day 15 post challenge, respectively. Serum antibody titer (GMT) was significantly higher (294.0) in vaccinated group as compared to control group of rabbits (2.63) at day 45. The results showed that the vaccine has significantly elicited humoral immune response in rabbit and developed protective efficacy against new infections. مشاهده
22 فارسی Ultrasonography of the supramammary lymph nodes for 1393 2014 Currently, somatic cell count (SCC) and bacterial culture are considered as the gold standard of detecting subclinical Mastitis. Mastitis leads to proliferation of lymphocytes in the supramammary lymph nodes and subsequent enlargement of ipsilateral lymph node. Ultrasonography can be used to survey these changes. A portable ultrasound machine with a 2-5 MHz convex transducer was used to identify the supramammary lymph node size in 35 cows in a herd with chronic Staphylococcus aureus mastitis. After premilking udder preparation, a California mastitis test (CMT) was performed and individual milk samples were taken from each quarter for bacterial culture and somatic cell count (SCC) in accordance with NMC recommendations. The mean length (range 5.77-12.90 cm) and width (range 2.07-7.41 cm) of the lymph node were 9.2 and 4.03 cm, respectively. There was a positive correlation between lymph node size (length and depth) and culture of milk samples on ipsilateral quarters. Also, there was a significant difference correlation between CMT or mean log SCC of each side and size of supramammary lymph node in the same side. This study showed significant changes in supramammary lymph node dimensions in mastitis cases, so ultrasonography of this lymph node is probably a useful method for mastitis detection, especially in situations that test on milk is impossible. مشاهده
23 فارسی Performance and carcass characteristics of guinea fowl fed on 1393 2014 The present work aimed at studying growth pattern and carcass traits in pearl grey guinea fowl fed on dietary Neem (Azadirachta indica) leaf powder (NLP) over a period of 12 weeks. Day old guinea fowl keets (n=120) were randomly assigned to four treatment groups, each with 3 replicates. The first treatment was designated as control (T0) in which no supplement was added to the feed, while in treatments T1, T2 and T3, NLP was provided as 1, 2 and 3 g per kg of feed, respectively. The results revealed a significant increase in body weight at 12 weeks; 1229.7 for T1, 1249.8 for T2, and 1266.2 g T3 compared to 1220.0 g for the control group (P0.05). The results also showed that the supplementation of NLP significantly increased feed intake (P≤0.05) which might be due to the hypoglycaemic activity of Neem. A significant increase was also found in the feed conversion ratio (FCR) of the treated groups over the control, showing that feeding NLP to the treated groups has lowered their residual feed efficiency. The results of the study demonstrate the beneficial effects of supplementing NLP on body weight gain and dressed yield in the treated groups in guinea fowl. NLP is, therefore, suggested to be used as a feed supplement in guinea fowl for higher profitability. مشاهده
24 انگليسی Comparative possession of Shiga toxin, intimin, enterohaemolysin 1393 2014 The present work was conducted to compare the occurrence of Escherichia coli possessing virulence and ESBL genes in backyard and farmed poultry. Three hundred and sixty samples from the poultry kept in backyard system and 120 samples from the farmed birds were collected from West Bengal, India. Among the E. coli isolates of backyard poultry (O2, O10, O25, O55, O60, O106, UT), none of them possessed any of the Shiga toxin genes and eight E. coli isolates (8/272; 2.9) harboured eaeA gene alone. Whereas among the E. coli isolated from the farmed poultry (O17, O20, O22, O102, O114, O119, rough, UT), four isolates (4/78, 5.1) harboured stx1/stx2 gene and 11 isolates (11/78, 14.1) possessed eaeA gene. None of the E. coli isolates from the backyard poultry harboured any studied ESBL gene. Whereas 29.4 of E. coli isolates from the farmed poultry were found to possess the ESBL genes. مشاهده
25 انگليسی Clinico-pathological findings of Clostridium perfringens type D 1393 2014 The present investigation was conducted to study the effects of experimental Clostridium perfringens type D enterotoxaemia in teddy goats. Clinical signs started to appear after 30 min of experimental infection like anorexia, diarrhea, dehydration, frothing and dyspnea. Gross lesions consisted of severe congestion in tissues of varying intensity with enlarged mesenteric lymph nodes while histological examination revealed edema of lungs, kidney, and lymph nodes and to some extent in brain along with hemorrhages in lungs and intestines. Clostridium perfringens type D carrying alpha and epsilon toxin genes were amplified with amplicon size about 247 bp and 665 bp, respectively. Human erythrocytes showed the highest hemolysis, 68, followed by mice, 57, against culture supernatants. The percentage of hemolysis was significantly higher at 37°C as compared to 25°C except for rabbit and dog. مشاهده
26 انگليسی The effect of butyric acid with autogenous omental graft on 1393 2014 In this study, the role of local injection of butyric acid (BA) with autogenous omental graft was evaluated in healing of experimental Achilles tendon injury in rabbits. Nine adult male New Zealand rabbits were anesthetized and a partial thickness tenotomy was created on both hindlimbs. In treated group, omental graft was secured in place using BA soaked polygalactin 910 suture. In control group, the graft was sutured without BA. Butyric acid and normal saline were injected daily to treatment and control groups for three days, respectively. Based on the findings, on day 15 after injury, the tendon sections showed that healing rate in BA treated group was higher than that in control group. Furthermore, at days 28 and 45, comparison between BA treated and control groups demonstrated that BA increased the healing rate but with no significance. In summary, results of this study show that application of BA with autogenous omental graft can improve healing process of damaged Achilles tendon. مشاهده
27 انگليسی Giant hydronephrosis and secondary pyelonephritis induced 1393 2014 Summary Hydronephrosis occurs as a congenital or an acquired condition following obstruction of the urinary tract. In this study, a four month old male Holstein calf with emaciation, growth retardation and a poor dry scruffy hair coat was examined because of remarkable distention of right abdomen. At necropsy, right kidney was hydronephrotic as a very big fluid-filled round pelvis with the presence of multilocular cysts bulged from the cortical surface. With sectioning, more than 10 L of bloody fluid poured out from this sac. Microscopic examination showed severe atrophy of cortical tissue and fibrosis of the medulla. Also, the dilated pelvis was composed of fibrinous exudate and necrosis of epithelium associated with multifocal aggregations of neutrophils and bacterial microcolonies. In a culture and serotyping of isolated bacteria, Salmonella dublin was determined. In conclusion, S. dublin induced pyelonephritis secondary to congenital giant hydronephrosis is the first report in cattle in the world. مشاهده
28 انگليسی Caesarean in mare by Marcenac incision under local 1393 2014 Summary A nulliparous non-descript mare was presented with a complaint of dystocia. The mare was recumbent and physical examination revealed that the animal was in shock. There was no straining and foetal forelimbs were visible outside the vulva. The foetus was dead as there was no pedal reflex. Vaginal examination revealed anterior presentation with dorso-sacral position and rigid lateral head deviation. Pre-operatively, the mare was given 5 ml Tetanus toxoid and 3 g Ceftriaxone as intramuscular injection, and 5 ml Dexamethasone in 15 L of 5 Dextrose Normal Saline (DNS) as intravenous (i/v) infusion. As pelvic space was inadequate and the mal posture was not correctable, manual correction or foetotomy could not be attempted and therefore caesarean section was planned. Condition of the animal warranted the use of local anaesthetic infiltration instead of general anesthesia. Post-operative care included intravenous fluids, anti-inflammatory/analgesics and daily antiseptic dressing. The owner reported uneventful recovery. The authors would like to conclude the case as a rare emergency caesarean in equine where the surgery was done with animal in lateral recumbency employing a Marcenac incision under local anaesthesia. مشاهده
29 انگليسی High neuronal/astroglial differentiation plasticity of adult rat 1393 2014 Summary Hippocampal neural stem/progenitor cells (hipp-NS/PCs) of the adult mammalian brain are important sources of neuronal and gial cell production. In this study, the main goal is to investigate the plasticity of these cells in neuronal/astroglial differentiations. To this end, the differentiation of the hipp-NS/PCs isolated from 3-month-old Wistar rats was investigated in response to the embryonic cerebrospinal fluid (E-CSF) including E13.5, E17-CSF and the adult cerebrospinal fluid (A-CSF), all extracted from rats. CSF samples were selected based on their effects on cell behavioral parameters. Primary cell culture was performed in the presence of either normal or high levels of KCL in a culture medium. High levels of KCL cause cell depolarization, and thus the activation of quiescent NSCs. Results from immunocytochemistry (ICC) and semi-quantitative RT-PCR (sRT-PCR) techniques showed that in ECSF- treated groups, neuronal differentiation increased (E17E13.5). In contrast, A-CSF decreased and increased neuronal and astroglial differentiations, respectively. Cell survivability and/or proliferation (S/P), evaluated by an MTT assay, increased by E13.5 CSF, but decreased by both E17 CSF and A-CSF. Based on the results, it is finally concluded that adult rat hippocampal proliferative cells are not restricted progenitors but rather show high plasticity in neuronal/astroglial differentiation according to the effects of CSF samples. In addition, using high concentrations of KCL in the primary cell culture led to an increase in the number of NSCs, which in turn resulted in the increase in neuronal or astroglial differentiations after CSF treatment. مشاهده
30 فارسی Detection of Torque teno midi virus/Small anellovirus 1393 2014 Although the infection of different animals and non-human primates with other members of Anelloviridae have already been reported there is no report about infection of animals with Torque teno midi virus/Small anellovirs (TTMDV/SAV). The aim of this study was to detect the virus in domestic village chickens. Blood samples were collected from 79 domestic village chickens in Isfahan. Blood samples of five adult laying hens and one cockerel were collected in three consecutive weeks (days 1, 8 and 14) as experimental chickens. Ten eggs were randomly collected from the eggs laid during days 12 to 17 and thin and thick egg whites and yolk samples were collected aseptically. After DNA extraction Nested-PCR was performed using SMAs/SMAr primers. In PCR, 431 bp and 441 bp products were detected. The detected bands were extracted and sequenced. Totally 26 out of 79 (32.9) of the blood samples were positive for the virus. The frequency of the infection of the different parts of the eggs tested was 76. For the first time TTMDV/SAV was detected in domestic village chickens which also vertically transmitted to eggs. مشاهده
31 فارسی Plant-derived compounds in treatment of leishmaniasis 1393 2014 Leishmaniasis is a neglected public health problem caused by the protozoan species belonging to the genus Leishmania affecting mostly the poor populations of developing countries. The causative organism is transmitted by female sandflies. Cutaneous, mucocutaneous, and visceral clinical manifestations are the most frequent forms of leishmaniasis. Chemotherapy still relies on the use of pentavalent antimonials, amphotericin B, paromomycin, miltefosin and liposomal amphotericin B. However, the application of these drugs is limited due to low efficacy, life-threatening side effects, high toxicity, induction of parasite resistance, length of treatment and high cost. Given the fact that antileishmanial vaccines may not become available in the near future, the search for better drugs should be continued. Natural products may offer an unlimited source of chemical diversity to identify new drug modules. New medicines should be less toxic or non-toxic, safe, more efficient, less expensive and readily available antileishmanial agents, especially for low-income populations. In the present review, special focus is on medicinal plants used against leishmanaiasis. The bioactive phytocompounds present in the plant derivatives including the crude extracts, essential oils, and other useful compounds can be a good source for discovering and producing new antileishmanial medicines. مشاهده
32 فارسی Molecular characterization and antibiotic susceptibility 1393 2014 Summary The present study was conducted to detect the occurrence, serotype, genotype, phylogenetic relationship and antimicrobial resistance pattern of STEC from healthy goats of West Bengal, India. From the 125 faecal samples collected from healthy goats, 245 isolates were identified as Escherichia coli. The E. coli harbouring any gene for Shiga toxins (stx1/stx2) was detected in 36 (14.7) of the 245 E. coli isolates. These STEC strains belonged to 22 different serogroups (O2, O5, O20, O21, O22, O25, O41, O44, O45, O60, O71, O76, O84, O85, O87, O91, O103, O112, O113, O120, O156, and O158) and three were untypeable. The stx1 and stx2 was detected in 26 (72.2) and 21 (58.3) of Shiga toxin producing-E. coli (STEC) isolates, respectively. Further, E. coli harbouring eaeA only (Enteropathogenic E. coli) and ehxA was detected in 22 (61.1) and 28 (77.7) isolates, respectively. Whereas the saa was present in 8 (22.2) E. coli isolates. The subtyping of the 26 E. coli strains possessing stx1 showed that 73. (19/26) of these isolates were positive for stx1C subtype. Of the 21 isolates with the stx2 gene, 42.8 (9/21) were positive for stx2C, and 38.1 (8/21) were positive for stx2d gene. The phylogenetic analysis of STEC strains after RAPD reveals eight major clusters. However, no serogroup specific cluster was observed. Resistance was observed most frequently to erythromycin (80.5), amikacin (52.7), cephalothin (50), kanamycin (41.6), neomycin (36.1) and gentamycin (36.1) and less frequently to norfloxacin (2.7), enrofloxacin (2.7), and ciprofloxacin (2.7). Multidrug resistance was observed in eleven STEC isolates. مشاهده
33 انگليسی Seroepidemiology of coxiellosis (Q fever) in sheep and goat 1392 2013 Summary Coxiella burnetii is the etiological agent of coxiellosis in animals and Q fever (a zoonotic disease) in humans. Cattle, sheep and goats are the main reservoirs of infection for humans. This serological survey was conducted to determine the seroprevalence of coxiellosis in sheep and goat populations in Khorasan Razavi province, Iran. Four hundred and sixty animals (255 sheep from 29 herds in 12 counties and 205 goats from 28 herds in 11 counties) were selected using multi-stage cluster random sampling. Sera were assayed for antibody against C. burnetii using a Q fever ELISA kit. Seroprevalence of C. burnetii at animal level was 36.5 (95 CI: 30.6-42.4) for sheep and 29.8 (95 CI: 23.8-36.2) for goat populations. The proportion of seropositivity for sheep and goats in the studied counties ranged from 4.5-72.7 and 6.7-57.1, respectively. In 26 (89.6; 95 CI: 78.6-100) sheep and 22 (78.5; 95 CI: 63.5-93.5) goat flocks, at least one seropositive case was detected. Logistic regression model showed that age and location correlated with seroprevalence of the antibody against C. burnetii at the individual level in both species (P0.05). There was no difference in seroprevalence between sheep and goat populations (P=0.147). This study showed that a relatively high proportion of animals are seropositive to C. burnetii. Considering the economic and public health importance of C. burnetii in animals and humans, measures are to be implemented to prevent its spreading and to reduce the zoonotic risk of C. burnetii in the studied region. مشاهده
34 انگليسی Expression profile of cold shock protein genes in goats 1392 2013 Summary The study was conducted to demonstrate expression profile of cold shock protein genes; cold inducible RNA binding protein (CIRP) and RNA binding motif protein 3 (RBM3) in goats (Capra hircus) during different seasons to check the gene expression in different thermal conditions. Blood samples were collected from healthy goats of tropical and temperate region during peak winter, moderate season and peak summer. Goats were divided in three (n=6 in each group) age groups- (I) up to 2 years, (II) 2 to 5 years and (III) above 5 years. RNA isolation was done from separated peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) by Trizol reagent. Real-time PCR was applied to investigate mRNA expression of examined factors. The mRNA expression of CIRP and RBM3 was higher in all age groups during peak winter season as compared to peak summer season in both tropical and temperate region goats. To conclude, our results demonstrated expression of CIRP and RBM3 mRNAs in caprine PBMCs and increased expression of these genes during winter season could possibly play a significant role to ameliorate deleterious effects of cold stress to maintain cellular homeostasis in goats. مشاهده
35 انگليسی Phylogenetic group determination of faecal Escherichia coli 1392 2013 Summary Phylogenetic analysis has shown that Escherichia coli is composed of four main phylogenetic groups (A, B1, B2 and D). Characterization of phylogenetic groups is of clinical interest, as group A and B1 generally associated with commensals, whereas most enteropathogenic isolates are assigned to group D, and group B2 is associated with extra-intestinal pathotype. One hundred E. coli strains recovered from faecal samples of dog, chicken, ruminants (sheep, goat and cattle) and human were subjected to phylogenetic analysis based on triplex PCR method, according to a combination of three genetic markers chuA, yjaA and DNA fragment TspE4.C2. The majority of collected isolates belonged to group D (44), followed by groups A (32), and B2 (24). By sample origin, groups D, A, and B2 were prevalent in 16.7, 50, and 33.3, respectively for dog isolates; 52.8, 36.1, and 11.1 for chicken isolates; 41.2, 29.4, and 29.4 for ruminants isolates; and 60.9, 8.7, and 30.4 for human isolates, respectively and none of the strains among all the analysed hosts belong to group B1. This study suggests there was a significant difference in the E. coli phylogenetic groups, subgroups and genetic markers among the different hosts analysed. مشاهده
36 انگليسی Influence of combined vacuum packaging and pomegranate 1392 2013 Summary The present work was carried out to study the effect of vacuum packaging and pomegranate peel extract (PE) treatments on the quality of pacific white shrimp (Peneous vannamei) during refrigerated storage. Changes in pH, thiobarbituric acid (TBA), total volatile base nitrogen (TVB-N), trimethylamine (TMA), aerobic plate counts, psychrophilic, lactic acid bacteria and enterobacteriaceae counts, melanosis and sensory characteristics were investigated in up to 10 days of storage at 4°C. Microbial growth of vacuum packed and PE treated (1 or 2) shrimps were retarded during storage time in comparison with the control group (P0.05). Furthermore, use of PE in combination with vacuum packaging enhanced the antimicrobial effect of vacuum packaging against the bacterial populations. Vacuum packaging demonstrated a significant reduction in TVB-N, TMA and TBA content of shrimps during refrigerated storage. However, use of vacuum packaging and PE in combination did not significantly improve chemical parameters of the samples. Hence, vacuum packaging is considered as an effective method to extend the shelf-life of shrimp and, when combined with PE, can dramatically improve the overall likeness and microbial quality of the product. مشاهده
37 انگليسی The effect of alphamune and biomin on histomorphological 1392 2013 Summary This study was conducted because of influence of prebiotics (alphamune) and symbiotic (biomin) on histometrical development of small intestine and lymphatic tissue of caecal tonsil have been not reported on broiler chicken. In this study, different parts of small intestine and caecal tonsil, which is a major area of gut associated lymphatic tissue (GALT) in chicken were selected. One hundred and twenty-five 1-day-old broiler chicks were divided into 3 groups: 1) Control group which were fed only by basal diet, 2) Alphamune group which were fed basal diet supplemented with prebiotic (0.5 kg/ton alphamune), and 3) Biomin group, fed basal diet supplemented with symbiotic (1 kg/ton biomin). At the end of 42 days, 15 chicks (5 chicks from each group) were selected for histomorphometrical study. The samples were taken from different parts of small intestine (duodenum, jejunum and ileum) and caecal tonsils and fixed in 10 formalin. The 5-6 μ sections were made by paraffin embedding method and stained by H&E. The results showed that although alphamune and biomin have a significant improvement on histomorphological structure of small intestine (more significant changes were seen in duodenum) and lymphatic tissue of caecal tonsil, the biomin has a more significant improvement. Villous height and thickness, the number of goblet cells, number and depth of intestinal crypt, density and area of aggregated lymphatic tissue were increased more significantly in biomin group (P0.05). The knowledge obtained from this study showed that alphamune and biomin are considerable feed additives instead of antibiotic for improvement of histomorphological structure of small intestine and its associate lymphatic tissue. مشاهده
38 فارسی Molecular detection and phylogenetic analysis of Avipoxvirus 1393 2013 Summary The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used to amplify a 578 bp fragment of the poxvirus 4b core protein. Avipoxvirus (APV) specific DNA was detected in all 10 different isolates (each of which had been isolated from an epidemic) isolated from chicken; canary and mynah were collected from Tehran province. Sequencing was performed for 2 isolates as representative and the nucleotide sequence showed a similarity of 71-100 with the other sequences in the GenBank. The derived phylogenetic tree showed six distinguishable sequence clusters. The sequence analysis reveals that the Iranian isolates are within the cluster with highly conserved p4b core protein in different countries and species of birds. Concerning the distance between countries which is the origin of the studied isolates that are situated in the same cluster with our Iranian isolates, nearly the same identity (95-99) of isolates in this cluster exist, and so potential of infectivity of the isolates in several species and regions, and the import and export of birds from all over the world can likely spread the virus to other countries. Hence, strict quarantine measures should be considered in the entrances of every country. Moreover, this is the first molecular study in Avipoxviruses in Iran, especially in exotic birds. مشاهده
39 فارسی Effect of different levels of salinity on immunolocalization of 1392 2013 Summary Cyprinus carpio is a stenohaline species but can tolerate some ranges of changes in environmental salinities, so histomorphological methods and Na+-K+ ATPase and Aquaporin 3 immunohistochemistry were performed on common carp kidney as an osmoregulatory organ in experimental groups and control in order to investigate their possible roles during salinity challenge. Five groups of fish (n=25) with salinities ranging from 3, 6, 9 and 12 g/l marine salt and a control group (tap water) were used. The experiment was continued for two weeks. Kidney samples from control and experimental groups were fixed in 4 paraformaldehyde and were embedded in paraffin. The Na+-K+ ATPase and Aquaporin 3 intensity of the immunostaining and the renal tubules dilation had direct relation with environmental salinities, and showed the involvement of these proteins in physiological responses to environmental salinity. Furthermore, in the salinities 9 and 12 g/l epithelium of the renal tubules, profound histomorphological alteration was present. مشاهده
40 فارسی Evaluation of antioxidant status and oxidative stress in sheep 1392 2013 Summary Anaplasma ovis infections can cause severe anemia in the acute phase of the disease. In order to investigate the alterations of erythrocyte protective antioxidant mechanisms associated with anemia in sheep experimentally infected with A. ovis, 100 ml heparinized blood was collected from splenectomised sheep that showed 6 A. ovis parasitemia. Inoculums of 20 ml blood were administered intravenously to five male sheep without any blood parasite. Parasitological and haematological changes and the activities of erythrocyte superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and catalase (CAT) were studied in experimentally infected animals on the 0-38 post infection days. Parasitemia increased significantly with the progress of infection and reached its maximum level on day 15 of the experiment. From this point to day 38, there was a gradual decline in parasitemia. A significant decrease in PCV, RBC and Hb concentration was evident coincidentally with peak parasitaemia in the infected sheep. On post infection day 15, the activities of all enzymes increased, the changes being significant for SOD activity. There was a significant positive correlation among parasitemia and the activities of erythrocyte SOD (r = 0.644, P0.0005) and CAT (r = 0.424, P0.05). Glutathione peroxidase activity declined significantly between post infection days 23-38. From the present study, it can be concluded that oxidative stress has an important role in anemia induced by anaplasmosis in sheep. It seems that SOD is a useful indicator of oxidative stress caused by A. ovis infection, due to its constant increasing means in the course of the disease. مشاهده
41 فارسی Determination of RT-PCR detection limit of live and dead 1392 2013 Summary The objective of the current study was to evaluate the reproducibility of a reverse transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR)-based technique to differentiate viable and dead Salmonella cells in raw and sterilized milk. The microorganism was initially inoculated into the milk samples followed by incubating at 37°C for 4 h prior to inactivation by heat at 80°C for 10 min. The treated and non-treated samples were subsequently monitored using both PCR and RT-PCR, in vitro. Following 4 h incubation, the invA gene of Salmonella was clearly amplified by RT-PCR, while no band was detected in the heated samples. On the other hand, using the conventional PCR, it was possible to amplify the gene in both samples. Our results may suggest an important application of the RT-PCR technique, especially when the number of live organisms is an imperative factor to produce food borne infections and to establish a detection limit of the test. مشاهده
42 انگليسی Assessment of the serum zinc, copper, β-carotene and 1392 2013 Summary Serum level of zinc, copper, β-carotene, vitamin A, and concentrations of Zn and Cu in hoof of 97 multiparous Holstein dairy cows with different locomotion scores (LSs) were evaluated. Simultaneously, Zn and Cu concentrations of close up, fresh and high yielding cattle rations were 77, 94, 75 and 31, 28, 22 ppm, respectively. Based on LSs, despite normal serum copper levels in all three groups, with increasing degree of lameness serum and hoof Cu concentrations of the severe lame group were significantly lower than healthy and moderate lame groups (P=0.0178) and (P=0.0002), respectively. Serum β-carotene and vitamin A level of the three groups were sub-optimal. Significant negative correlations were observed between LSs with serum vitamin A level (r=-0.246, P=0.0145), LSs with hoof Cu concentration (r=-0.323, P=0.0150) and serum Zn concentration and Cu (r=-0.281, P=0.032). The results suggest that the deterioration of hoof tissue may be associated with reduced copper hoof content. Our findings demonstrated that lame group was at risk of subclinical vitamin A deficiency, which could be established from the healthy stages. Possibly, excess consumption of Zn could conflict with Cu absorption and utilization. Furthermore, vitamin A supplementation may have assisted in reduction of lameness in experimental animals. In conclusion, the serum and hoof concentrations and dietary intake of copper, zinc and vitamin A can have an impact on degrees of lameness and their interactions should be considered. مشاهده
43 انگليسی Effect of dietary γ-aminobutyric acid on performance 1392 2013 Summary Gamma aminobutyric acid (GABA) is one of the inhibitory neurotransmitters that may have the ability to relieve the intensity of stress. Heat stress remains a major threat for duck production in summer in most areas of China. The current study was conducted to investigate the effect of dietary GABA on performance parameters and plasma metabolites of heat exposed ducks. Two thousand Cherry Valley ducks (19 d) were randomly divided into two groups, each group with five replicates. One group was fed basal diet and the other fed basal diet with 100 mg/kg GABA for 42 days. The ambient temperature from day 19 to 42 was 29.7 ± 3.5°C. Growth performance and rectal temperature were determined on days 19, 32 and 42. Plasma samples were collected at day 42. The results showed that dietary GABA had no significant effect on ducks’ rectal temperature but decreased the feed intake (P0.05). No differences were observed on survival rate, body weight, and dressing percentage. Gamma aminobutyric acid decreased feed conversion ratios (P0.05) and plasma glucose concentration (P0.05). However, GABA increased plasma concentrations of triglyceride and free fatty acids (P0.05). No differences of GABA concentrations were found in the blood, heart, liver, and kidney between the two groups, but was increased in the brain of GABA group (P0.05). These findings suggest that 100 mg/kg dietary GABA decreased feed intake and increased fat mobilization in ducks exposed to high ambient temperature, which might attenuate the adverse effects of heat stress on duck production. مشاهده
44 انگليسی Prevalence of different aggression types and assessment 1392 2013 Summary Prevalence of different aggression types and some related risk indicators were studied in 434 dogs presented to the School of Veterinary Medicine at Shiraz University over a one-year period (From March 2010 to June 2011). After taking case histories and examining all dogs, related questionnaires were completed for each dog and the nine classical types of aggression were evaluated. 25.3 of all cases had bitten at least one person or animal during their life. The most frequent aggression type was conflict (dominance) aggression (36.6) followed by fear (20.9) and protectiveness (20.9) aggression, intraspecific (7.8), medical (3.9), redirected (2.6), pain (2.6), maternal (2.6) and predation aggression (1.9). Sex, age and indoor/outdoor keeping had a significant effect on conflict aggression. Males (P0.001), more than 2 years of age (P=0.001) and outdoor dogs (P=0.02) revealed significantly higher levels of conflict aggression. The majority of the cases did not understand obedience orders of the owners and needed more training to obey properly. Raising the level of socialization of the pet and owner’s knowledge about training principles may reduce these behavioral problems in Iran. مشاهده
45 انگليسی Gastroesophageal intussusception in a 1392 2013 Summary A 4-month-old, intact male domestic short-hair cat was presented to Veterinary Hospital with an acute onset of regurgitation and respiratory distress. Thoracic and abdominal radiographs identified a mass consisted of a heterogeneous mixture of soft tissue and gas densities between heart and craniodorsal part of the diaphragm that was shifted to the left. The stomach could not be seen clearly. Radiographic signs suggested a tentative diagnosis of gastroesophageal intussusception (GEI). Esophagoscopy revealed gastric mucosa in the lumen of the esophagus, and a diagnosis of GEI was made. The GEI was manually reduced by use of insertion tube of scope. Ten days later, the case was euthanized because of GEI recurrence and aspiration pneumonia. Gastroesophageal intussusception is a rare condition in cats. This case report shows that gastropexy along with manual reduction of GEI is essential for prevention of recurrence and reduction of mortality. مشاهده
46 فارسی Assessment of variations in Indian Bubalus bubalis 1393 2014 Summary The Indian riverine buffaloes are more susceptible to variations in the environment. These variations affect seminal plasma proteins, which in turn affect fertility. This study was conducted to evaluate variations in the Indian Bubalus bubalis seminal plasma protein profile using two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (2D-PAGE) during winter and summer seasons, and its relation with sperm motility and viability. The nine ejaculates from three animals were from winter season while the other nine ejaculates from the same animals were from summer season. The semen samples collected from all bulls in both seasons have similar characteristics of mass activity and total concentration. However, sperm viability was significantly higher in winter season. The 2D-PAGE pattern displayed 42, 29 and 28 protein spots during winter season while 44, 29 and 29 spots during summer season for the first, second and third bull, respectively. Ultra high performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS) was performed to identify expressed protein spots in winter and summer seasons. During both seasons, four commonly expressed protein spots B6 (pI 8.5, Mr 122.54 kDa), B7 (pI 9.7, Mr 89.98 kDa), B9 (pI 9.3, Mr 19.72 kDa) and B10 (pI 9.7, Mr 16.80 kDa) were identified as glucose phosphate isomerase, epididymal secretory protein E1, peroxiredoxin 5 precursor and tubulin polymerization-promoting protein, respectively. These proteins are involved in either the mechanism of sperm maturation or structural formation. In addition, B37W (pI 6.0, Mr 32.88 kDa), B48W (pI 8.2, Mr 80.14 kDa), B59W (pI 5.6, Mr 90.37 kDa) and B61W (pI 5.8, Mr 15.34 kDa) were differentially expressed protein spots in winter season only. Spots B37W, B48W, B59W, B61W, B6, B7, B9 and B10 were identified as phosphoglycerate kinase LOC538592, androgen regulated protein, hypothetical protein LOC514663, sorbitol dehydrogenase, glucose phosphate isomerase, epididymal secretory protein E1, peroxiredoxin 5 precursor and tubulin polymerization-promoting protein family member. These proteins are known to have modulating properties on sperm motility and viability and also to provide high energy source to sperm. The better fertilizing ability of bull during winter season can be due to the differentially expressed proteins. مشاهده
47 انگليسی Extract and leaf powder effect of Artemisia annua on 1393 2013 Summary The effects of methanolic extract and leaf powder of Artemisia annua were studied on performance, cellular and humoral immunity in 240 Cobb broiler chicks in a completely randomized design. Control group did not receive any treatment. The chicks in the second and third groups were fed with feed which contained 2000 and 4000 ppm plant extract in diet and in the groups 4, 5 and 6 chicks received 0.5, 1 and 1.5 of dietary Artemisia annua leaf powder, respectively. Daily feed intake, daily weight gain and feed conversion ratio (performance) were measured. Skin response to phytohemagglutinin-P (PHA-P) injected intradermally on day 16 was measured 24 and 48 h after injection. The birds were immunized with sheep red blood cells (SRBC) on days 8 and 22 of age and serum antibody levels produced in response to SRBC were measured on days 21, 28, 35 and 42. The weights of thymus and bursa of fabricius were also measured after slaughter. The results indicated that plant extract and leaf powder increased daily weight gain and reduced daily feed intake and feed conversion ratio (P0.05). Plant extract and leaf powder increased cellular immunity on PHA-P injection after 24 and 48 h (P0.05). Artemisia annua extract and leaf powder increased total anti-SRBC and IgG titer in experimental groups compared to control group (P0.05). Thymus and bursa of fabricius weights were increased in treatment groups (P0.05). It is concluded that Artemisia annua extract and leaf powder increases performance, cellular and humoral immunity of broilers. مشاهده
48 فارسی Effect of long-term onion (Allium cepa) feeding on 1393 2014 Summary The effect of long-term onion consumption on red blood cell antioxidant enzymes [glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx)], were measured. The relationship of these enzymes with PCV and hemoglobin (Hb) concentrations was also determined. Twelve adult female goats were used for the experiment and randomly assigned to three groups. Animals of group 1 and 2 received diets containing 30 and 60 spring onions (DM basis) for 60 days, respectively. Goats of group 3 served as control and were fed whole alfalfa hay. Blood samples were obtained before feeding onion and every 10 days up to 80 days. In the onion groups, PCV amounts decreased from day 10 and reached the lowest value at day 40. Although onion consumption reduced PCV, the measures were within the normal range for goats. G6PD activity decreased from day 10 and the lowest value was detected at day 40. After day 40, a slow and gradual return toward the baseline values was seen. In the onion groups, SOD showed a negative correlation with PCV and Hb (P0.01). On the other hand, there was a positive correlation between G6PD and Hb (P0.01). It seems that up to 60 of onions in diet can be consumed by goats without noticeable clinical anaemia. Moreover, it seems that SOD has a compensatory role in protection of erythrocytes against oxidative stress induced by onion consumption in goats. مشاهده
49 انگليسی Clinicopathological study in an ovine model of 1393 2014 Summary To evaluate the prognostic significance of clinicopathological measurement in the diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction (MI) in sheep, acute MI was induced by ligation of left anterior descending coronary artery (LAD). For this purpose, twenty four healthy sheep were divided into the sham-operated or control group (group I, thoracotomy without MI) and the experimental group (group II, with MI) (n=12 in each), then all animals were subjected to the echocardiographic and clinicopathological analysis 2 days post-MI. Echocardiography revealed significant differences in left ventricular end-diastolic diameter (LVEDD), LV end-systolic diameter (LVESD), LV ejection fraction (LVEF) and LV fractional shortening (LVFS) between groups (P0.05). In biochemical analysis, the mean values of troponin (Trop), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) increased in the MI group compared with the control group (P0.05). In conclusion, alterations in echocardiographic and early clinopathological mean values were observed in an ovine model of the experimental acute MI, which could aid researchers in interpreting their results when using this model for MI studies. مشاهده
50 فارسی Clinicopathological study in an ovine model of 1393 2014 To evaluate the prognostic significance of clinicopathological measurement in the diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction (MI) in sheep, acute MI was induced by ligation of left anterior descending coronary artery (LAD). For this purpose, twenty four healthy sheep were divided into the sham-operated or control group (group I, thoracotomy without MI) and the experimental group (group II, with MI) (n=12 in each), then all animals were subjected to the echocardiographic and clinicopathological analysis 2 days post-MI. Echocardiography revealed significant differences in left ventricular end-diastolic diameter (LVEDD), LV end-systolic diameter (LVESD), LV ejection fraction (LVEF) and LV fractional shortening (LVFS) between groups (P0.05). In biochemical analysis, the mean values of troponin (Trop), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) increased in the MI group compared with the control group (P0.05). In conclusion, alterations in echocardiographic and early clinopathological mean values were observed in an ovine model of the experimental acute MI, which could aid researchers in interpreting their results when using this model for MI studies. مشاهده
51 انگليسی Normal pulsed wave Doppler echocardiographic 1393 2014 Summary Turkmen horse is one of the oldest and purest breeds in the world, but there is no information on Doppler echocardiographic parameters in this horse. In the present study, pulsed-wave (PW) Doppler echocardiography was performed on 42 clinically normal 3- to 15-year-old racing Turkmen horses. No cardiac disease was detected with two-dimensional (2-D) real-time, M-mode, and colour flow mapping. Doppler echocardiographic parameters and indices of tricuspid, mitral, pulmonary and aortic flows were measured in this study. Tricuspid inflow velocities during rapid filling (E) and atrial contractions (A) were significantly higher than mitral inflow (P0.05). The Doppler waveforms, obtained from the aortic outflow, showed a significantly longer pre-ejection period (PEP) and shorter ejection time (ET) than the pulmonary artery waveforms (P=0.001 and P=0.028, respectively). The time taken from the onset of the QRS complex to the onset of the A wave for tricuspid flow, pulmonary PEP, and pulmonary PEP/ET, had a significant positive correlation with age. These values can be used as standard and reference values for evaluation of cardiovascular disorders in Turkmen horse. مشاهده
52 انگليسی Molecular detection and identification of Anaplasma 1393 2013 Summary Ovine anaplasmosis is a tick-borne rickettsial disease, widespread in tropical and subtropical areas. In the present study, a PCR-RFLP method based on major surface protein 4 (MSP4) gene, was utilized for the detection of Anaplasma infection in 119 sheep blood samples collected from different parts of Ahvaz in the southwest of Iran. PCR identified Anaplasma infections in 87.4 (104/119) of the samples in contrast to the routine blood smear examination, which revealed inclusion bodies in only 33.6 (40/119) of samples. RFLP assessment revealed that all PCR positive samples were A. ovis, while for the first time in Iran, a mixed infection with A. marginale was seen in 50 (52/104) of Anaplasma infected samples. These results suggest higher sensitivity of PCR method over the conventional microscopic technique for diagnosis of anaplasmosis, particularly in carrier animals. It also revealed that ovine anaplasmosis caused by A. ovis and A. marginale is present and highly prevalent in Ahvaz and appears to be the first report from this region. مشاهده
53 فارسی Evaluation of an immunoblotting test based on whole 1393 2014 Summary This study was aimed to detect anti-Toxoplasma gondii antibodies in cats infected with Rh strain of T. gondii by using an immunoblotting method. For this, cats were experimentally infected using tachyzoites harvested from Vero cell cultures. Tachyzoites were then lysed and transferred to polyacrylamide gels followed by blotting to PVDF membranes. An immunoblotting was performed using these membranes to detect IgG antibodies. Protein bands were detected in regions related to the presence of T. gondii surface antigens, dense granular or rhoptry proteins. No positive bands were detected in serum samples of kittens that received only Vero cell lysates (controls). Positive or negative results were in concordance to the results of IFAT. The results of this study revealed that whole tachyzoite antigen based immunoblotting is an appropriate diagnostic test for serological detection of anti-T. gondii antibodies in recently infected kittens with this Apicomplexan parasite. مشاهده
54 فارسی The effect of sexuality on some haematological 1393 2014 Summary Acanthopagrus latus is one of the major commercially exploited species in the Persian Gulf. In recent years, it has gained importance as a candidate for aquaculture. Haematological parameters of wild-caught specimens were studied during the pre-spawning period to determine if they are influenced by the sex of fish. Blood samples were collected from 55 Fish (30 female and 25 male) captured from the Musa Creek in the north-west Persian Gulf. RBC counts were higher in male than in female fish (P0.05) and other parameters such as WBC, Hct, Hb, MCV, MCH, MCHC and leukocyte differential count did not show a significant difference between male and female fish. مشاهده
55 فارسی Artificial insemination practice in British United 1393 2014 Summary No domestic availability to breeder turkey stocks and turkey hatching eggs prompted the present experiment that aimed to evaluate the feasibility of a conventional artificial insemination (AI) procedure in British United Turkey (BUT) for the first time in Iran. Broiler turkeys were restrictedly fed, grown for 46 weeks, and used for the current study (10 turkey toms and 24 turkey hens in total). After a 3 week period of habituating the toms to abdominal massage, the pooled semen was used for insemination after the dilution in sterilized and homogenized low-fat milk (at the ratio of 1 to 6). The hens were inseminated (14:00 h) and hatching eggs were collected (n = 148). All the eggs were broken open to assess the fertility rate. Although being lower than the conventional average fertility rate noticed for breeder turkeys in the production manuals (91), a fertility rate of 61.5 was obtained. The present report provided a preliminary data on the feasibility of the conventional procedure used in chickens to artificially inseminate the turkey, using low-fat milk as a simple available extender. The present findings might also be promising to the future establishment of turkey breeder enterprise in Iran. مشاهده
56 فارسی Association between the lactation curve shape and 1393 2013 Summary This study was carried out to investigate the relationship between early lactation curve parameters and calving interval in Holstein cows of Iran. In order to describe the lactation curve, the incomplete gamma function was fitted to 5,754,428 test-day milk records corresponding to 766,108 lactations on 315,634 cows in 2,448 herds. Cows with higher milk yield during early lactation had shorter calving intervals; however, longer calving intervals increased the 305-d milk production (P0.01). Cows with higher yield at the beginning of lactation, steeper ascending, and steeper descending slope had shorter calving intervals (P0.01). Calving interval was increased by 2.73 (±0.12) d for every extra kg of milk at peak lactation (P0.01). The calving interval was directly impacted by the persistency of milk yield, but milk yield persistency was reduced in cows with shorter calving intervals (P0.01). مشاهده
57 فارسی Association between the lactation curve shape and 1393 2013 8 8 Association between the lactation curve shape and calving interval in Holstein dairy cows of Iran Atashi, H.1*; Zamiri, M. J.1; Akhlaghi, A.1; Dadpasand, M.1; Sayyadnejad, M. B.2 and Abdolmohammadi, A. R.3 1Department of Animal Science, College of Agriculture, Shiraz University, Shiraz, Iran; 2Animal Breeding Center of Iran, Karaj, Iran; 3Department of Animal Science, College of Agriculture, Razi University, Kermanshah, Iran *Correspondence: H. Atashi, Department of Animal Science, College of Agriculture, Shiraz University, Shiraz, Iran. E-mail: Atashi@shirazu.ac.ir (Received 24 Oct 2011; revised version 6 Nov 2012; accepted 19 Nov 2012) Summary This study was carried out to investigate the relationship between early lactation curve parameters and calving interval in Holstein cows of Iran. In order to describe the lactation curve, the incomplete gamma function was fitted to 5,754,428 test-day milk records corresponding to 766,108 lactations on 315,634 cows in 2,448 herds. Cows with higher milk yield during early lactation had shorter calving intervals; however, longer calving intervals increased the 305-d milk production (P0.01). Cows with higher yield at the beginning of lactation, steeper ascending, and steeper descending slope had shorter calving intervals (P0.01). Calving interval was increased by 2.73 (±0.12) d for every extra kg of milk at peak lactation (P0.01). The calving interval was directly impacted by the persistency of milk yield, but milk yield persistency was reduced in cows with shorter calving intervals (P0.01). مشاهده
58 انگليسی The role of 5-HT2A and 5-HT2C receptors on harmalineinduced 1393 2013 Summary This study was designed to examine the effects of intracerebroventricular (ICV) injection of ketanserin (5-HT2a receptor antagonist) and SB242084 (5-HT2c receptor antagonist) on harmaline induced feeding and drinking response in 24-h food-deprived (FD24) broiler cockerels. At first, guide cannula was surgically implanted in the right lateral ventricle of chickens. In experiment 1, birds were injected intracerebroventriculary with 0, 25, 50 and 100 μg of harmaline. In experiment 2, chickens received 10 μg ketanserin prior to the injection of harmaline. In experiment 3, birds were administered with harmaline after 3 μg SB242084 and the cumulative food and water intake was determined at 3 h post injection. The results of this study showed that harmaline decreases food consumption and increases water intake in FD24 broiler cockerels (P≤0.05). The effect of harmaline on food and water intake was significantly attenuated with ketanserin and SB242084 pretreatment (P≤0.05). These results suggest that there is an interaction between harmaline and 5-HT (via 5-HT2a and 5-HT2c receptors) on eating response in chicken. مشاهده
59 فارسی Effect of temperature-humidity index on productive and reproductive performances of Iranian Holstein... 1393 2014 Summary Calving records from April 1996 to December 2005 comprising 31863 calving events of 1173 dairy cows in a large commercial dairy herd were used to evaluate the effects of heat stress, using temperature-humidity index (THI) on milk yield and composition and reproductive performance of Holstein dairy cows under humid climatic conditions of Rasht in Iran. THI values were grouped into six groups: 30-40 (THI1), 41-50 (THI2), 51-60 (THI3), 61-70 (THI4), 71-80 (THI5) and 81-90 (THI6). Dairy cows in THI6 had lower milk and fat yields than other groups of THI, but cows in THI1 and THI2 had the greatest amounts of milk and fat yields, respectively (P0.05). However, dairy cows in the second group of THI had lower percentages of fat than the sixth group of THI (P0.05). Spring-calved cows had longer days open than cows calved in other seasons (P0.05). Also, summer-calved cows had greater number of services per conception and lower conception rates than cows calved in other seasons (P0.05). Dairy cows within the THI5 which calved in spring and/or calving years 2004-2005 had the longest days open (P0.05). Cows in the second group of THI had the greatest and the lowest number of inseminations and conception rates compared with other groups of THI, respectively. The results of the present study indicated that summer heat stress negatively affected milk yield and composition and reproductive performance of dairy cows. Therefore, application of management interventions to ameliorate the effects of heat load on the performance of dairy cows could be needed in certain periods of the year under the climatic conditions. مشاهده
60 فارسی Polymorphisms of prolactin gene in a native chicken 1393 2014 Summary The induction and regulation of broodiness is of the most important role of prolactin in avian species. The promoter region of the prolactin gene is an appropriate model for studying tissue-specific and hormonally-regulated activation of gene transcription. In this study, the association between prolactin promoter region alleles and egg production in Fars native chickens was investigated. In total, 100 laying hens, randomly selected from the flock of the Breeding Center for Fars Native Chicken, were genotyped for two single nucleotide polymorphisms (C-2161G and C-2402T), one 24-bp insertion-deletion at the site -358. The observed genotypic frequencies in the C-2161G site were CC (0.437), CG (0.435) and GG (0.101). Two alleles were found for the SNP of C-2402T with frequency of 0.34 for T and 0.66 for C. The 24-bp insertiondeletion at the site -358 was shown to be polymorph in the studied sample, with the observed genotyping frequency of 0.417 in II, 0.457 in ID and 0.126 in DD. Significant relationship was found between the SNPs and insertion-deletion genotypes with egg production (P0.01). مشاهده
61 انگليسی Sex identification and sexual maturity stages in farmed 1393 2014 Summary Since sturgeons have no external sexual dimorphism and there are no external markers to determine sex, internal examination of the gonads should be used to sex identification. The present study describes the biopsy method and histological observations of the gonads of great sturgeon (Huso huso) in both sexes at different age classes. Sex and maturity stages of 226 great sturgeons were identified through gonadal biopsy and histological observations. A 20-25 mm incision was made with a sharp scalpel through the ventral midline between pectoral and pelvic fins, that allowed gonads to be viewed. Determination of sex and maturity stage was successfully performed in all fish. The sex ratio under culture conditions was 1:0.84 (female: male). Most males and females were at mid-spermatogenesis and pre-vitellogenesis stages, respectively. No apparent mortality and infection was observed after surgery and gonad biopsy in fish. Results of this study showed that sex could be identified by this method when fish are 3-year-old or more. Therefore, biopsy technique is a simple and cost-effective tool in sturgeons and has an important role in aquaculture management and conservation benefits. مشاهده
62 فارسی A novel farm technology to quantify dairy cow cervix 1393 2014 Summary The objective was to quantify and compare cow cervical morphology on oestrus vs. non-oestrus days using a new farm technology. The cervical tissues were videotaped using a cervixscope involving new camera equipment in four Holstein cows on multiple oestrus and non-oestrus days to score tissue morphology as altered by oestrus. The non-oestrous days were in diestrus phases. The videotaped records were processed in a computer installed with an image processing software. Cervix central positioning, movements, mucosal secretions, and clarity in the captured images were scored visually, each on a 5-point basis. Cervical regions were significantly more discrete, more mucosal, more central, and more stable on standing oestrus days than on non-oestrus days. During standing oestrus, the cervix was lucidly visible and rigidly positioned in the central end of vagina, whereas non-oestrus cervices were unstable and hardly separable from surrounding tissues. Findings demonstrate the on-farm feasibility of the novel inexpensive cervixscope as a farm management tool for quantifying cervix morphology. مشاهده
63 انگليسی Serum protein alterations in goats naturally infected 1393 2013 Summary This study was conducted to determine the electrophoretic pattern of serum protein in goats infected with Babesia ovis. Serum total protein was calculated and serum electrophoresis from 15 goats naturally infected with B. ovis as well as same number of healthy goats was performed. Microscopic examination of Giemsastained peripheral blood smears revealed B. ovis infection. The parasitological diagnosis was confirmed using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay by using a pair of B. ovis-specific primers. Mean values total protein and α and γ globulin fractions in infected goats were significantly higher (P0.05) than those observed in the healthy group. مشاهده
64 فارسی Prevalence of snails and Schistosome cercariae and 1393 2014 Summary Overall 10389 snails were collected from four study areas of Punjab from November 2005 to October 2006. The highest prevalence (38) was found for Indoplanorbis followed by Physa (17), Bellamaya (10.3), Gyraulus (10), Lymnaea (9.2), Oncomelania (9) and the lowest was found for Bulinus (6.7). Only Indoplanorbis snails were found to be positive for Schistosoma bovis cercaria. Correlation between snails’ infection and meteorological factors like relative humidity () and rainfall (mm) were significant (P0.05) while this correlation was not significant for temperature (°C) and pan evaporation (mm). مشاهده
65 فارسی Subacute ruminal acidosis: prevalence and risk factors 1393 2014 Summary Subacute ruminal acidosis (SARA) represents one of the most important metabolic subclinical disorders of high producing dairy cows, having serious impact in both animal health and herd profitability. The aim of this study was to confirm the presence of SARA in Greek dairy herds and record its prevalence and risk factors. Ruminal fluid samples, via rumenocentesis, were obtained from a total of 153 Holstein dairy cows, from 12 herds (≥12 cows per herd). Rumen pH was measured on-site with a portable pH-meter in order to establish a SARA diagnosis. Almost sixteen percent (24/153) of the sampled cows were found with rumen pH ≤5.5, which is indicative of SARA. Thirty three percent (4/12) of the herds were SARA-positive, 8.33 (1/12) of the herds were SARA-marginal, and 58.33 (7/12) were SARA-negative. Number of lactating cow groups, order in which the feeds were added into the mixing wagon, particle length size, ration composition, housing type (free stall or bedded pack) and stocking density significantly influenced the presence of SARA. مشاهده
66 فارسی Immune efficacy of OmpH and OmpA DNA vaccines 1393 2013 Summary Avian Pasteurella multocida is an agent of fowl cholera. The protective effect achieved through orthodox vaccines is not ideal. The research on novel vaccines against avian Pasteurella multocida is imperative. In this study, the genes encoding outer membrane protein H and A (OmpH and OmpA) were cloned into the eukaryotic expression vector pcDNA3.1(+) and the recombinant plasmids, namely DNA vaccines (pOMPH and pOMPA) were obtained. Five groups of chickens (n=20 per group) were intramuscularly injected with the two recombinant plasmids, attenuated live vaccine, control vector pcDNA3.1(+) and PBS, respectively. The immune responses and protective efficacy were evaluated after immunization by serological and challenging. A significant increase in serum antibody levels was observed in chickens vaccinated with the attenuated live vaccine and the two DNA vaccines. Additionally, the lymphocyte proliferation (SI values) were higher in chickens immunized with the attenuated live vaccine and the two DNA vaccines than in those vaccinated with pcDNA3.1(+) and PBS (P0.05). Furthermore, the two DNA vaccines provided partial protection to the vaccinated chickens; however, the protective efficacy was inferior to that provided by the attenuated live vaccine. مشاهده
67 انگليسی Genotyping of Chlamydia trachomatis from endocervical 1393 2014 Summary The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence and distribution of Chlamydia trachomatis genotypes in Shiraz, Iran. Two hundred twelve cervical swab samples were collected from women attending Shahid Motahari Polyclinic in Shiraz, Iran. The endocervical specimens were screened for C. trachomatis by plasmid PCR. Genotyping was performed in C. trachomatis-positive samples by nested PCR amplification and sequencing of 571 fragment encompassing VD1 and VD2 of omp1 gene. The overall prevalence rate of C. trachomatis in endocervical specimens determined by plasmid nested PCR was 8. The deduced serovars found, in descending order of prevalence, were F (46.6), E (33.3), and D (13.3), and serovar G was found in a single sample. Sequence mutation analysis by BLAST search against GenBank reference sequences identified 4 genetic variants. This study can be considered a contribution to increasing knowledge on C. trachomatis genotype distribution and sequence variations within each genotype in Shiraz. Further studies are needed to better define molecular epidemiology of C. trachomatis serovars and to investigate its genotype variations in Iran. مشاهده
68 فارسی Effect of Zataria multiflora essential oil on immune 1393 2014 مشاهده
69 فارسی Frequency of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus 1393 2014 Summary The prevalence of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and methicillin sensitive Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA) carriage among poultry and poultry farmers in Malaysia is largely unknown. In the current investigation, chickens and chicken farmers from 30 chicken farms were screened for MRSA and S. aureus carriage. The genetic characteristics of the isolates were determined through multi locus sequence typing (MLST), Staphylococcus protein A (spa) typing and virulent gene profiling. The outcome of the study showed lack of MRSA and extremely low S. aureus prevalence (n=7 of 503, 1.4) among chicken flocks and the poultry farmers in Malaysia. Staphylococcus aureus isolates belonged to 4 sequence types (ST): ST97 (spa type t359), ST1179 (t359), ST 692 (t2247) and ST188 (t189). It can be concluded that MRSA/MSSA prevalence is very low among chicken and chicken farmers, human and chicken cross transmission of S. aureus does not seem to be a threat in Malaysia. مشاهده
70 فارسی Effects of bisphenol A and DDT on mRNA expression of 1393 2014 Summary This study was conducted to reveal the estrogenic effects of bisphenol A and o, p’-DDT on quail embryos. Thirteen fertilized eggs were used as control (injected with 20 μl corn oil), 15 eggs were injected with estradiol 17β (0.04 mg dissolved in 20 μl corn oil), 20 eggs were injected with BPA (2 mg dissolved in 20 μl corn oil) and 20 eggs were injected with o, p’-DDT (2 mg dissolved in 20 μl corn oil) at day 13 of incubation. Two days later the livers of the embryos were collected. The DNA was extracted from the liver for molecular sexing, while total RNA was extracted for vitellogenin II (VTGII) mRNA expression in embryos. In female embryos, BPA and o, p’-DDT induced variable levels of VTGII mRNA expression, while in male embryos, o, p’-DDT induced a slightly VTGII mRNA expression. In contrast, there was no expression of VTGII after BPA injection. In conclusion, the estrogenicity of BPA was lower than o, p’-DDT and both of them were lower than the estradiol 17β. مشاهده
71 فارسی Electrocardiographic parameters of Markhoz goat using 1393 2013 Summary Electrocardiographic study of 50 healthy Markhoz goats ranging from less than 1 to more than 3 years in age was carried out. The heart rate varied from 99 to 123 beats/min with a mean of 110 beats/min. There was a significant difference between the heart rate of goats in 3 age groups (P0.05). The mean duration of P and T waves and QT interval in base apex lead, QRS wave in lead I, P-R and PQ interval in aVF lead were higher and duration of QRS and T waves in aVR lead, P wave in lead III, PQ and P-R intervals in lead II and QT interval in aVR lead were lower than those in the other leads. The mean duration of QT interval had significant changes with age (P0.05). مشاهده
72 فارسی Electrocardiographic parameters of Markhoz goat using 1393 2014 Summary Electrocardiographic study of 50 healthy Markhoz goats ranging from less than 1 to more than 3 years in age was carried out. The heart rate varied from 99 to 123 beats/min with a mean of 110 beats/min. There was a significant difference between the heart rate of goats in 3 age groups (P0.05). The mean duration of P and T waves and QT interval in base apex lead, QRS wave in lead I, P-R and PQ interval in aVF lead were higher and duration of QRS and T waves in aVR lead, P wave in lead III, PQ and P-R intervals in lead II and QT interval in aVR lead were lower than those in the other leads. The mean duration of QT interval had significant changes with age (P0.05). مشاهده
73 فارسی Assessment of the serum zinc, copper, β-carotene and 1393 2014 Summary Serum level of zinc, copper, β-carotene, vitamin A, and concentrations of Zn and Cu in hoof of 97 multiparous Holstein dairy cows with different locomotion scores (LSs) were evaluated. Simultaneously, Zn and Cu concentrations of close up, fresh and high yielding cattle rations were 77, 94, 75 and 31, 28, 22 ppm, respectively. Based on LSs, despite normal serum copper levels in all three groups, with increasing degree of lameness serum and hoof Cu concentrations of the severe lame group were significantly lower than healthy and moderate lame groups (P=0.0178) and (P=0.0002), respectively. Serum β-carotene and vitamin A level of the three groups were sub-optimal. Significant negative correlations were observed between LSs with serum vitamin A level (r=-0.246, P=0.0145), LSs with hoof Cu concentration (r=-0.323, P=0.0150) and serum Zn concentration and Cu (r=-0.281, P=0.032). The results suggest that the deterioration of hoof tissue may be associated with reduced copper hoof content. Our findings demonstrated that lame group was at risk of subclinical vitamin A deficiency, which could be established from the healthy stages. Possibly, excess consumption of Zn could conflict with Cu absorption and utilization. Furthermore, vitamin A supplementation may have assisted in reduction of lameness in experimental animals. In conclusion, the serum and hoof concentrations and dietary intake of copper, zinc and vitamin A can have an impact on degrees of lameness and their interactions should be considered. مشاهده
74 فارسی Prevalence of different aggression types and assessment 1393 2014 Summary Prevalence of different aggression types and some related risk indicators were studied in 434 dogs presented to the School of Veterinary Medicine at Shiraz University over a one-year period (From March 2010 to June 2011). After taking case histories and examining all dogs, related questionnaires were completed for each dog and the nine classical types of aggression were evaluated. 25.3 of all cases had bitten at least one person or animal during their life. The most frequent aggression type was conflict (dominance) aggression (36.6) followed by fear (20.9) and protectiveness (20.9) aggression, intraspecific (7.8), medical (3.9), redirected (2.6), pain (2.6), maternal (2.6) and predation aggression (1.9). Sex, age and indoor/outdoor keeping had a significant effect on conflict aggression. Males (P0.001), more than 2 years of age (P=0.001) and outdoor dogs (P=0.02) revealed significantly higher levels of conflict aggression. The majority of the cases did not understand obedience orders of the owners and needed more training to obey properly. Raising the level of socialization of the pet and owner’s knowledge about training principles may reduce these behavioral problems in Iran. مشاهده
75 فارسی The effect of seminal plasma on the quality of coated 1393 2013 Summary Two experiments were designed to examine the effects of crude seminal plasma (CSP) exposure of ejaculated and epididymal spermatozoa before freezing. Experiment 1, two consecutive ejaculates were collected (n=4) within 5 min, the second one was carried out in a tube containing Fiser extender (coated spermatozoa); by centrifugation, seminal plasma was removed from coated ejaculates. The pellets were split into three parts and 0, 50 and 100 CSP (v/v) was added and they were frozen. Samples were thawed and incubated at 37°C for 6 h. The highest progressive motility (10.41) and the highest hypo-osmotic responses (12.62) were found for the coated spermatozoa without CSP at 6 (P0.05). The maximum viability was found for coated spermatozoa without CSP at 0 (29.4) and 6 (17, P0.05). Experiment 2, epididymal spermatozoa were recovered (n=6), pooled and split into three fractions and 0, 50 and 100 CSP and the diluents were added, after that they were frozen. Thawed epididymal spermatozoa were incubated at 37°C for 6 h. The highest (33.3) and lowest (25) progressive motility were found for the epididymal spermatozoa without CSP and the epididymal spermatozoa with 100 CSP at 0, respectively (P0.05). The highest (19.37) and the lowest (9.38) viability were related to the epididymal spermatozoa with 0 and 100 CSP at 6, respectively (P0.05). Under the conditions of the current study, the addition of CSP to the ram epididymal and coated spermatozoa strengthened the detrimental effect of the freezing procedure. مشاهده
76 فارسی The prenatal development in swamp buffalo 1393 2013 Summary There are morphological and reproductive physiological differences between swamp buffalo (Bubalus carabanensis) and river buffalo (Bubalus bubalis). The development of fetus weight and fetus biometry was reported in river buffalo and other animals but not in swamp buffalo. The aim of this study was to describe the inherent variability in fetus related measurements during swamp buffalo pregnancy. The data is based on measurements of 267 fetuses and 5 new born claves from swamp buffalo. The results show that a significant linear correlation exists between estimated age of fetuses and parameters of fetus sizes. There were correlations between crown-rump length (CRL) and other fetal parameters, as well as between fetus weight and its parameters. In conclusion, our data indicated that the feasibility and value of fetal measures in swamp buffaloes being used for the evaluation of fetal development. مشاهده
77 فارسی Leptin receptor mRNA expression 1393 2013 Summary Leptin is secreted mainly by fat, which is involved in energy metabolism and reproduction. Leptin and its receptor (Ob-R) have been detected in human spermatozoa and testis, thus it can be concluded leptin involves in male physiology. The goal of this study was determination of the presence of leptin receptor mRNA in the ram testis, epididymis and spermatozoa by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Ejaculated spermatozoa from ten fertile Taleshi ram were collected by means of an artificial vagina. Testes, placental cotyledons and adrenal glands were obtained from abattoir. Placental cotyledons and adrenal glands were used as the positive control. Epididymal spermatozoa recovery was performed from epididymis. To purify spermatozoa, motile sperm were isolated by the swim-up procedure. Total RNA was isolated from epididymal spermatozoa, ejaculated spermatozoa, adrenal gland and placental cotyledon and then they were purified. The mRNA for the long form (Ob-Rb) and the short form (Ob-Ra) of leptin receptor was detected in testis. RT-PCR analysis of total RNA from epididymal spermatozoa and ejaculated spermatozoa revealed the presence of leptin mRNA in these cells. The mRNA for Ob-Rb was observed in epididymis and epididymal spermatozoa, but the Ob-Ra mRNA was absent. The presence of Ob-Ra mRNA was found in ejaculated spermatozoa, whereas Ob-Rb mRNA did not exist. It can be concluded that the mRNA for leptin receptor is present in ram gonads and spermatozoa. مشاهده
78 فارسی Histochemical study of river buffalo’s uterine 1393 2013 Summary This study was conducted to evaluate histochemical alterations of river buffalo’s uterine wall acid and alkaline phosphatases (ALP and ACP), lipase and carbohydrate ratio during follicular and luteal phases. Forty apparently healthy and non pregnant river buffalos were considered for removal of the uterus after sacrifice in slaughterhouse. All dissected uteri were divided into two luteal (by observing corpus luteum on the ovary) and follicular phase (by identifying growing follicles) specimens. In order to prepare frozen section slides, the fresh samples of uterus were transferred into chilled normal saline and cut with cryostat. ALP, ACP, lipase and periodic acid-schiff (PAS) staining techniques (paraffin sections) were conducted. Endometrial epithelium, glandular cells, vascular endothelium and macrophages in luteal phase showed positive reaction to both phosphatases. Comparing the luteal and follicular phases showed that, the mentioned cells presented significantly higher reaction to both phosphatases in luteal stage. The number of endometrial macrophages increased in luteal phase. The cytoplasmic carbohydrate ratio of endometrial epithelium and glands were significantly higher in follicular phase. Reactions to PAS staining revealed that, the glandular cells showed remarkably denser PAS stained cytoplasm in comparison to epithelial and endothelial cells. In luteal phase, uterus represented higher lipase ratio in comparison to follicular phase. In conclusion, similar to other bovine and buffalo species, in river buffalos the histochemical alterations in endometrial phosphatases, carbohydrates (mainly glycogen) and lipase depend on cyclic hormonal changes. مشاهده
79 فارسی Effects of co-administration of ghrelin agonist (GHRP-2) 1393 2014 Summary The aim of this study was to examine the anti-inflammatory effects of co-administration of growth hormone-releasing peptide-2 (GHRP-2) and growth hormone (GH) on tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) gene expression induced by LPS in the mouse brain. Thirty-five male NMRI mice (25±5 g) were injected through the mouse tail vein with saline, GHRP-2 (100 μg/kg), GH (25 μg/kg) or GHRP-2 + GH, 30 min before the intraperitoneal injection of LPS (5 mg/kg). Then, inflammation was induced by the intraperitoneal injection of LPS. The control animals received sterile saline in the first and second injections. Changes in the expression level of TNF-α, IL-6 and iNOS genes were studied in the mouse brain by a semi quantitative RT-PCR method. The results of this study showed that GHRP-2 or GH significantly decreased the expression of TNF-α and IL-6 genes in brain 2 h after the injection of LPS. Co-administration of GHRP-2 and GH markedly reduced the expression of TNF-α and IL-6 genes. LPS had no effect on the expression of iNOS gene in brain. The data suggest that co-administration of GHRP-2 and GH has a protective effect in brain inflammation induced by LPS through inhibition of TNF-α and IL-6. مشاهده
80 فارسی Cloning and sequence analysis of VP1, VP2 and VP3 1393 2013 Summary Chicken anemia virus was detected by PCR in tissue samples collected from poultry flocks in Gujarat, India. The VP1, VP2 and VP3 gene sequences of CAV from Anand, Gujarat were obtained after cloning the PCR products in pDrive cloning vector. Nucleotide sequence alignment with other CAV sequences demonstrated overall identity of 95-98.8, 98.8-99.8 and 98.8-100 for VP1, VP2 and VP3 regions, respectively. Deduced amino acid sequences revealed 91.7-99.7, 99-100 and 97.3-100 homologies for VP1, VP2 and VP3 proteins, respectively, indicating high level of genome conservation. Further, placement of critical nucleotides and amino acids at particular positions indicated that Anand CAV is possibly of more pathogenic potential. The CAV isolates were phylogenetically grouped together independent of their geographic origin. مشاهده
81 فارسی Effect of dietary Garcinia cambogia extract on serum 1391 2012 Summary The aim of the study was to investigate the preventive effects of dietary Garcinia cambogia extract on lipid metabolism and serum activities of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and gamma-glutamyle transferase (GGT) in rats fed high-lipid diet. Thirty female, one-year-old Sprague- Dawley rats were used and separated into three equal groups. Group 1 (control group) was fed basal diet (2 liquid vegetable oil, 0 cholesterol), while the diets of both group 2 and 3 contained vegetable oil (2 liquid and 5 hydrogenated vegetable oil) and cholesterol (3). 4.5 (w/w) Garcinia cambogia extract was added to the diet of group 3 from day 45. Blood samples were withdrawn from all rats on days 0, 45 and 75. Serum levels of total protein, LDL-cholesterol and phospholipid were lower in the control group than in the other two groups, and there were no significant differences between these two experimental groups at the end of the study (P0.05). Serum triglyceride concentrations rose significantly in the Garcinia cambogiasupplemented group (group 3). HDL-cholesterol levels were significantly different between the three groups (P0.05). The highest levels were in the control group. Serum ALT activities were not significantly different between the groups at the end of the study. Serum AST and GGT activities were significantly lower in the groups 2 and 3 than those in the controls, respectively. Fat feeding caused rising lipid indices in serum, while Garcinia cambogia supplementation to the fatty diet failed to decrease the rise in serum lipid indices in the present dose. The higher doses of Garcinia cambogia extract should be investigated. مشاهده
82 فارسی Evaluation of prophylactic and therapeutic effects of 1391 2012 Summary The aim of the present study was to determine the protective action of silymarin on acute toxicity due to tetracycline severe overdose in cats. Thirty healthy cats were randomly allotted into five equal groups. Cats in group A were given tetracycline (single dose 120 mg⁄kg, p.o.); group B consisted of cats that received silymarin (single dose 30 mg⁄kg, p.o.) concurrent with tetracycline administration; groups C, D and E were treated as group B, but silymarin was administered 4, 12 and 24 h after tetracycline administration, respectively. The serum concentrations of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), BUN, serum creatinine and total and direct bilirubin were measured before tetracycline administration and 4, 12, 24 and 72 h later. A single oral administration of tetracycline increased, significantly, serum concentrations of ALT, AST, ALP, LDH in all cats of group A, after 24 h (P0.001). In groups B and C, levels of serum enzyme activities remained within normal values. In group D, there were changes in levels of serum enzyme activities, but the difference was not significant (P0.05). In group E, levels of serum enzyme activities were significantly higher than normal values (P0.05). The difference was significant between groups A and E with groups B and C for the serum enzymes (P0.05). In conclusion, silymarin can protect liver tissue against hepatotoxicity in cats with tetracycline severe overdose, particularly in the first 4 h after exposure. مشاهده
83 فارسی In vitro reduction of zearalenone to β-zearalenol by 1391 2012 Summary Mycoestrogen zearalenone (ZEA) is found in human foods and animal feeds. Its estrogenic potency mainly depends on its biotransformation fate. The hepatic biotransformation of ZEA in rainbow trout was investigated in this study. Various concentrations of ZEA were separately incubated with the hepatic microsomal and post-mitochondrial sub-fractions in the presence of NADPH, and the metabolites were determined by means of HPLC. Moreover, the rate of glucuronidation for ZEA and its reduced metabolites were estimated in the presence of uridine diphosphate glucuronic acid. β-zearalenol (β-ZOL) was found to be the major metabolite of ZEA by both sub-cellular fractions. The enzymatic kinetics analyses indicated that the α-ZOL and β-ZOL production by microsomal fraction were 8- and 2-fold higher than those by postmitochondrial fraction, respectively. High percentages of ZEA and its metabolites are conjugated with glucuronic acid at the lower concentrations. Data suggest that the hepatic biotransformation of ZEA in rainbow trout resulted in its detoxification as the main metabolite tends to be β-ZOL with weak estrogenic property. Moreover, at certain concentrations, the produced metabolites are entirely conjugated with glucuronic acid, which may consequently cause a prolonged duration of action due to entero-hepatic cycle. مشاهده
84 فارسی Histological and histomorphometrical changes of 1391 2012 Summary In this study the reproductive organs of adult and apparently healthy female Azarbaijan buffaloes were collected after slaughter from abattoir. Through observation of the ovaries, the luteal and follicular phases of each buffalo were specified. A total number of 36 oviducts at follicular phase and 36 oviducts at luteal phase were collected and 3 tissue samples were taken from 3 regions of infundibulum, ampulla and isthmus of each oviduct. Sections were stained through the use of H&E, PAS, verhoffe and toluidine blue methods. Histological observations revealed that the oviduct consists of 4 layers of mucosa, submucosa, tunica muscularis and serosa. The primary and secondary folds decreased both in number and in height from infundibulum to isthmus. Epithelium of folds was composed of simple columnar, although seems pseudostratified in some areas, and contains ciliated and secretory cells. Histomorphometric examinations of three regions demonstrated that the mean height of primary folds increase and the mean thickness of tunica muscularis decrease at follicular phase. The mean thickness of mucosa-submucosa at follicular phase was slightly similar to luteal phase. More visibility of the ciliated cells and mucosal folds in infundibulum and the increase of their height at follicular phase facilitate the capture of the oocyte; the thick tunica muscularis in isthmus transports sperm cells up; and both require promoting fertilization to occur in ampulla. مشاهده
85 انگليسی Seroprevalence of canine visceral leishmaniasis in 1391 2012 Summary Clinically infected dogs have been identified as the main reservoir hosts of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) caused by Leishmania infantum. Recently asymptomatic infected dogs were regarded to be as important as clinically ill dogs. This study was aimed to determine the seroprevalence of L. infantum infection among asymptomatic dogs in the southwest and central parts of Iran and to investigate possible risk factors associated with this infection. 548 serum samples were collected from dogs in three Iranian provinces and subjected to direct agglutination test (DAT) in dilutions of 1:80 to 1:20480. Fifty three (9.67) of the dogs had detectable anti-L. infantum antibodies at dilutions of ≥1:80. Living status of the dogs (household or free roaming) was a potential risk factor for the infection; seroprevalence was significantly higher in free roaming dogs (P0.001). Dogs of more than 2-year-old had a significantly higher infection rate in comparison with younger dogs (P0.001). No significant statistical differences were seen between seroprevalences of the male and female dogs. The results of this study show relatively high sero-prevalence of L. infantum infection in evaluated regions and higher seroprevalence in old and free roaming dogs, which shows the importance of environmental contamination and access of the dogs to the other reservoir hosts. مشاهده
86 فارسی Animal fascioliasis in coastal regions of the Caspian Sea, 1391 2012 Summary To determine the prevalence of animal fascioliasis in coastal regions of the Caspian Sea, during 2006- 2007, a total of 2368 faecal samples were collected from sheep (n=1250), cattle (n=975) and horse (n=143). The samples were obtained directly from the rectum of animals. Floatation method was performed for determination of egg per gram of faeces (EPG). Our findings revealed the presence of Fasciola spp. eggs in 9.53, 7.8 and 2.5 of sheep and 32.5, 12.1 and 3.1 of cattle in Gilan, Mazandaran and Golestan, respectively. Among the horse faecal samples collected from Golestan and Gilan provinces, no eggs were found in Golestan, while 50 of those of Gilan were infected with Fasciola spp. Cattle was one of the most infected animals in the studied areas. A positive correlation was found between climatic conditions and animal fascioliasis. Among different meteorological factors, rainfall seems to be the strongest factor. مشاهده
87 فارسی Scientific Report 1391 2012 Summary Four fat-tailed ewes from an indoor flock (n=40) were examined for recumbency and depressive nervous signs. They were from a seemingly nonpregnant group of the flock that had been diagnosed by transabdominal ultrasonography. The ration consisted of mainly wheat straw since their separation from the pregnant group. Detection of pregnancy on abdominal palpation along with depressive nervous signs and laboratory findings of hypoglycemia, ketonuria with severe fatty liver at necropsy followed by relevant histopathological findings confirmed an outbreak of primary pregnancy toxemia. While ultrasonographic pregnancy diagnosis is known as an accurate method, its accuracy could be strongly influenced by technical inexperience and improper implementation of the method. Indecent execution of the technique was considered the key predisposing factor for current outbreak. مشاهده
88 فارسی Antibacterial effects of Iranian native sour and sweet 1391 2012 Summary Nowadays, uncontrolled and frequent use of antibiotics may cause emergence of microbial resistance among pathogenic agents. Therefore, the use of new synthetic and natural antimicrobial compounds is inevitable. One source of natural compounds in this respect comes from plants. The purpose of this study was to examine the antibacterial effects of peel extracts from sour and sweet pomegranate. Methanolic extracts of sour and sweet pomegranate peels and aqueous solutions of tetracycline and chloramphenicol were prepared. Antibiogram tests using disk diffusion technique and serial dilution method were performed against ten pathogenic bacteria isolated from animals, and relative minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) values were also determined for the above compounds. The greatest zone of inhibition induced by the action of pomegranate peel extracts was obtained for Staphylococcus aureus (about 25 mm) and the smallest zone of inhibition was obtained for Pasteurella multocida (about 9 mm). In addition, the lowest MIC and MBC values of pomegranate peel extract were obtained for Staphylococcus aureus (7.8 and 62.5 mg/ml, respectively). Results of serial dilution tests indicate that bactericidal effect of sour pomegranate peel extract was more than that for sweet pomegranate peel extract; and sweet pomegranate peel extract exerts a bacteriostatic action against bacteria. The antibacterial effect was greater against Gram-positive bacteria compared to that for the Gram-negative bacteria. Effects of these extracts were considerably lower than those for tetracycline and chloramphenicol. In conclusion, methanolic extracts of pomegranate peels exhibit relatively good bacteriostatic and bactericidal effects. مشاهده
89 فارسی Effects of concomitant administration of latanoprost and 1391 2012 Summary The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of a combination of latanoprost and pilocarpine on the intraocular pressure in experimentally glaucomatous rabbits. Ocular hypertension was induced in 11 conscious rabbits by the oral administration of tap water (70 mL/kg) via an orogastric tube. The study was conducted in three therapeutic groups to test the effects of latanoprost (group L), pilocarpine (group P) and a combination of the two drugs (group LP). After evaluating the first drug, a washout period of 1 week was allowed before the second drug was evaluated. The left eye of rabbits in group L received one drop of normal saline and one drop of 0.005 latanoprost, in group P one drop of normal saline and one drop of 2 pilocarpine and in group LP, one drop of 0.005 latanoprost and one drop of 2 pilocarpine. The right eyes of all rabbits received two drops of normal saline (as control eyes). The intraocular pressure (IOP) and pupil diameter (PD) were measured before and at 0, 15, 30, 45, 60, 75, 90, 105 and 120 min post-water loading. The results showed that eyes, which received pilocarpine had a significantly lower increase in IOP at 15, 30, 45 and 60 min after drug administration compared to placebo eyes, whereas groups L and LP did not prevent an IOP increase. The PD decreased in groups P and LP throughout the study, whereas it did not change in group L. It was concluded that the topical administration of latanoprost alone or in combination with pilocarpine appeared to have no effect on IOP in acute ocular hypertensive rabbits. مشاهده
90 فارسی The effect of maternal inbreeding on incidence of 1391 2012 Summary The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of maternal inbreeding on incidence of twinning, dystocia and stillbirth in Holstein cows of Iran. Calving records from March 2000 to April 2009 comprising of 365,021 calvings on 153,802 cows from 86 dairy herds were used. The mean level of inbreeding was 0.7, less than 37 of all animals were inbred, and a small proportion (3.45) of inbreed animals had inbreeding coefficients greater than 5, with a maximum inbreeding coefficient of 38. The overall average twinning and stillbirth rates were 2.7 and 3.78, respectively. Dam parity and calving season significantly affected the incidence of twinning (P0.01). The twinning rate at parities 1, 2, 3, 4 and ≥5 were 0.72, 3.4, 4.51, 4.70 and 5.23, respectively (P0.01). The incidence of stillbirth was significantly influenced by parity, calving season, calf sex and twinning (P0.05). Dystocia scores of ≥3 were less common amongst older cows. Gender of the calf was significantly associated with dystocia, whereas the incidence of dystocia was higher in dams delivering male calves (P0.01). First parity cows showed more difficult calving than higher parity cows (P0.01). The results indicated that the degree of maternal inbreeding presently observed in Iranian Holstein herds does not seem to have a significant effect on the twinning, dystocia and stillbirth rates. مشاهده
91 انگليسی Antinociceptive effect of the aqueous extract obtained 1391 2012 Summary Foeniculum vulgare (fennel) has been widely used in traditional medicine for treatment of various diseases including pediatric colic. This study was designed to assess the antinociceptive effects of aqueous extract of F. vulgare on visceral pain and possible involvement of opioidergic, serotonergic, adrenergic and histaminergic systems. The results of this study showed that aqueous extract of F. vulgare (50, 100 and 200 mg/kg, IP) induces antinociceptive effects (P0.001) and that the pretreatment with chlorpheniramine and cimetidine significantly attenuate this effect (from 71.9 to 21.6, P0.001 and from 71.4 to 35.9, P=0.003, respectively). Furthermore, chlorpheniramine and cimetidine significantly decreased onset of first abdominal writhing (latency) in comparison with extract (P0.05), however naloxone, cyproheptadine and phentolamine had no effect on antinociception and the latency induced by F. vulgare. The ED50 value for antinociceptive effects of extract was 87.6 mg/kg. These results suggest that antinociceptive effects of F. vulgare are partially mediated by histamine H1 and H2 receptors. مشاهده
92 فارسی Effects of Salbutamol on growth performance and 1391 2012 Summary The effects of feeding diets containing Salbutamol (0, 1, 3, 5 and 7 mg/kg diet) from 21 to 49 days of age on growth performance and carcass characteristics in 180 male and 180 female Japanese quails (Coturnix japonica) were studied using a factorial arrangement based on completely randomized design. Gender had significant effect on weight gain (P0.05). Salbutamol in the diets increased weight gains but the differences were not statistically significant (P0.05). Salbutamol increased (P0.05) weight gains in both sexes, but the magnitude of increasing was greater in females. Weight gain in males and females receiving the diet containing 7 mg Salbutamol/kg increased by 13 and 10 g, respectively compared to the control groups. Food intake was affected by Salbutamol and was higher (P0.01) in female than male quails. Diets containing Salbutamol increased food intake in male and decreased in female quails (P0.01) compared with the control groups. Food intake was lowest in females fed 7 mg Salbutamol/kg diet. The food conversion ratio (FCR) was lower (better) (P0.05) in females than in males. FCR were improved (P0.05) by Salbutamol administration. Gender affected leg weight (P0.05), breast weight, relative weight of leg and liver weight (P0.01). The breast weight, leg weight and liver weight were significantly higher in females than males but relative weight of leg was significantly lower (P0.01) in females. The breast weight, relative weight of breast and relative weight of leg were significantly affected by Salbutamol. Gender, Salbutamol and their interactions did not affect the chemical composition of breast muscle. The results of the experiment demonstrated that, Salbutamol had beneficial effects on growth performance and carcass characteristics and it seems that feeding 7 mg Salbutamol/kg diet was more effective in female than male Japanese quails. مشاهده
93 فارسی Serodiagnosis and molecular survey on leptospiral 1391 2012 Summary Leptospirosis is an important infectious disease of animals and humans caused by the pathogenic leptospires which are classified into one species of Leptospira interrogans containing over 212 serovars. This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of Leptospira-induced abortions in Tabriz (north-west of Iran) dairy herds and to determine the pathogenic Leptospira serovars responsible. From May 2008 through August 2010, 16 (21.05) of 76 submissions (fetuses and placentas) to the Large Animal Clinic of the Veterinary Faculty at the University of Tabriz were diagnosed as positive to L. interrogans serovars by PCR. In contrast, only 9 (11.85) of 76 dam’s sera were diagnosed as positive to leptospirosis by the microscopic agglutination test (MAT). Two out of 9 animals were seropositive to serovar pomona, one animal to serovar icterohaemorrhagiae, two animals to canicula, three animals to both pomona and grippotyphosa, and one animal to the both canicula and grippotyphos. Moreover, the prevalence of Leptospira-induced abortions was high in the aged cows and advanced pregnancies (7-9 months). However statistical difference was not observed among these groups or different periods of pregnancy. In conclusion, serovar pomona induced abortions were determined to be more common leptospiral abortions in cattle in Tabriz and combination of PCR protocol with the MAT test would be more effective than the single test for etiological diagnosis of bovine abortions. مشاهده
94 فارسی An experimental study on broiler chicken co-infected 1391 2012 Short Paper An experimental study on broiler chicken co-infected with the specimens containing avian influenza (H9 subtype) and infectious bronchitis (4/91 strain) viruses مشاهده
95 فارسی Comparing the effect of NaCl and KCl on the growth of 1391 2012 Summary In this study, the effects of various concentrations of NaCl and KCl and partial replacement of NaCl with KCl on the growth characteristics of L. monocytogenes were evaluated. It was found that L. monocytogenes can grow in the presence of 1-9 NaCl and 1-11 KCl. The higher the concentration of salt used, the longer the lag phase induced. In addition, it was observed that L. monocytogenes tolerate KCl better than NaCl when using the same percents in broth. In an attempt to partially replace NaCl with KCl, it was found that the level of substitution of NaCl with KCl can be at least 25 without risking the microbiological safety, with respect to L. monocytogenes of the product, but not as high as 50. مشاهده
96 فارسی Anesthetic management of diaphragmatic hernia repair 1391 2012 Summary This case report describes the anesthetic management and ventilation technique in the surgical treatment of traumatic diaphragmatic hernia in a dog. A 5-month-old 8-kg female terrier with a history of car accident was presented for femoral fracture repair. Before anesthetic induction, marked tachypnea and dyspnea were noted. Diaphragmatic hernia was diagnosed based upon radiographic and ultrasonographic findings. Exploratory laparotomy revealed diaphragmatic rupture and herniation of spleen, omentum, parts of liver lobes and stomach into the thoracic cavity. The importance of thorough physical examination and patient assessment, anesthetic management and monitoring, provision of adequate ventilation and oxygenation during surgery using standard ventilation equipment are discussed. مشاهده
97 فارسی Sister chromatid exchange analysis in some 1391 2012 Summary Chromosomal appearance of 12 Holstein bulls selected for artificial inseminations were examined by sister chromatid exchanges (SCEs). For differential staining of sister chromatids bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) was inoculated in lymphocyte cultures. The mean, maximum and minimum number of SCE per cell were determined 6.8 ± 1.14, 8.3 ± 1.1 and 5.7 ± 1.5, respectively. SCE frequencies of all animals were in the normal level. Also, evaluation of different breeding condition and age range did not show any significant statistical (P0.05) effect on SCEs rates. مشاهده
98 فارسی Behavior pattern as the indicator of reproductive success 1391 2012 Summary To establish the behavioral indicator of reproductive success of female captive Alpine musk deer (Moschus sifanicus), the focal sampling was used to record the individual behaviors at Xinglongshan Musk Deer Farm (XMDF), Gansu province, China. Conducted between June 2008 and January 2009, 31 adult females were observed, of which 26 had successfully bred in the previous year, and five of which were barren. The frequencies of 12 behaviors were recorded and compared to explore variation in reproductive success and general behavior patterns. The results showed that there were differences in behavioral frequencies between females barren and fawned in the previous year. Compared to successful individuals, barren females expressed environment sniffing more frequently during non-mating season, but less frequently during mating season (P0.05). Females which had previously fawned expressed ano-genital sniffing less frequently than barren females in non-mating season (P0.05). Furthermore, both female groups elicited the male specific tail-pasting behavior, although the demonstration levels were not different significantly between both. The above behavioral differences have implications for musk deer farming practices, whereby females should be grouped and separated by their previous reproduction history, to maximize future reproductive success. مشاهده
99 انگليسی Effect of milk supplementation on growth and viability 1391 2012 Summary In the present study, the effects of milk supplementation on growth and viability of yogurt (Streptococcus thermophilus and Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus) and probiotic bacteria (Lactobacillus acidophilus and bifidobacteria) were studied during yogurt production and 33 days of refrigerated storage. The incubation time to reach pH = 4.5 was greatly affected by the addition of milk powder (MP), tryptone (TRY) and sucrose (SUC). Also, the increase in titrable acidity depended on added supplement. Viable counts of L. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus were significantly (P0.05) increased in yogurt supplemented with whey powder (WP), TRY and milk powder plus five fold starter culture (MP-SC). However, milk supplementation did not affect the counts of S. thermophilus in probiotic yogurt until the end of storage. Supplementation with TRY and MP-SC promoted the growth and viability of L. acidophilus, whereas milk supplementation with whey protein concentrate (WPC), yeast extract (YE), SUC and Cysteine, adversely affected the viability of L. acidophilus in probiotic yogurt. Finally, using a high level of inoculums (MP-SC) improved the viability of bifidobacteria during storage for 33 days. In conclusion, tryptone and milk powder plus five fold starter culture were found the most effective supplements to improve growth and viability of starter and probiotic (L. acidophilus and bifidobacteria) bacteria in probiotic yogurt during refrigerated storage for a five week period. These findings would be applicable in industrial production of probiotic yogurt. مشاهده
100 فارسی Intra-articular ketamine administration in equine 1391 2012 Summary Providing suitable analgesia following diagnostic and therapeutic arthroscopic surgeries, that are considered to cause some degree of postoperative pain, is a necessity in equine practice. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the equine synovial fluid biochemical and cytological changes as well as clinical assessments of the joint following intra-articular administration of ketamine. Six adult healthy donkeys were selected after clinical examination. Synovial fluid samples were taken from both middle carpal joints after routine preparation. Ketamine 2 mg/kg and 100 mg lidocaine 2 were administered to the right and left joints, respectively. Synovial fluid collection from the joints was performed at 12, 24, 48 and 192 h after medication. Cytological examination, total protein, glucose, specific gravity, alkaline phosphates (ALP), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), viscosity and quality of mucin clot were measured. Joint circumference, flexion test and lameness examination, stimulation of the joint skin area and radiographic examination were performed as clinical evaluations. Comparison of treatments was performed by nonparametric sign test and Wilcoxon rank sum test. Significance level was set to P≤0.05. In the ketamine group, increased joint circumference, positive flexion test and negative response to the ball-point pressure of the joint skin area were seen, unlike that of lidocaine. Mucin clot quality test and viscosity, the amount of total nucleated cell count (TNCC), mononuclear and neutrophil count, specific gravity, total protein content, ALP, AST and LDH of the ketamine treated joints revealed considerable differences between various sampling times compared to the 0 time and also between the ketamine and lidocaine groups (P0.05). It was concluded that intra-articular ketamine administration in equine carpal joint resulted in acute inflammatory changes, and failed to demonstrate analgesia; therefore, it is not safe to the joint environment and is not recommended as a local analgesic following arthroscopic surgeries. مشاهده
101 فارسی Effects of supplementation with sodium caseinate of early 1391 2012 Summary Performance, digestibility of nutrients, microbial nitrogen flow (MNF) and nitrogen efficiency (NE) in early lactating Holstein cows were investigated by diet supplementation with sodium caseinate (CN). Multiparous lactating Holstein cows (n = 15) with an average body weight of 638 kg and 21 days in milk were assigned to a completely randomized design (five cows per treatment) and fed a basal diet with different CN levels (treatments 1, 2, and 3, contained 0, 50, and 100, g/d/head CN, respectively). The study lasted 49 days (first 14 days for adaptation and the last 35 days for collection of data). There were no statistical differences in dry matter intake, milk yield, milk lactose yield, and protein yield with CN supplementation. 3.5 fat corrected milk yield was increased by CN supplementation (P0.05). Digestibility of ADF was increased by CN supplementation (P0.05). The higher level of CN affected MNF was estimated by spot urine sampling technique (P0.05). Predicted N excretion through urine was affected (P0.05); however, there was no effect of CN supply on predicted N excretion through faeces. In conclusion, the results indicated that although supplementation with CN improved MNF, negligible effects on performance of the cows were observed. Furthermore, increased milk urea nitrogen (MUN) concentration and predicted urine N excretion revealed the lower NE in early lactating dairy cows supplemented with CN compared with control treatment. مشاهده
102 فارسی Determination of antibiotic resistance pattern in 1391 2012 Determination of antibiotic resistance pattern in Escherichia coli strains isolated from animal faeces in a farm house مشاهده
103 فارسی Iron deficiency anemia and seizure in a kitten 1391 2012 Summary The aim of this article was to describe the clinical management of a case with seizure, possibly due to iron deficiency anaemia (IDA) in a kitten. A 38-day-old female European shorthair cat was presented with acute onset of impaired consciousness, seizures and lateralised upper motor neuron tetraparesis. Haematology results showed severe microcytic hypochromic anaemia with marked anisocytosis and thrombocytosis, while a low plasma iron concentration (0.9 μmol/L) was the most remarkable biochemical alteration encountered. Iron deficiency anaemia was suspected and oral iron therapy was started together with supportive treatment. The cat responded to therapy and clinical signs started to improve on the second day and returned to normal eight days after referral to the clinic. مشاهده
104 فارسی Antibacterial effects of Iranian native sour and sweet 1391 2012 Summary Nowadays, uncontrolled and frequent use of antibiotics may cause emergence of microbial resistance among pathogenic agents. Therefore, the use of new synthetic and natural antimicrobial compounds is inevitable. One source of natural compounds in this respect comes from plants. The purpose of this study was to examine the antibacterial effects of peel extracts from sour and sweet pomegranate. Methanolic extracts of sour and sweet pomegranate peels and aqueous solutions of tetracycline and chloramphenicol were prepared. Antibiogram tests using disk diffusion technique and serial dilution method were performed against ten pathogenic bacteria isolated from animals, and relative minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) values were also determined for the above compounds. The greatest zone of inhibition induced by the action of pomegranate peel extracts was obtained for Staphylococcus aureus (about 25 mm) and the smallest zone of inhibition was obtained for Pasteurella multocida (about 9 mm). In addition, the lowest MIC and MBC values of pomegranate peel extract were obtained for Staphylococcus aureus (7.8 and 62.5 mg/ml, respectively). Results of serial dilution tests indicate that bactericidal effect of sour pomegranate peel extract was more than that for sweet pomegranate peel extract; and sweet pomegranate peel extract exerts a bacteriostatic action against bacteria. The antibacterial effect was greater against Gram-positive bacteria compared to that for the Gram-negative bacteria. Effects of these extracts were considerably lower than those for tetracycline and chloramphenicol. In conclusion, methanolic extracts of pomegranate peels exhibit relatively good bacteriostatic and bactericidal effects. مشاهده
105 فارسی The use of two enrichment forms (Brachionus plicatilis enrichment 1391 2012 Summary This study was carried out to evaluate the effect of probiotic (Bacillus latrospores and Bacillus licheniformis) on growth and survival of Silver carp larvae (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix). Rotifers (Brachionus plicatilis) were used as live prey vehicle for probiotic transport. They were cultured in sea water with 15 ppt salinity and Nannochloropsis oculata microalgae was used as feed. Five treatments were prepared with three replicates (four experimental treatments and one control). Silver carp larvae were obtained from a local fish farm (Golestan, Iran). Rotifers were filtered from intensive cultivation tanks with 200 rotifer/ml density and then transferred to conical glasses for the enrichment process, and were kept under enrichment conditions for 24 h. Two forms of enrichment were carried out: rotifer biocapsulation and rearing water enrichment. T1 and T2 were fed with biocapsulated rotifers and T3 and T4 were fed non-biocapsulated rotifers. Instead of biocapsulation, the same density of bacteria was injected directly into the rearing water of T3 and T4. T3 (4.4 ± 1.2 mg) and T4 (5.05 ± 1.95 mg) treatments of probiotic injected water had significantly higher growth rates than T1 (2.21 ± 0.94 mg) and T2 (3.9 ± 0.36 mg), (P0.05). T1 (3.9 ± 1.03 mg) and T2 (3.3 ± 0.36 mg) had higher growth rates than the control (2.21 ± 0.94 mg) and were also significantly different from each other (P0.05). مشاهده
106 فارسی Effects of homo-fermentative bacterial inoculants on 1391 2012 Summary This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of inoculation of homo-fermentative lactic acid bacteria (LAB) on ensiling characteristics and nutritive value of low dry matter corn silage (LDMCS). Corn forage was harvested at milk stage (22.8 ± 0.9 DM), chopped at theoretical length of cut (TLC) 2.5 cm, and stored in eighteen 3.8 L mini silos for each treatment. The following treatments were used, 1) control (uninoculated), 2) ecosyl (treated with ecosylTM corn silage inoculants containing Lactobacillus plantarum), and 3) biotal (treated with biotalTM corn silage inoculants containing Lactobacillus plantarum, Pediococcus pentosaceus and Propionibacter freudenreichii). Triplicate silos for each treatment were opened and sampled for chemical analyses after 3, 6, 12, 16, 21 and 90 days of ensiling. Neither ecosyl nor biotal improved fermentation characteristics of LDMCS compared to the control silage. Neutral detergent fiber (NDF), acid detergent fiber (ADF), crude protein (CP), water soluble carbohydrate (WSC) contents and lactic acid (LA) concentration were not affected significantly by inoculants (P0.05). Acetic acid concentration of control silages was higher; however, ethanol concentration was lower than the other silages. Biotal treated silages had the highest ammonia-N (NH3-N) concentrations compared to the control (P0.05). In vitro dry matter disappearance (IVDMD) of control silage was higher than treated silages (P0.05). In conclusion, the results showed that homo-fermentative LAB inoculants used in this experiment did not improve the fermentation characteristics and nutritive value of LDMCS. مشاهده
107 انگليسی Assessment of avian osteoporosis by a quantitative 1391 2012 Summary The aim of this study was to develop a quantitative radiographic method for assessment of experimental osteoporosis in Leghorn breed laying hens. Three groups of 24 Leghorn pullets were reared in cage and fed a ration containing different calcium levels, including 3.55, 2.075 and 0.6 percent (for groups 1-3, respectively). The hens were fed this diet from 17 weeks of age to the end of the experiment. At 20, 28 and 36 weeks of age, 8 hens from each group were selected randomly. Radiographs were obtained from the tibiotarsus and the humerus of each hen. Radiographs were digitized using a camera and assessed by “Image J” software. Bone radiopacities and bone cortex/diameter (C/D) ratios were measured. The hens were sacrificed and the bone ash and calcium contents were measured. Bone densities of the birds in different groups were significantly different at just 36 weeks of age; they were greater in the tibiotarsus bone of the control group than in the tibiotarsus bone of median (P=0.02) and with the low calcium (P=0.007) groups. Humerus densities were also greater in control group compared with that of median (P=0.04) and with low calcium (P=0.0004) diet group. Cortex/diameter index of the tibiotarsus bone was different in all three stages between control and the two other groups, while there were no significant differences between the humeri C/D indices and the three groups in the first stage. Humeri C/D indices of the second and third stages had significant differences between control and the two other groups (P≤0.05). This study showed that radiographic evaluation of bone density is valuable just in progressed osteoporosis, while C/D index can be used for diagnosis of osteoprotic bones in earlier stages. مشاهده
108 فارسی Effect of Garcinia cambogia extract on body weight gain, feed intake 1391 2012 Summary The aim of the study was to investigate the improving effect of Garcinia cambogia extract on performance metrics, and serum non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) and C-reactive protein (CRP) levels in rats fed with atherogenic diet. Thirty, one-year-old, female Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned to three experimental groups of ten animals each. Control group was fed with basal diet (2 liquid vegetable oil, 0 cholesterol), while the diets of groups 2 and 3 contained vegetable oil (2 liquid- and 5 hydrogenatedvegetable oil) and cholesterol (3). 4.5 Garcinia cambogia was added to the diet of group 3 from day 45. Performance metrics were significantly lower in group 3 than the other groups. Serum NEFA levels were significantly higher in group 3 than the control group on day 45, and in group 3 compared with the other groups on day 75. Serum CRP levels were not significantly different among all groups in all days. In conclusion, the reduced performance metrics indicate that supplementation with Garcinia cambogia extract is a novel therapeutic tool for weight management. Also, this study indicates that large doses of Garcinia cambogia can lead to a substantial increase in serum NEFA concentrations which may be due to the increased fat degradation. مشاهده
109 فارسی The distribution of serotonin-immunoreactive cells in 1391 2012 Summary The respiratory tract contains numerous peptides secreted from special pulmonary epithelial cells which are called endocrine cells. The function of neuroendocrine cells is modulated by amines. Serotonin has strong vasomotor and bronchomotor effects in the airway mucosa. The objective of this study was to determine presence and distribution of serotonin-positive endocrine cells in respiratory tract of goat and bovine via PAP (peroxidase anti-peroxidase) technique. As a result, while serotonin-immunoreactive cells were found in glands of larynx and bronchial epithelium in bovine, no positive cells were detected in goat. The present study suggests that the distribution of serotonin-immunoreactive cells may show differences between both respiratory tract regions and mammalian species. مشاهده
110 انگليسی Expression and analysis of the complement resistant 1390 2011 Summary Avian pathogenic E. coli (APEC) is responsible for economic losses in all poultry farms. Certain virulence factors have been proposed as a means of controlling APEC infections, including some proteins to be used for vaccination. In the study we report here, one of the major virulence factors, the iss (increased serum survival) gene, from E. coli strain χ1378, isolated from poultry colibacillosis in Iran, was cloned to construct a prokaryotic expression vector, in order to analyse the Iss protein. The iss gene was successfully cloned into the pGEX-3X vector. The construct was transformed into E. coli BL21 to express the Iss protein under induction. The Iss protein was expressed as a glutathione-S-transferase (GST) fusion protein. GST::Iss protein was sequenced by MS/MS MALDI-TOF techniques to confirm its amino acid sequence. BLAST analysis of the Iss protein showed high similarity with previously submitted sequences. Overall, it seems that the Iss protein from strain χ1378 could be used as a good antigen to vaccinate against poultry colibacillosis. GST::Iss protein is currently being used as recombinant protein in SPF chicken models with the goal of evaluating the immune response for APEC control. In conclusion, we constructed a prokaryotic expression vector of the iss gene, and express and sequence the Iss protein from E. coli strain χ1378 isolated from systemic colibacillosis. مشاهده
111 فارسی Effects of latanoprost and pilocarpine combination on 1390 2011 Summary The aim of this study was to determine the combination effect of latanoprost and pilocarpine on the intraocular pressure and pupil size in normal rabbits. In this study, 18 rabbits were randomized to three groups of 6 animals each. The right eyes of rabbits in group 1 were treated topically with latanoprost, in group 2 with pilocarpine and in group 3 with latanoprost and pilocarpine. The left eyes received placebo. Drugs were instilled once a day at 8 am over 4 days. IOP and pupil diameter measurements were made at 8 am, 10 am, 12 noon, 2 pm and 4 pm during the 4 days of treatment, the 2 days that preceded treatment, and 3 days following treatment. The occurrence of blepharospasm and conjunctival hyperemia were also evaluated at the same times that the measurements were made. The mean IOPs were significantly lower than the contralateral eyes in 8 of the 20 time intervals (40) in both latanoprost and pilocarpine-treated and in 18 of 20 time intervals (90) in latanoprost plus pilocarpine-treated eyes in the treatment period. The mean daily hypotensive effects of latanoprost, pilocarpine and their combination were 4.5 (31), 2 (14.4) and 5 mmHg (34.7), respectively. Although the mean IOPs in group 3 have decreased more than other groups, the differences between the three groups are not significant. Conjunctival hyperemia was observed in the treated eyes of the three groups. It is concluded that topical instillation of the combination of latanoprost and pilocarpine was not as effective in IOP reduction than by drugs alone and that hyperemia is the most frequent side effect observed during the treatment period. مشاهده
112 فارسی Genotyping of Fusarium verticillioides strains producing 1390 2011 Summary Fusarium verticillioides (F. verticillioides) is not only a primary pathogen of maize, but also can cause disease in other crops such as sorghum. Pathogenicity is related to mycotoxin production such as fumonisin. In the present study, 24 isolates of F. verticillioides, which were previously identified by phenotype based methods, were re-identified using restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis. Digestion of the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) products with the restriction enzyme TasI allowed identifying four nonverticillioides strains that were discarded from our study. The genetic variations among the remaining 20 strains of F. verticillioides were analysed by random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD)-PCR method with 4 primers. Of the four primers tested, two primers produced polymorphic amplification patterns. Dendrogram for each primer indicated the distance of the strains to each other. Using primers of A, B, C and D, the isolates were divided to 8, 9, 7 and 7 groups, respectively. The results of this study indicated genetic relationship among DNA polymorphic patterns with geographic regions and the severity of fumonisin B1 (FB1) production. It seems that RAPD analysis is a suitable technique for strain typing of F. verticillioides. مشاهده
113 فارسی A serological survey on leptospirosis in aborted dairy 1390 2011 Summary Leptospirosis is a zoonosis of worldwide distribution, caused by Leptospira interrogans. It is a well known cause of bovine reproductive losses such as abortion, infertility, stillbirth and birth of weak calves. In this research, the relationship between the seroprevalence rate of Leptospira spp. infection and abortion in industrial dairy farms of Hamedan province, Iran was studied. A total of 80 blood samples were taken from aborted cows in six dairy farms. Sera were tested for antibodies against 6 serovars of Leptospira interrogans (hardjo, pomona, canicola, grippotyphosa, icterohaemorrhagiae and ballum) using microscopic agglutination test (MAT). Antibodies were detected in 18 (22.5) of the aborted cows, including 17 (21.25) against L. canicola and 1 (1.25) against L. pomona. It is concluded that dogs (shepherd and stray) and wild carnivores may have an important role to maintain and transmit the L. canicola infection to the cattle population in this region, therefore, vaccination of cattle and shepherd dogs should be applied. مشاهده
114 فارسی Isolation, identification and antibiotic sensitivity 1390 2011 Isolation, identification and antibiotic sensitivity determination of Ornithobacterium rhinotracheale in slaughtering broiler chicken flocks of Guilan province مشاهده
115 فارسی Investigation of seroprevalance of toxoplasmosis in 1390 2011 Summary The aim of this study was to determine the seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in mares and stallions in the province of Ankara. Sera from 168 clinically healthy horses were tested for the presence of Toxoplasma gondii antibodies using the Sabin Feldman dye test. Toxoplasma gondii infection was determined in 62 (36.9) of 168 horses with the titers ranging from 1:16 to 1:256. مشاهده
116 فارسی Effect of adding inulin on microbial and physicochemical 1390 2011 Summary Currently, due to their beneficial effects, there is interest in adding prebiotics to food products. This study investigated the effect of the addition of inulin (1 and 2) on microbial and physico-chemical properties of probiotic low fat yogurt manufactured with Lactobacillus acidophilus. Six experimental preparations of yogurt were produced. Homogenized, standardized and pasteurized low fat milk were divided into six portions. Four portions were fortified with 1 and 2 inulin and two portions were used without inulin. All of the preparations were heated up to 85°C and fermented at 42°C until a pH of 4.6 was reached. Titratable acidity and pH were determined during the incubation period of the samples and a storage time up to 14 days. Syneresis, color, sensory evaluation and bacterial counts were determined during the storage time. The results showed that inulin did not significantly affect the titratable acidity and pH of the yogurts after 4 h of fermentation at 40°C. There were no significant differences between pH, titratable acidity, syneresis, color and sensory evaluation of all treatments on days 1, 7 and 14 of storage. The counts of L. acidophilus and L. delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus declined over time, but the addition of inulin to the milk increased the viability of these bacteria during the storage of synbiotic yogurt. In conclusion, inulin can be used to manufacture low fat synbiotic yogurt with additional nutritional benefits without affecting the physico-chemical properties of yogurt. مشاهده
117 انگليسی Conventional and extended intramammary therapy of 1390 2011 Summary The objective of the present study was to compare the efficacy of conventional and extended intramammary (IMM) therapy of persistent subclinical mastitis in lactating dairy cattle using nafcillinpenicillin- dihydrostreptomycin combination (NPD). Sixty-five dairy cows with 126 infected quarters were enrolled in the study. Infected cows were allocated randomly to 1 of 3 different treatment regimens: (1) conventional group: NPD administered IMM 3 times at 24-h intervals (20 infected cows, 43 intramammary infections [IMI]), (2) extended group: NPD administered IMM 6 times at 24-h intervals (23 cows, 43 IMI), and (3) untreated control group (22 cows, 40 IMI). The overall bacteriological cure (BC) rates for subclinical IMI were 86.04, 100, and 20 for the conventional, extended and the control groups, respectively; indicating a higher BC rate (P0.0001) for the treated groups than the control group. Significant difference (P=0.029) concerning the BC rate was also observed between the extended and the conventional groups. Significant difference (P=0.0021) in somatic cell count (SCC) was detected between the extended and the control group. Fat percentage increased in the conventional (P=0.029) and in the extended (P0.0001) groups, and protein percentage increased only in the extended group (P=0.0016). There was no significant difference in posttreatment milk production between the groups (P0.05). Results of this study indicate that NPD therapy was effective in eliminating subclinical IMI in lactating dairy cows, and that extended therapy enhanced BC rate and reduced SCC. مشاهده
118 فارسی The effect of supplementation of feed with exogenous 1390 2011 Summary Supplementary feed exogenous enzymes have improved the growth rates of various food animals. In this research, the effect of Endofeed W, a multienzyme feed supplement, was investigated on the growth of carp. Accordingly, 134 fish (33.1 ± 0.8 g) were randomly allocated to 4 experimental groups. During the first stage of the experiment (10 days), groups 1-3 received 1, 2 and 3 g Endofeed W per kg diet, respectively. The fourth group (control) received a placebo. All fish were weighed and redistributed for the second stage of the experiment, during which the test groups received 0.25, 0.5 and 1 g Endofeed W per kg diet, respectively. During the first stage of the experiment, the multienzyme supplement reduced the fish weights, dose dependently, being statistically significant with the highest dose (P0.05). During the second stage of the experiment, a rather similar weight loss, especially with higher doses of the supplement, was observed. However, the differences were not significant (P0.05). The feed conversion rates were evidently higher in groups receiving Endofeed W. The present study suggests the enzyme supplement, Endofeed W, is not only ineffective in improving the growth and feed conversion rates of carp, it may even exert negative effects with higher doses. مشاهده
119 فارسی A study on seroprevalence and coproantigen detection of 1390 2011 Summary Cats play crucial roles in the epidemiology of toxoplasmosis. In the present study, a total of 198 companion cats of different ages were examined for serum antibodies against Toxoplasma gondii by immunochromatography assay and for oocyst presence in faeces by microscopic examination (flotation method) and immunochromatography assay. The cats were selected between referred cases to the Veterinary Hospital of Ahvaz University, southwestern Iran from December 2006 to November 2009. Classification was made by age, sex, breed, region and season. The studied cats were divided into three groups based on age (6 months, 6 months–3 years and 3 years) and into five regions based on area (north, east, west, south and central). The results were analyzed by Chi-square analysis, Fischer’s exact test and Z test. Forty nine of 198 serum samples (24.75) had antibodies against Toxoplasma gondii (95 CI: 18.7-30.7). Prevalence was significantly higher in adult cats above 3 years (38.8) and 6 months–3 years (26.6) compared with cats less than 6 months (3.8) (P0.001). Prevalence was higher in male cats (29.7) than females (20.6), in the summer season (26.2) and west region (27.5), but the difference was not significant between the prevalence of infection relative to host gender (P=0.14), season (P=0.99) and region (P=0.98). Faecal flotation technique and immunochromatography assay was carried out on faecal samples also and T. gondii oocysts were not detected in any of the 198 samples. Our study showed that the prevalence of infection (24.75) is relatively high in serum of companion cats in the Ahvaz district. مشاهده
120 فارسی Identification of a cDNA sequence coding for kruppellike 1390 2011 Summary Kruppel-like factors (Klfs) are a highly related zinc-finger family of transcription factors implicated in the regulation of the eukaryotic cellular growth and differentiation of a diverse set of cells in mammal. Using RT-PCR technique, a 456 bp cDNA fragment encoding N-terminus part of a Klf2b was isolated from the skin mucosa of common carp (Cyprinus carpio) using two degenerative oligonucleotide primers. Use of this fragment as a probe allowed the isolation of a larger cDNA clone through the searching of the GenBank expressed sequence tag database. The size of the amplified product is 1157 bp, which encodes a polypeptide of 274 amino acid residues with a predicted molecular mass of 30.359 kDa and theoretical pI of 4.88. The deduced amino acid sequence exhibited 79, 54, and 53 identity to the homologous Klf2b identified from zebrafish Danio rerio, Spotted Green Pufferfish Tetraodon nigroviridis and Atlantic salmon Salmo salar, respectively. The common carp protein is 50 similar to Klf2 orthologues in African clawed frog Xenopus laevis, 44 in chicken Gallus gallus and is 30 similar to the mammalian Klf in house mouse Mus musculus. مشاهده
121 فارسی Isolation, cloning and expression of the Brucella 1390 2011 Summary Brucellosis is a zoonotic disease transmitted to humans either from animals or from their products. Although brucellosis can be found worldwide, the Mediterranean Basin, South and Central America, Eastern Europe, Asia, Africa, the Caribbean, and the Middle East have currently been listed as high-risk regions. The genus Brucella is classified in at least nine species. Brucella melitensis is the global pathogenic species of Brucella. The outer membrane protein 31, (Omp31) from B. melitensis is considered as a protective immunogen and an important candidate vaccine. Contamination of purified Omp31 protein by biochemical methods has made some restrictions in practical experiments. In this study, the Omp31coding gene of B. melitensis Rev 1 strain was inserted in pET32b(+) plasmid with extra His-tag sequence. The integrity of the constructed plasmid was confirmed using restriction enzyme mapping and sequencing. Omp31 was expressed after induction with IPTG in Escherichia coli BL21. Recombinant Omp31 (rOmp31) was purified by chromatography through Ni-agarose. The electrophoresis showed successful purification and immunoblotting confirmed immunereactivity of rOmp31. Obtained rOmp31 could be used as a research experimental tool in protection assays to find its potential as a vaccine candidate. مشاهده
122 انگليسی Cloning and expression of tetanus toxin C fragment (Fc) 1390 2011 Summary Tetanus is a disease caused by tetanus toxin, a potent inhibitor for the release of inhibitory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system that causes spastic paralysis. Fragment C (52 kD) of this toxin is responsible for binding to the neuronal membrane. For this reason, and also its non toxigenic and immunogenic nature, this fragment might be ideal for new vaccine development. Presently, with respect to the incidence of disease in neonates and animals and the side effects of toxoid vaccine, designing a more effective and efficient vaccine for prevention of this disease is crucial. A segment of Clostridium tetani DNA corresponding to C fragment of tetanus toxin was amplified using polymerase chain reaction. This fragment was cloned into expression vector pMalc2x, under the control of the lac promoter. Expression of this plasmid in Escherichia coli was confirmed by western blotting. In this study, the vector had a strong promoter to allow high level expression of C fragment. Based on our results it appears that this recombinant plasmid may be suitable for the production and development of recombinant vaccine and also has many other applications, such as construction diagnostic kits, production hyperimmune antiserum for serotherapy and as a vehicle for drug delivery to CNS. مشاهده
123 انگليسی Conventional and extended intramammary therapy of 1390 2011 Summary The objective of the present study was to compare the efficacy of conventional and extended intramammary (IMM) therapy of persistent subclinical mastitis in lactating dairy cattle using nafcillinpenicillin- dihydrostreptomycin combination (NPD). Sixty-five dairy cows with 126 infected quarters were enrolled in the study. Infected cows were allocated randomly to 1 of 3 different treatment regimens: (1) conventional group: NPD administered IMM 3 times at 24-h intervals (20 infected cows, 43 intramammary infections [IMI]), (2) extended group: NPD administered IMM 6 times at 24-h intervals (23 cows, 43 IMI), and (3) untreated control group (22 cows, 40 IMI). The overall bacteriological cure (BC) rates for subclinical IMI were 86.04, 100, and 20 for the conventional, extended and the control groups, respectively; indicating a higher BC rate (P0.0001) for the treated groups than the control group. Significant difference (P=0.029) concerning the BC rate was also observed between the extended and the conventional groups. Significant difference (P=0.0021) in somatic cell count (SCC) was detected between the extended and the control group. Fat percentage increased in the conventional (P=0.029) and in the extended (P0.0001) groups, and protein percentage increased only in the extended group (P=0.0016). There was no significant difference in posttreatment milk production between the groups (P0.05). Results of this study indicate that NPD therapy was effective in eliminating subclinical IMI in lactating dairy cows, and that extended therapy enhanced BC rate and reduced SCC. مشاهده
124 فارسی The relation of water contamination and Colibacillosis 1390 2011 Summary Seventy poultry farms’ drinking water was tested for Escherichia coli contamination in Qom province in Iran. The cases of colibacillosis from positive farms were also collected and tested. The isolates were examined for serotype, detection of virulence genes by multiplex PCR and antibiotic resistance. Thirty poultry farm water samples were E. coli positive (18.57), although 13 E. coli isolates were recovered from carcasses of related farms. The isolates belonged to O2 serogroup and one O157, with approximately 29 of the strains being non-typeable. Two isolates from water and carcasses were serotyped O2 and one sample serotyped O157, which needs to be further studied. The PCR method was on the basis of showing virulence genes of espB, stx1, stx2 and eae. One sample from water and one from a carcass were shared espB, stx2 and eae genes. Stx1 and stx2 genes were common in a sample from both water and carcass, although five samples from both water and carcass shared a stx1 gene as well. All isolates showed maximum sensitivity and resistance to lincospectine and tetracycline, respectively. مشاهده
125 انگليسی Identification of shiga toxin producing Escherichia coli 1390 2011 Summary In this study 130 bulk tank milk samples which were delivered to the Pegah Pasturisation Factory in Mashhad were collected randomly during the summer months. Samples were firstly enriched in modified trypticase soy broth containing novobiocin, followed by plating onto sorbitol MacConkey agar supplemented with cefixime and potassium tellurite for isolation of Escherichia coli O157:H7. Consequently the suspected non-sorbitol fermenting (NSF) colonies were confirmed by biochemical tests as Escherichia coli and then were used for multiplex-PCR assay, using primers specific for O157 and H7 antigens genes and then primers specific for stx1 and stx2 genes. NSF Escherichia coli colonies were recovered from 8 samples, and in multiplex-PCR assay one sample (0.77) was confirmed as Escherichia coli O157:H7. The second multiplex PCR assay showed that the isolate was harboring the stx2 gene. The PCR assay used in this study may be a possible alternative to immunological assays which detect somatic and flagellar antigens. Besides, this procedure determines the potential of isolates for toxin production. مشاهده
126 فارسی Isolation, cloning and expression of the Brucella 1390 2011 Summary Brucellosis is a zoonotic disease transmitted to humans either from animals or from their products. Although brucellosis can be found worldwide, the Mediterranean Basin, South and Central America, Eastern Europe, Asia, Africa, the Caribbean, and the Middle East have currently been listed as high-risk regions. The genus Brucella is classified in at least nine species. Brucella melitensis is the global pathogenic species of Brucella. The outer membrane protein 31, (Omp31) from B. melitensis is considered as a protective immunogen and an important candidate vaccine. Contamination of purified Omp31 protein by biochemical methods has made some restrictions in practical experiments. In this study, the Omp31coding gene of B. melitensis Rev 1 strain was inserted in pET32b(+) plasmid with extra His-tag sequence. The integrity of the constructed plasmid was confirmed using restriction enzyme mapping and sequencing. Omp31 was expressed after induction with IPTG in Escherichia coli BL21. Recombinant Omp31 (rOmp31) was purified by chromatography through Ni-agarose. The electrophoresis showed successful purification and immunoblotting confirmed immunereactivity of rOmp31. Obtained rOmp31 could be used as a research experimental tool in protection assays to find its potential as a vaccine candidate. مشاهده
127 فارسی Prevalence and ultrastructural study of Aegyptianella 1390 2011 Summary Aegyptianellosis is a disease caused by small intraerythrocytic inclusions which is restricted to the area of Africa, Asia and extreme southern Europe. In this study the prevalence of Aegyptianella spp. was evaluated in four genera of domestic poultry in the northern, southern and central regions of Lorestan province from April to September 2008. A total of 275 native adult birds including chickens, ducks, geese, and turkeys which were bred in free range pasture condition were used for blood sampling in the rural areas of the regions. Twenty one (7.6) out of 275 birds used in this study were infected with the organisms. The detected Aegyptianella were found in 7 chickens (33.3), 2 ducks (9.5), 7 geese (33.3), and 5 turkeys (23.9), respectively. The majority of the records were from the northeastern regions. Therefore, more than one-half of the infected birds with the Aegyptianella species were located in these regions. The structure morphology of Aegyptianella spp. was studied using light and electron microscopy. The results of the study by electron microscopy demonstrated the developmental stage as well as implemented similar and different extra/intra genus. مشاهده
128 انگليسی Effects of intracerebroventricular injection of histamine 1390 2011 Summary The aim of this study was to assess the effects of exogenous histamine and H1 and H2 central receptors on electrocardiographic (ECG) parameters, heart rate and mean electrical axis in broiler chickens. For this purpose, Ross broiler chickens (750-800 g weight) received intracerebroventricularly (ICV) histamine. Moreover, to determine the receptors involved in histamine-induced alterations in ECG changes, H1 and H2 blockers were administered to histamine-treated chickens. All ECGs were standardized at 1 mV = 20 mm, with paper speed of 50 mm/sec. Leads І, ІІ, ІІІ, aVR, aVL and aVF were recorded. Injection of histamine (200 and 300 μg) decreased the duration of T wave and QRS complex and elevated the heart rate as compared to the control group (P0.05). Chlorpheniramine (100 μg), an H1 receptor antagonist, increased the duration rate of T wave and QRS complex and reduced the heart rate (P0.05). Cimetidine, an H2 receptor antagonist (100 μg) had no effect on ECG parameters. Pretreatment with chlorpheniramine (100 μg) significantly attenuated histamine effects (200 μg) on the duration of T wave, QRS complex and heart rate (P0.05). Mean electrical axis, calculated from leads ІІ and ІІІ, did not differ between groups and it was between -93° and -99° in all chickens. In conclusion, exogenous histamine intracerebroventricularly results in sinusoidal tachycardia in broiler chickens and central H1 receptors mediate the stimulatory effects of histamine on heart rate, but H2 receptors had no role in this manner. مشاهده
129 انگليسی Comparing various attributes of prolactin hormones in 1390 2011 Summary Prolactin is mainly secreted by the anterior pituitary and is able to stimulate mammary gland development and lactation in mammalians. Although prolactins share a common ancestral gene encoding, they show species specific characteristics and their efficiency may be different in various mammals. The importance of protein structures of all sequences of this hormone have been studied by various bioinformatics algorithms. The results showed bioinformatics tools and modeling methods can be used to identify the species specificity of prolactin hormones in animals with an acceptable precision rate. Based on the author’s knowledge, this is the first report on the structural variation of prolactin hormones by specific structural protein features. Gain ratio model acquired the best accuracy and performance among the algorithms applied here and can be used on similar proteins. The counts and the frequencies of dipeptides were the most important protein attributes in this regard. It has also been reported here that feature selection or attribute weighting can be used to select the most important protein attributes and to reduce the burden of processing equipment. The new findings presented here open up new windows in understanding the characteristics of prolactin hormones and also pave the way to engineer more efficient hormones by using various mutagenesis tools such as site directed mutagenesis. مشاهده
130 فارسی Effects of the source of non-fiber carbohydrates on in 1390 2011 Summary An in vitro experiment was conducted to study the effect of non-fiber carbohydrates (NFC) on ruminal disappearance kinetics of dry matter (DM) and neutral detergent fiber (NDF) of alfalfa hay, wheat bran and unmolassed sugar beet pulp. Non-supplemented or NFC supplemented samples [70 mg/g DM of each feed sample as sucrose (SU) or starch (ST) or SU + ST as 1:1] were incubated in bottles containing 40 rumen fluid medium for 4, 8, 16, 24, 48, and 96 h at 39°C. After each incubation time, unfiltered content was analysed for DM and NDF. Filtered fluid was analysed for ammonia-N concentration. Kinetic disappearance rate was determined using a first order non-linear model. The source of NFC used in the medium containing alfalfa hay caused a significant decrease in DM disappearance (P0.01). Feed source, NFC type and incubation time had a significant effect (P0.01) on NDF disappearance and ammonia-N concentration. In vitro NDF disappearance of unmolassed sugar beet pulp and wheat bran was significantly (P0.01) decreased by supplementing with ST and SU + ST. The indigestible dry matter fraction of alfalfa hay was significantly increased when it was supplemented by NFC (P0.05). The rate of DM disappearance of unmolassed sugar beet pulp was also significantly influenced by supplemental NFC (P0.05). The fractional rate of NDF disappearance of alfalfa hay and wheat bran exhibited an increase (P0.05) in response to adding NFC when compared with the non-supplemented samples. Generally, the results of the present study suggested that in addition to the amount of supplemental carbohydrate fed, the source of supplemental carbohydrate and the basal feed sources might be effective on the effect of supplemental NFC on fiber utilization. مشاهده
131 فارسی Feline herpesvirus 1 infections in a domestic cat 1390 2011 Summary Feline herpesvirus 1 (FeHV-1) and feline calicivirus (FCV), associated with upper respiratory tract disease, are highly prevalent in cats worldwide. With the aim of investigating the importance of FeHV-1 in a population of cats, samples were taken in a hospital in Ahvaz, south-west Iran, between June 2007 and June 2008. Oropharyngeal, nasal and ocular swabs were collected from 65 domestic cats, including 52 stray and 13 household animals and were tested for the presence of FeHV-1 DNA by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The overall prevalence rate of FeHV-1 was 35.38. There was a statistically significant association between the prevalence rate of FeHV-1 and the presence of respiratory signs. High prevalence of FeHV-1 infection strengthens the importance of applying hygienic and preventive measures in cats in the study area. مشاهده
132 فارسی Isolation of enterotoxigenic and enteroaggregative 1390 2011 Summary The aim of this study was to determine the frequency of enterotoxigenic and enteroaggregative strains of Escherichia coli in chicken carcasses by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). In this study 63 strains of E. coli were isolated from 110 samples of chicken carcasses during processing after chilling in the poultry slaughter house of Shahrekord. Polymerase chain reaction assays were used to detect the presence of the genes encoding heat-stable enterotoxin a (STa), heat-stable enterotoxin b (STb), heat labile toxin (LT) and Enteroaggregative heat-stable toxin 1 (EAST1). Sixty three out of 110 (57.27) carcasses were contaminated with E. coli. Six out of 63 (9.52) harbored the gene for LT, 1 (1.58) STb, 21 (33.3) EAST1 and 8 (12.69) contain both LT and EAST1 genes. None of the strains contain the STa gene. The results indicated that contamination of the chicken carcasses with E. coli in such a level could be a potential hazard for consumers. مشاهده
133 انگليسی Congenital hepatic fibrosis in an aborted calf 1390 2011 Summary An aborted female Holstein foetus with marked generalized anasarca was referred to the Excellence Centre for Ruminant Abortion and Neonatal Mortality, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad. On postmortem examination, red-tinged ascites, pale and firm liver with extreme irregularity and numerous round to oval slightly raised foci on the capsular surface were seen. Histological examination revealed widespread fibrosis, linkage of periportal areas to the central vein region and proliferation of bile ductules forming a branching network within the fibrous tissue. The lesion was diagnosed as congenital hepatic fibrosis. مشاهده
134 انگليسی Metazoan parasite community of Capoeta damascina 1390 2011 Summary In this paper, the metazoan parasite community system of Capoeta damascina in the Tigris basin (Mesopotamian region) in the Middle-East is presented. Overall, 54 species have been identified. Between 2005 and 2008, Iranian surveys of Capoeta damascina found a total of 47 metazoan parasites species, most identified to species level. In addition, 6 parasite species from Iraq and 1 species from occupied Palestine have been reported. Among these, 16 species belong to Monogenea (30), including Dactylogyrus 9, Gyrodactylus 4, Paradiplozoon 1 and Dogielius 2 species. The remaining 70 belong to: Cestoda (7.4) including Ligula, spp Caryophyllaeus and Coelobothrium 1 species each; Crustacea (5.55) comprising Lernaea, Argulus Ergasilus 1 species each; Digenea (11.11) containing Allocreadium spp, Diplostomum, Clinostomum tylodelphis, 1 species each; Acanthocephala (5.55) 3 species; Nematoda (14) 8 species; Myxozoa (18) including Myxobolus with 9 species, Myxidium with 1 species and, Hirudinea 3 species; and at last, Bivalva, Unio as 1 species. مشاهده
135 انگليسی Evaluation of pharmacological mechanisms of 1390 2012 Summary Teucrium polium is used for treatment of visceral pain in Iranian folkloric medicine. In this study antinociceptive mechanisms of T. polium hydroethanolic extract were examined by acetic acid-induced writhing test as a model of visceral pain in male NMRI mice. To reveal the antinociceptive mechanisms of the extract, we examined the effects of opioidergic, serotonergic, adrenergic and histaminergic antagonists on extract-induced antinociception. The results of this study showed that pretreatment with naloxone, chlorpheniramine and cimetidine significantly attenuate the antinociceptive effect of the extract. However, cyproheptadine and phentolamine had no effect. Our results clearly show antinociceptive effects of T. polium may be mediated by opioidergic and histaminegic H1 and H2 receptors. مشاهده
136 فارسی Morphological and histochemical investigation of the camel 1390 2009 Summary Morphological and histochemical study of the abomasal epithelium in camel (Camelus dromedarius) was carried out by light and scanning electron microscopes. The lining of the abomasum was divided into four regions, i.e. cardiac, pseudocardiac, fundic and pyloric. Our investigation revealed that the cardiac and pseudocardiac regions occupy a wide part of the abomasum in camel and it reaches approximately the thirdfourth of the abomasum. Our gross anatomical observation showed small diverticulae in the Fundic region, this part was covered with thick mucosal folds that have been separated by deep branching furrows. In the histological study we observed that, the mucosa has extensive gastric folds and small invaginations or gastric pits, which were in continuation with the gastric glands. The mucosal surface was covered with simple columnar epithelial. Our histochemical revealed that the surface epithelium in abomasum was negative to AB and positive to PAS staining, whereas in the gastric pit cells it was positive to AB and PAS staining, but gastric gland cells were negative to PAS and positive to AB staining. In the SEM study, after complete removal of mucin from the surface of the mucosa, simple columnar epithelial cells with a mean length of 20 μm were observed, and some epithelial cells have been arranged as flower body (FB). Also, we observed hexagonal structures on the surface of the abomasums that resembled honeycomb structure (HC). Mean diameter of these HC structures was 30-40 μm. For the first time our investigation revealed these FB and HC structures in the abomasal mucosa of camel. مشاهده
137 انگليسی Evaluation of pharmacological mechanisms of 1390 2011 Summary Teucrium polium is used for treatment of visceral pain in Iranian folkloric medicine. In this study antinociceptive mechanisms of T. polium hydroethanolic extract were examined by acetic acid-induced writhing test as a model of visceral pain in male NMRI mice. To reveal the antinociceptive mechanisms of the extract, we examined the effects of opioidergic, serotonergic, adrenergic and histaminergic antagonists on extract-induced antinociception. The results of this study showed that pretreatment with naloxone, chlorpheniramine and cimetidine significantly attenuate the antinociceptive effect of the extract. However, cyproheptadine and phentolamine had no effect. Our results clearly show antinociceptive effects of T. polium may be mediated by opioidergic and histaminegic H1 and H2 receptors. مشاهده
138 انگليسی Expression and analysis of the complement resistant 1390 2011 Summary Avian pathogenic E. coli (APEC) is responsible for economic losses in all poultry farms. Certain virulence factors have been proposed as a means of controlling APEC infections, including some proteins to be used for vaccination. In the study we report here, one of the major virulence factors, the iss (increased serum survival) gene, from E. coli strain χ1378, isolated from poultry colibacillosis in Iran, was cloned to construct a prokaryotic expression vector, in order to analyse the Iss protein. The iss gene was successfully cloned into the pGEX-3X vector. The construct was transformed into E. coli BL21 to express the Iss protein under induction. The Iss protein was expressed as a glutathione-S-transferase (GST) fusion protein. GST::Iss protein was sequenced by MS/MS MALDI-TOF techniques to confirm its amino acid sequence. BLAST analysis of the Iss protein showed high similarity with previously submitted sequences. Overall, it seems that the Iss protein from strain χ1378 could be used as a good antigen to vaccinate against poultry colibacillosis. GST::Iss protein is currently being used as recombinant protein in SPF chicken models with the goal of evaluating the immune response for APEC control. In conclusion, we constructed a prokaryotic expression vector of the iss gene, and express and sequence the Iss protein from E. coli strain χ1378 isolated from systemic colibacillosis. مشاهده
139 انگليسی Evaluation of pharmacological mechanisms of 1390 2011 Summary Teucrium polium is used for treatment of visceral pain in Iranian folkloric medicine. In this study antinociceptive mechanisms of T. polium hydroethanolic extract were examined by acetic acid-induced writhing test as a model of visceral pain in male NMRI mice. To reveal the antinociceptive mechanisms of the extract, we examined the effects of opioidergic, serotonergic, adrenergic and histaminergic antagonists on extract-induced antinociception. The results of this study showed that pretreatment with naloxone, chlorpheniramine and cimetidine significantly attenuate the antinociceptive effect of the extract. However, cyproheptadine and phentolamine had no effect. Our results clearly show antinociceptive effects of T. polium may be mediated by opioidergic and histaminegic H1 and H2 receptors. مشاهده
140 انگليسی Effects of latanoprost and pilocarpine combination on 1390 2011 Summary The aim of this study was to determine the combination effect of latanoprost and pilocarpine on the intraocular pressure and pupil size in normal rabbits. In this study, 18 rabbits were randomized to three groups of 6 animals each. The right eyes of rabbits in group 1 were treated topically with latanoprost, in group 2 with pilocarpine and in group 3 with latanoprost and pilocarpine. The left eyes received placebo. Drugs were instilled once a day at 8 am over 4 days. IOP and pupil diameter measurements were made at 8 am, 10 am, 12 noon, 2 pm and 4 pm during the 4 days of treatment, the 2 days that preceded treatment, and 3 days following treatment. The occurrence of blepharospasm and conjunctival hyperemia were also evaluated at the same times that the measurements were made. The mean IOPs were significantly lower than the contralateral eyes in 8 of the 20 time intervals (40) in both latanoprost and pilocarpine-treated and in 18 of 20 time intervals (90) in latanoprost plus pilocarpine-treated eyes in the treatment period. The mean daily hypotensive effects of latanoprost, pilocarpine and their combination were 4.5 (31), 2 (14.4) and 5 mmHg (34.7), respectively. Although the mean IOPs in group 3 have decreased more than other groups, the differences between the three groups are not significant. Conjunctival hyperemia was observed in the treated eyes of the three groups. It is concluded that topical instillation of the combination of latanoprost and pilocarpine was not as effective in IOP reduction than by drugs alone and that hyperemia is the most frequent side effect observed during the treatment period. مشاهده
141 انگليسی Morphological and histochemical investigation of the camel 1390 2011 Summary Morphological and histochemical study of the abomasal epithelium in camel (Camelus dromedarius) was carried out by light and scanning electron microscopes. The lining of the abomasum was divided into four regions, i.e. cardiac, pseudocardiac, fundic and pyloric. Our investigation revealed that the cardiac and pseudocardiac regions occupy a wide part of the abomasum in camel and it reaches approximately the thirdfourth of the abomasum. Our gross anatomical observation showed small diverticulae in the Fundic region, this part was covered with thick mucosal folds that have been separated by deep branching furrows. In the histological study we observed that, the mucosa has extensive gastric folds and small invaginations or gastric pits, which were in continuation with the gastric glands. The mucosal surface was covered with simple columnar epithelial. Our histochemical revealed that the surface epithelium in abomasum was negative to AB and positive to PAS staining, whereas in the gastric pit cells it was positive to AB and PAS staining, but gastric gland cells were negative to PAS and positive to AB staining. In the SEM study, after complete removal of mucin from the surface of the mucosa, simple columnar epithelial cells with a mean length of 20 μm were observed, and some epithelial cells have been arranged as flower body (FB). Also, we observed hexagonal structures on the surface of the abomasums that resembled honeycomb structure (HC). Mean diameter of these HC structures was 30-40 μm. For the first time our investigation revealed these FB and HC structures in the abomasal mucosa of camel. مشاهده
142 انگليسی Genotyping of Fusarium verticillioides strains producing 1390 2011 Summary Fusarium verticillioides (F. verticillioides) is not only a primary pathogen of maize, but also can cause disease in other crops such as sorghum. Pathogenicity is related to mycotoxin production such as fumonisin. In the present study, 24 isolates of F. verticillioides, which were previously identified by phenotype based methods, were re-identified using restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis. Digestion of the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) products with the restriction enzyme TasI allowed identifying four nonverticillioides strains that were discarded from our study. The genetic variations among the remaining 20 strains of F. verticillioides were analysed by random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD)-PCR method with 4 primers. Of the four primers tested, two primers produced polymorphic amplification patterns. Dendrogram for each primer indicated the distance of the strains to each other. Using primers of A, B, C and D, the isolates were divided to 8, 9, 7 and 7 groups, respectively. The results of this study indicated genetic relationship among DNA polymorphic patterns with geographic regions and the severity of fumonisin B1 (FB1) production. It seems that RAPD analysis is a suitable technique for strain typing of F. verticillioides. مشاهده
143 انگليسی The in vitro effects of nanosilver colloid on kinematic 1390 2011 Summary This study investigated the concentration/time dependent effects of nanosilver colloid on the motion parameters of the ejaculated ram spermatozoa in vitro. After incubation of sperm samples for 30, 60, 120 and 180 min in the presence of nanosilver colloid (0, 0.001, 0.01, 0.1, 1 and 10 ppm), the motion parameters were evaluated by computer assisted sperm analysis. There was a significant (P0.05) decrease in most motion of sperm parameters (the fast, slow and non-progressive motility, VCL, VSL, STR, MAD, ALH, WOB, VAP and LIN) in treated groups compared to their corresponding controls, especially after 120 min of incubation. On the other hand, there was a significant (P0.05) increase in sperm immotility in comparison with the control group in all times at 1 ppm nanosilver colloid. At a concentration of 10 ppm, spermatozoa were completely inactivated. It is concluded that nanosilver colloid depresses sperm functions, especially motility parameters, which can be a causative agent for sperm infertility induced by nanosilver cytotoxicity. مشاهده
144 انگليسی Phylogenetic analysis of PB2 gene of H9N2 subtype of 1389 2011 Summary The PB2 protein of influenza A viruses has been shown as host range determinant. In this study PB2 gene of five H9N2 isolates from Tehran province during the period of 1998-2001 were partially amplified and sequenced to do phylogenetic study. Iranian isolates could be classified in Eurasian lineage according to their PB2 gene sequences. The PB2 genes of these isolates are different from those of Middle-East countries such as the UAE, Pakistan and Saudi Arabia, as well as India, and it is probable that their ancestors have undergone reassortment with other subtypes. The Nucleotide sequences of their PB2 are highly similar to each other with 97.5-99.6 homology percentage showing the least mutations in their genes during the period of 1998 to 2001. The PB2 of the Iranian isolates contain Glutamic acid-(E) in position 627, Aspartic acid-(D) in 701 and Serine-(S) in 714 as other avian isolates. مشاهده
145 انگليسی Effects of aflatoxin B1 on profiles of gonadotropic (FSH 1390 2011 Summary Aflatoxins (AFs) are natural contaminants of feed and feedstuffs, thus the study of the noxious effects of these agents on the male reproductive system is of outstanding importance. Our aim for this study is the evaluation of the effects of oral administration of aflatoxin B1 on the reproductive hormonal changes in adult male rat. Twenty eight Wistar strain male rats were selected for this study. The rats were divided into 4 groups, viz, control (C), test groups (T1, T2, and T3). The toxin doses were prepared in sterile distilled water at 0.8 ppm, 1.6 ppm, 3.2 ppm, and administered through oral gavages, 1 ml/animal/day to groups T1, T2, and T3, respectively for 48 days and each animal of group C was gavaged with 1 ml/day sterile distilled water. The hormonal assays were carried out using ELISA biochemical kits for serum FSH, LH, prolactin testosterone and 17β-estradiol. Results showed that, the levels of serum LH and testosterone were lower (P0.001), but conversely the levels of FSH and prolactin were higher (P0.001) in the test groups. The level of 17β-estradiol was affected by significantly falling (P0.01) only in group T3. We conclude that, the oral administration of the aflatoxin B1 strictly alters the concentrations of FSH, LH, prolactin, and testosterone in male Wistar rats. مشاهده
146 فارسی A serological survey on leptospirosis in aborted dairy 1390 2011 Summary Leptospirosis is a zoonosis of worldwide distribution, caused by Leptospira interrogans. It is a well known cause of bovine reproductive losses such as abortion, infertility, stillbirth and birth of weak calves. In this research, the relationship between the seroprevalence rate of Leptospira spp. infection and abortion in industrial dairy farms of Hamedan province, Iran was studied. A total of 80 blood samples were taken from aborted cows in six dairy farms. Sera were tested for antibodies against 6 serovars of Leptospira interrogans (hardjo, pomona, canicola, grippotyphosa, icterohaemorrhagiae and ballum) using microscopic agglutination test (MAT). Antibodies were detected in 18 (22.5) of the aborted cows, including 17 (21.25) against L. canicola and 1 (1.25) against L. pomona. It is concluded that dogs (shepherd and stray) and wild carnivores may have an important role to maintain and transmit the L. canicola infection to the cattle population in this region, therefore, vaccination of cattle and shepherd dogs should be applied. مشاهده
147 فارسی Survey of canine Dirofilaria immitis infection in Caspian 1390 2011 Summary Between July and August 2009, a total of two hundred crossbreed dogs in three contiguous littoral provinces of Guilan, Mazandaran and Golestan were sampled. Circulating antigens and/or microfilariae of Dirofilaria immitis were found in 25.5 of dogs in the whole studied area. The highest infection rate was found in Guilan (51.42), followed by Golestan and Mazandaran provinces (15.38 and 7.69, respectively). Prevalence values were not influenced by age and sex in the whole area; the values detected in low altitude regions were 4.6 times the values found in high altitude areas. This is the first detailed survey on canine dirofilariasis in these coastal provinces of Iran. Guilan province, with its certain hyper endemic counties, was shown to be the most endemic for canine heartworm infection in the country. Chemoprophylaxis should be considered for the dog population in these areas. مشاهده
148 انگليسی Isolation, identification and antibiotic sensitivity 1390 2010 Summary Ornithobacteriumrhinotracheale (ORT), a species of bacteria, is known to be associated with respiratory disease, growth retardation, mortality and decreased egg production. The aim of the present study was to determine seroprevalence of the infection and to identify the microorganism by bacteriological and molecular methods. In this study, 460 serum samples and also 290 tracheal swabs were collected from 29 broiler chicken flocks in slaughter houses. Serological results showed that 24 out of 460 (5.12) serum samples related to 5 flocks were positive for ORT by ELISA test. ORT was isolated from tracheal swabs of 3 flocks (1.03 out of 290 tracheal swabs) by culture and confirmed as ORT by specific primers in PCR method. Statistically, there was no significant difference between the rate of isolation and ORT serum titers (P0.05). Antibiotic sensitivity test using standard disk diffusion technique was performed with 13 antibiotics. All the isolates were resistant (100) to erythromycin, tetracycline, oxytetracyclin, enrofloxacin, ciprofloxacin, flumequin, lincospectin, furazolidon, and 100 of them were found to be susceptible to ceftriaxon and tiamulin, but 2 isolates (66.7) were moderately sensitive to tylosin and amoxicillin and sensitive to florfenicol. This study is the first report of the prevalence of ORT, bacterial isolation and molecular method in broiler chickens after broiler breeder vaccination in Guilan province. مشاهده
149 فارسی Study of the relationship between oxidative stress and 1390 2011 Summary Subclinical mastitis is considered as one of the most prevalent diseases in dairy cows, causing drastic loss in the dairy industry. Oxidative stress, induced by reactive oxygen species (ROS), is believed to be a primary factor in various cattle diseases including mastitis, but there are few studies regarding the role of ROS in subclinical mastitis. This study was undertaken to i) study the changes in activities of erythrocyte glutathione peroxidase (e-GSH-Px) and its functional component, selenium (Se); ii) compare the activities of erythrocyte superoxide dismutase (e-SOD) and its functional components, Cu and Zn in cows with subclinical mastitis and normal cows. Milk and heparinized blood samples were collected from 45 normal cows and 45 cows with subclinical mastitis from dairy cows in Tehran province, Iran. Somatic cell counts (SCC), activities of GSH-Px and SOD and concentrations of Cu, Zn and Se were measured. No significant difference (P0.05) was shown between GSH-Px and SOD activities and also between the concentrations of Cu and Zn in the studied groups. There was a marginal significant difference (P=0.05) between the Se concentrations in the normal cows and cows with subclinical mastitis. The correlation between SCC and SOD was positive and significant (P0.05). It was concluded that optimum antioxidant intake in the feed may enhance the resistance against subclinical mastitis. مشاهده
150 فارسی Investigation of seroprevalance of toxoplasmosis in 1390 2011 Summary The aim of this study was to determine the seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in mares and stallions in the province of Ankara. Sera from 168 clinically healthy horses were tested for the presence of Toxoplasma gondii antibodies using the Sabin Feldman dye test. Toxoplasma gondii infection was determined in 62 (36.9) of 168 horses with the titers ranging from 1:16 to 1:256. مشاهده
151 فارسی Surgical correction of a congenital partial 1390 2011 Summary A 40-day-old male Holstein breed calf with a complaint of inability of moving the tongue in and out as well as difficulties with breastfeeding was referred to the veterinary clinic. A notch in the middle of the tongue tip was evident during oral examination. In addition, a thin tissue band between the ventral surface of the tongue and floor of the oral cavity was seen in the calf. A diagnosis of partial ventral ankyloglossia was made. Horizontal to vertical frenuloplasty was performed to correct the ankyloglossia. The day after the surgery, greater mobility of the tongue was evident. It was concluded that most of the clinical signs, including problems during eating and breastfeeding were due to limitation of tongue movements. Horizontal to vertical frenuloplasty may improve clinical full function of tongue movement. مشاهده
152 فارسی Role of neutrophils in protection of udder from infection 1390 2011 Summary Protection of the mammary gland against mastitis-causing pathogens is mediated by many factors in the gland and blood circulation. The professional phagocytic cells of bovine udder, polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMN) and macrophages, comprise the first line of defense against invading mastitis pathogens. Most researchers now accept that the PMN is a key factor in the cows’ defense against intramammary infections. The PMN are the only leukocytes in the milk compartment that are capable of producing large amounts of reactive oxygen species (ROS) to kill phagocytosed bacteria. In this review, the role of PMN function as an effective defense against intramammary pathogens in dairy cows and physiopathological influencing factors on blood and milk PMN functions are discussed. Apart from playing a crucial role in the first line of defense mechanism, the PMN can also, indirectly, interfere with the complex interactions of second line of defense against pathogens. To minimize mammary tissue damage caused by bacterial toxins and oxidative products released by PMN, elimination of invading bacteria should proceed quickly. This can provide balance among inflammation reactions, bactericidal activity and tissue damage. The good balance between host-pathogen interactions might be affected by the physiological (e.g., stage and number of lactation) and pathological (e.g., local-systemic effect of mastitis) status of dairy cows. Hormones, metabolites and acute phase proteins also influence PMN functions, thereby affecting the outcome of mastitis. This is especially the case around parturition. PMN function in healthy cows after parturition is highly heritable and has been related to the cow’s susceptibility to clinical mastitis. Despite advances in veterinary science, nutrition and molecular biology, mastitis is still a very big problem in high yielding dairy cows. The long-term and fundamental solution for mastitis affecting high yielding dairy cows is to strengthen cows’ immune systems by means of attainable physio-immunological approaches. This requires a comprehensive study on the immunophysiological alterations throughout lactation and during mastitis. This review focuses on some factors affecting PMN functions during the lactation cycle and mastitis in high yielding dairy cows. مشاهده
153 فارسی Morphological changes in the brachial enlargement of 1390 2011 ummary This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of maternal diabetes on fetal spinal structure, especially in brachial enlargement. Sixteen adult female rats were divided into two groups. Diabetes was induced in one group by alloxan agent. Both groups became pregnant by natural matting. On days 7, 14, 21 and 28 after birth, the brachial enlargement of the spinal cord was collected from offspring of all rats and the weight of neonates was measured. Various histological parameters were determined using histological techniques. The results revealed a significant decrease in transverse spinal diameter and number of neurons of gray matter and an increase in vertical spinal diameter in spinal cord of offspring of diabetic mothers (ODM) as compared with the control group. The body weight of ODM was significantly more than that of the control group (P0.05). Maternal hyperglycemia exhibited deleterious effects on spinal cord, especially brachial enlargement during fetal life which remained persistent during postneonatal period. مشاهده
154 فارسی Cloning and high level expression of bovine interferon 1390 2011 Summary Interferon gamma (IFN-γ) is one of the key cytokines in defining T helper 1 lymphocyte immune responses. In this study, the bovine IFN-γ gene was cloned from spleen tissue RNA using the reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). IFN-γ cDNA was sub-cloned and expressed in mammalian expression plasmid (pcDNA3.1(+)) under the control of the human cytomegalovirus (CMV) promoter. The predicted amino acid (aa) sequence of bovine IFN-γ compared with corresponding known sequence from bovine (Bos taurus) was 100 identity and with ovine, caprine, camel, lama, equine, canine, feline, human, mice and chicken cytokine was 95, 95, 86, 83, 77, 75, 75, 61, 44 and 35, respectively. Invitro expression of recombinant bovine IFN-γ (rBoIFN-γ) and secretion to culture medium was confirmed by ELISA test. Maximum expression of rBoIFN-γ occurred at 96 and 144 h after transfection in COS-7 cells. These results showed that pcDNA3.1 expression vector and COS-7 cells transfected by diethylaminoethyl (DEAE)-dextran allowed the high level expression of bovine IFN-γ gene and the release of protein in supernatant of cell culture. مشاهده
155 انگليسی Morphopathological study of naturally occurring ovine 1390 2011 Summary Ovine pulmonary adenocarcinoma (OPA) is a contagious and transmissible lung cancer of sheep resembling human bronchiolo-alveolar carcinoma. In the present study, lungs of 9400 sheep slaughtered in Fars province, Iran were examined morphopathologically. The OPA was diagnosed in the lungs of 21 (0.22) out of 9400 sheep. Frequency of involvement of different lobes in the affected lungs was included apical lobe (62), cardiac lobe (33), middle lobe (33), diaphragmatic lobe (62) and accessory lobe (5). In 12 sheep, the classical form observed as firm, white to grayish coalescing masses mostly in the cranio-ventral lobes associated with wet cut surface and frothy fluid in the airways. In 9 sheep, atypical lesions observed as small clearly demarcated nodules mostly in diaphragmatic lobes associated with dry cut surface and minor fluid in the airways. Histopathological changes were almost similar in the two forms. They consisted of an acinar or papillary growth of neoplastic cells in the alveoli and polypoid proliferation of bronchiolar epithelium. There were variable amounts of connective tissue, myxomatous foci and infiltration of lymphocytes and plasma cells in the interstitial tissue of the affected alveoli. No metastatic lesion was observed in the lymph nodes. The findings of this study show that atypical and classical forms represent different stages or manifestations of a single disease spectrum. مشاهده
156 فارسی Effect of non-fiber carbohydrates on in vitro first order 1389 2010 Summary An in vitro experiment was conducted to determine the effect of supplemental non-fiber carbohydrate (NFC) on the disappearance kinetics of cellulose (Ce) by mixed ruminal microorganisms. Non-supplemented or NFC supplemented cellulose (467 mg NFC/g cellulose as sucrose (CeSu) or starch (CeSt) or a 1:1 mixture of sucrose + starch (CeSuSt)) were incubated for 24, 48, and 96 h at 39°C. After each incubation time, pH, ammonia-N concentration and cellulose disappearance were measured. The disappearance kinetics rate of all samples was determined using first order exponential model of D(t) = D(i).exp (-k. time) + I; where D(t) is potentially digestible fraction; D(i) is potentially digestible residues; k is digestion rate of cellulose (h-1) and I is indigestible fraction. In this experiment, inclusion of NFC to the rumen fluid medium resulted in a significant depression (P0.01) in the extent of cellulose disappearance. The disappearance rate constant of cellulose was significantly higher (P0.05) in non-supplemented samples as compared with those treatments containing NFC. The indigestible fraction of cellulose was significantly higher (P0.05) for treatments containing sucrose or sucrose + starch as the source of supplemental NFC as compared with nonsupplemented cellulose. However, when starch was added, the indigestible fraction of cellulose was similar to those of non-supplemented samples. The inclusion of NFC resulted in a significant reduction (P0.01) in pH of the medium, but had no significant effect (P0.05) on ammonia-N concentration. مشاهده
157 فارسی An in vitro comparative study of growth media, sera and 1389 2010 Summary Developing a culture system for preantral follicles has important biotechnological implications due to the potential to produce a large number of oocytes for embryo production and transfer. To accomplish this goal, the present study was aimed to culture preantral follicles in the presence of different media, sera and FSH concentrations. Six-week-old preantral follicles (95 ± 5 μm) were cultured in North Carolina State University medium 23 (NCSU23), tissue culture medium 199 (TCM199) and leibovitz-15 medium (L-15) for 6 days. Tissue culture medium 199 showed a significant increase in the follicle diameter (115 μm), survival (39), oocyte maturation (32) and germinal vesicle breakdown (GVBD) (29) rates as compared to L-15 and NCSU23 (P0.05). A 6-day culture showed increased follicular growth as compared to 2, 4 and 8-days (P0.05). When the experiment was run with 1, 2, 5 and 10 fetal calf serum (FCS), prepubertal gilt serum (PGS), embryonic stem cell fetal calf serum (ESFCS) and hypogonadal mouse serum (hpgMS), the 5 FCS showed increased follicle diameter (134 μm), survival (52), oocyte maturation (49) and GVBD (45) as compared to control and other types of sera used (P0.05). While 100 mIU/ml FSH + 5 FCS in TCM199 showed a significant increase in follicle diameter (197 μm), survival (96), oocyte maturation (91) and GVBD (67: P0.0001). So, it is concluded that the TCM199 medium, with the addition of 100 mIU/ml FSH and 5 FCS, is appropriate for the optimal in vitro growth of Syrian mice preantral follicles and enclosed oocytes. مشاهده
158 انگليسی Comparison of lipid changes in chicken frankfurters 1389 2010 Summary Two batches of frankfurters containing about 55 chicken meat with two different oils (including canola and soybean) were manufactured. Batch 1 included canola oil and Batch 2 included soybean oil in the products. Various analyses were performed to detect the lipid changes of both batches during storage. Fatty acid composition analysis using gas chromatography showed little change in the fatty acids of either batch over time. From a nutritional viewpoint, Batch 1 was more acceptable over time than Batch 2. Chemical analysis included oxidation reactions, such as peroxide and TBA (Thiobarbituric acid) value and free fatty acid analysis. Each chemical experiment had different trends at each time, but both batches had values lower than the maximum levels at all times. With regard to microbial analysis, psychrotrophic bacteria in both batches showed a decreasing order until day 30, and then growth increased. In Batch 1, a significant difference was observed only on day 1, but the differences were more significant in Batch 2, and there were significant differences on days 15, 30 and 45. Also, Lactobacillus counts were not significant after the cooking process until the end of storage (growth was not detectable after the cooking process). At the end of storage, we concluded that Batch 1 had a higher quality and storage stability than Batch 2 and canola oil could be a good substitution for soybean oil in meat products. The data were analyzed with GLM (repeated measure مشاهده
159 انگليسی Anatomical and histological study of molar salivary 1390 2010 Summary The gross and microscopic anatomy of the molar salivary gland of the domestic cat was studied. In this research, five pair of molar glands from five male adult cats were used. In cat, the molar gland was elongated rectangle shape and was located obliquely in the submucosal fossa of the inferior lip, near the oral commissure. The dorsal border of the molar gland was attached to the masseter muscle and posterior facial nerve. The ventral border was located in the angle of the anterior and transverse facial veins near the buccal part of the buccinator muscle. The caudal end of the gland neighboring the anterior facial vein and cranial end was close to the transverse jugular vein. The mean length and width of the left gland were 11.5 ± 0.3 mm and 3.4 ± 0.3 mm, respectively. The mean length and width of the right gland were 9.2 ± 0.8 mm and 4.1 ± 0.8 mm, respectively. The mean length of the left gland was larger than the right and the difference was significant (P0.001). In the histological findings the molar gland was surrounded with a dens irregular connective tissue capsule. The septa of the connective tissue from the capsule extended into the gland, dividing the organ into lobes and lobules. The secretory cells made up seromucous units and the mucous cells were predominant. The cells were arranged as compound tubuloacinar type. Most of the tubular units were long and branched, and there were no intercalated or striated ducts. مشاهده
160 انگليسی Lethal effect of high temperatures on the eggs of 1390 2010 Summary Fasciolosis is a cosmopolitan parasitic disease with considerable economic and public health importance. Fasciola hepatica is the major cause of fasciolosis in man and domestic animals. Although remarkable research works have been done around the optimum temperature and time required for miracidial development, little is known about the exact susceptibility of Fasciola hepatica eggs to high temperatures. In the present study, Fasciola hepatica eggs were initially incubated at 40°C, 45°C, and 50°C for various times (1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 h), followed by incubation at 28°C for 16 days. Miracidial formation was subsequently investigated on the 16th day of incubation. Even though the rate of miracidial formation in the control group was 52, in the eggs incubated at 40°C for 1, 3, and 5 h, the miracidial formations were 51.4, 42.4 and 39.9, respectively, and these values in the group incubated at 45°C were 46, 42.5 and 33.7, as well. However, in the case of incubation at 50°C for 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 h, these values were recorded as 1.96, 0.57, 0.07, 0.00 and 0.00, respectively. The results indicated that the eggs were susceptible to high temperatures and incubation of the eggs at 50°C for 4 h was enough to significantly inactivate the eggs and prevent miracidial formation (P0.001). However, using the livestock faeces as fertilizer in many rural areas may lead to the contamination of pasture. According to the findings of this study, in the areas with a high prevalence rate of Fasciola hepatica, manure storage for a sufficient time or heating the livestock manure before use as fertilizer is strongly recommended. مشاهده
161 انگليسی A study on gastrointestinal helminths of camels in 1389 2011 Summary Abattoir survey was carried out to determine the prevalence of gastrointestinal helminths and the seasonal fluctuations in intestinal worm burdens and faecal worm egg counts of camel in Khorasan Razavi province in the northeast of Iran. A total of 306 dromedaries (Camelus dromedarius) in the Mashhad abattoir, in the northeast of Iran and the capital of Khorasan province were examined between October 2007 and September 2008. By coproscopy examinations, 75.1 of dromedaries were found to be harboring different types of nematod eggs. Faecal flotation revealed the presence of Nematodirus, Strongyloides, Trishuris, Marshallagia, stongyle type nematode eggs. In addition, gastrointestinal tracts of 50 camels slaughtered in the Mashhad abattoir were used for identification and count of helminths. Postmortem examinations revealed that the prevalence of helminths were Trichostrongylus probolurus (64), Trichuris globulosa (40), Camelostrongylus mentulatus (38), T. colubriformis (34), Stilesia globipunctata (30), Nematodirella dromedarii (22), Haemonchus longistipes (18), Nematodirus oiratianus (16), Cooperia oncophora (16), Trichuris barbetonensis (10), Parabronema skrjabini (10), Nematodirella cameli (10), Marshallagia marshalli (4), Teladorsagia circumcincta (4), Moniezia benedeni (3), Moniezia expansa (3) and Trichostrongylus vitrinus (2). Nematodirella dromedarii, Trichostrongylus probolurus, Trichostrongylus colubriformis, Cooperia oncophora, and Nematodirus oiratianus, were identified from dromedary in Iran for the first time. The pathological lesions in the affected abomasums, as well as small and large intestines, were hyperaemic and thickened mucosa with haemorrhagic foci. Histopathological examination revealed inflammatory reaction in the abomasa, flattened mucosa and villous atrophy with inflammatory reactions composed of eosinophils and lymphocytes in the intestines, respectively. The prevalence observed in the present study indicates the necessity of using an anthelmintic drug for increasing the health and productivity of camels. مشاهده
162 فارسی Hemorrhagic bowel syndrome in dairy cattle in Iran: 1390 2010 Summary Hemorrhagic bowel syndrome is a highly fatal intestinal disease of adult dairy cattle with uncertain cause. In a dairy herd in Khorasan Razavi province, Northeast of Iran, two cows showed depression, anorexia, decrease in milk production, ruminal hypomotility, bruxism and dehydration. At necropsy, massive hemorrhage and clot formation was observed within the jejunum and bacterial culture of the intestinal ingesta and lesions showed the presence of a large number of Clostridium perfringens. Subacute ruminal acidosis was detected in fresh and mid-lactation cows. This report shows the possibility of diagnosis of other hemorrhagic bowel syndrome cases in dairy cows in Iran. مشاهده
163 انگليسی Surgical repair of third-degree perineal laceration by 1390 2011 Summary Third-degree perineal lacerations in 7 mares were repaired surgically by a one-stage method (Goetz technique). Primary healing occurred in all of them without any complication. The conception rate obtained after surgery was 70.1. Five horses out of seven got pregnant after surgery and no further injury was seen at subsequent foaling. Three mares have produced several healthy foals without any subsequent injury. According to the results of the present study, single-stage surgical repair of third-degree perineal laceration (Goetz technique) appeared to have a good prognosis for subsequent fertility in mares. مشاهده
164 انگليسی Role of neutrophils in protection of udder from infection 1389 2010 Summary Protection of the mammary gland against mastitis-causing pathogens is mediated by many factors in the gland and blood circulation. The professional phagocytic cells of bovine udder, polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMN) and macrophages, comprise the first line of defense against invading mastitis pathogens. Most researchers now accept that the PMN is a key factor in the cows’ defense against intramammary infections. The PMN are the only leukocytes in the milk compartment that are capable of producing large amounts of reactive oxygen species (ROS) to kill phagocytosed bacteria. In this review, the role of PMN function as an effective defense against intramammary pathogens in dairy cows and physiopathological influencing factors on blood and milk PMN functions are discussed. Apart from playing a crucial role in the first line of defense mechanism, the PMN can also, indirectly, interfere with the complex interactions of second line of defense against pathogens. To minimize mammary tissue damage caused by bacterial toxins and oxidative products released by PMN, elimination of invading bacteria should proceed quickly. This can provide balance among inflammation reactions, bactericidal activity and tissue damage. The good balance between host-pathogen interactions might be affected by the physiological (e.g., stage and number of lactation) and pathological (e.g., local-systemic effect of mastitis) status of dairy cows. Hormones, metabolites and acute phase proteins also influence PMN functions, thereby affecting the outcome of mastitis. This is especially the case around parturition. PMN function in healthy cows after parturition is highly heritable and has been related to the cow’s susceptibility to clinical mastitis. Despite advances in veterinary science, nutrition and molecular biology, mastitis is still a very big problem in high yielding dairy cows. The long-term and fundamental solution for mastitis affecting high yielding dairy cows is to strengthen cows’ immune systems by means of attainable physio-immunological approaches. This requires a comprehensive study on the immunophysiological alterations throughout lactation and during mastitis. This review focuses on some factors affecting PMN functions during the lactation cycle and mastitis in high yielding dairy cows. مشاهده
165 انگليسی Morphological changes in the brachial enlargement of 1389 2010 Summary This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of maternal diabetes on fetal spinal structure, especially in brachial enlargement. Sixteen adult female rats were divided into two groups. Diabetes was induced in one group by alloxan agent. Both groups became pregnant by natural matting. On days 7, 14, 21 and 28 after birth, the brachial enlargement of the spinal cord was collected from offspring of all rats and the weight of neonates was measured. Various histological parameters were determined using histological techniques. The results revealed a significant decrease in transverse spinal diameter and number of neurons of gray matter and an increase in vertical spinal diameter in spinal cord of offspring of diabetic mothers (ODM) as compared with the control group. The body weight of ODM was significantly more than that of the control group (P0.05). Maternal hyperglycemia exhibited deleterious effects on spinal cord, especially brachial enlargement during fetal life which remained persistent during postneonatal period. مشاهده
166 انگليسی Cloning and high level expression of bovine interferon 1389 2010 Summary Interferon gamma (IFN-γ) is one of the key cytokines in defining T helper 1 lymphocyte immune responses. In this study, the bovine IFN-γ gene was cloned from spleen tissue RNA using the reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). IFN-γ cDNA was sub-cloned and expressed in mammalian expression plasmid (pcDNA3.1(+)) under the control of the human cytomegalovirus (CMV) promoter. The predicted amino acid (aa) sequence of bovine IFN-γ compared with corresponding known sequence from bovine (Bos taurus) was 100 identity and with ovine, caprine, camel, lama, equine, canine, feline, human, mice and chicken cytokine was 95, 95, 86, 83, 77, 75, 75, 61, 44 and 35, respectively. Invitro expression of recombinant bovine IFN-γ (rBoIFN-γ) and secretion to culture medium was confirmed by ELISA test. Maximum expression of rBoIFN-γ occurred at 96 and 144 h after transfection in COS-7 cells. These results showed that pcDNA3.1 expression vector and COS-7 cells transfected by diethylaminoethyl (DEAE)-dextran allowed the high level expression of bovine IFN-γ gene and the release of protein in supernatant of cell culture. مشاهده
167 انگليسی Morphopathological study of naturally occurring ovine 1389 2010 Summary Ovine pulmonary adenocarcinoma (OPA) is a contagious and transmissible lung cancer of sheep resembling human bronchiolo-alveolar carcinoma. In the present study, lungs of 9400 sheep slaughtered in Fars province, Iran were examined morphopathologically. The OPA was diagnosed in the lungs of 21 (0.22) out of 9400 sheep. Frequency of involvement of different lobes in the affected lungs was included apical lobe (62), cardiac lobe (33), middle lobe (33), diaphragmatic lobe (62) and accessory lobe (5). In 12 sheep, the classical form observed as firm, white to grayish coalescing masses mostly in the cranio-ventral lobes associated with wet cut surface and frothy fluid in the airways. In 9 sheep, atypical lesions observed as small clearly demarcated nodules mostly in diaphragmatic lobes associated with dry cut surface and minor fluid in the airways. Histopathological changes were almost similar in the two forms. They consisted of an acinar or papillary growth of neoplastic cells in the alveoli and polypoid proliferation of bronchiolar epithelium. There were variable amounts of connective tissue, myxomatous foci and infiltration of lymphocytes and plasma cells in the interstitial tissue of the affected alveoli. No metastatic lesion was observed in the lymph nodes. The findings of this study show that atypical and classical forms represent different stages or manifestations of a single disease spectrum. مشاهده
168 فارسی Effect of non-fiber carbohydrates on in vitro first order 1389 2010 Summary An in vitro experiment was conducted to determine the effect of supplemental non-fiber carbohydrate (NFC) on the disappearance kinetics of cellulose (Ce) by mixed ruminal microorganisms. Non-supplemented or NFC supplemented cellulose (467 mg NFC/g cellulose as sucrose (CeSu) or starch (CeSt) or a 1:1 mixture of sucrose + starch (CeSuSt)) were incubated for 24, 48, and 96 h at 39°C. After each incubation time, pH, ammonia-N concentration and cellulose disappearance were measured. The disappearance kinetics rate of all samples was determined using first order exponential model of D(t) = D(i).exp (-k. time) + I; where D(t) is potentially digestible fraction; D(i) is potentially digestible residues; k is digestion rate of cellulose (h-1) and I is indigestible fraction. In this experiment, inclusion of NFC to the rumen fluid medium resulted in a significant depression (P0.01) in the extent of cellulose disappearance. The disappearance rate constant of cellulose was significantly higher (P0.05) in non-supplemented samples as compared with those treatments containing NFC. The indigestible fraction of cellulose was significantly higher (P0.05) for treatments containing sucrose or sucrose + starch as the source of supplemental NFC as compared with nonsupplemented cellulose. However, when starch was added, the indigestible fraction of cellulose was similar to those of non-supplemented samples. The inclusion of NFC resulted in a significant reduction (P0.01) in pH of the medium, but had no significant effect (P0.05) on ammonia-N concentration. مشاهده
169 فارسی An in vitro comparative study of growth media, sera and 1389 2010 Summary Developing a culture system for preantral follicles has important biotechnological implications due to the potential to produce a large number of oocytes for embryo production and transfer. To accomplish this goal, the present study was aimed to culture preantral follicles in the presence of different media, sera and FSH concentrations. Six-week-old preantral follicles (95 ± 5 μm) were cultured in North Carolina State University medium 23 (NCSU23), tissue culture medium 199 (TCM199) and leibovitz-15 medium (L-15) for 6 days. Tissue culture medium 199 showed a significant increase in the follicle diameter (115 μm), survival (39), oocyte maturation (32) and germinal vesicle breakdown (GVBD) (29) rates as compared to L-15 and NCSU23 (P0.05). A 6-day culture showed increased follicular growth as compared to 2, 4 and 8-days (P0.05). When the experiment was run with 1, 2, 5 and 10 fetal calf serum (FCS), prepubertal gilt serum (PGS), embryonic stem cell fetal calf serum (ESFCS) and hypogonadal mouse serum (hpgMS), the 5 FCS showed increased follicle diameter (134 μm), survival (52), oocyte maturation (49) and GVBD (45) as compared to control and other types of sera used (P0.05). While 100 mIU/ml FSH + 5 FCS in TCM199 showed a significant increase in follicle diameter (197 μm), survival (96), oocyte maturation (91) and GVBD (67: P0.0001). So, it is concluded that the TCM199 medium, with the addition of 100 mIU/ml FSH and 5 FCS, is appropriate for the optimal in vitro growth of Syrian mice preantral follicles and enclosed oocytes. مشاهده
170 انگليسی Comparison of lipid changes in chicken frankfurters 1389 2010 Summary Two batches of frankfurters containing about 55 chicken meat with two different oils (including canola and soybean) were manufactured. Batch 1 included canola oil and Batch 2 included soybean oil in the products. Various analyses were performed to detect the lipid changes of both batches during storage. Fatty acid composition analysis using gas chromatography showed little change in the fatty acids of either batch over time. From a nutritional viewpoint, Batch 1 was more acceptable over time than Batch 2. Chemical analysis included oxidation reactions, such as peroxide and TBA (Thiobarbituric acid) value and free fatty acid analysis. Each chemical experiment had different trends at each time, but both batches had values lower than the maximum levels at all times. With regard to microbial analysis, psychrotrophic bacteria in both batches showed a decreasing order until day 30, and then growth increased. In Batch 1, a significant difference was observed only on day 1, but the differences were more significant in Batch 2, and there were significant differences on days 15, 30 and 45. Also, Lactobacillus counts were not significant after the cooking process until the end of storage (growth was not detectable after the cooking process). At the end of storage, we concluded that Batch 1 had a higher quality and storage stability than Batch 2 and canola oil could be a good substitution for soybean oil in meat products. The data were analyzed with GLM (repeated measures). Differences were reported as significant at P0.05. Also, the statistical software was SPSS ver. مشاهده
171 فارسی Anatomical and histological study of molar salivary 1389 2010 Summary The gross and microscopic anatomy of the molar salivary gland of the domestic cat was studied. In this research, five pair of molar glands from five male adult cats were used. In cat, the molar gland was elongated rectangle shape and was located obliquely in the submucosal fossa of the inferior lip, near the oral commissure. The dorsal border of the molar gland was attached to the masseter muscle and posterior facial nerve. The ventral border was located in the angle of the anterior and transverse facial veins near the buccal part of the buccinator muscle. The caudal end of the gland neighboring the anterior facial vein and cranial end was close to the transverse jugular vein. The mean length and width of the left gland were 11.5 ± 0.3 mm and 3.4 ± 0.3 mm, respectively. The mean length and width of the right gland were 9.2 ± 0.8 mm and 4.1 ± 0.8 mm, respectively. The mean length of the left gland was larger than the right and the difference was significant (P0.001). In the histological findings the molar gland was surrounded with a dens irregular connective tissue capsule. The septa of the connective tissue from the capsule extended into the gland, dividing the organ into lobes and lobules. The secretory cells made up seromucous units and the mucous cells were predominant. The cells were arranged as compound tubuloacinar type. Most of the tubular units were long and branched, and there were no intercalated or striated ducts. مشاهده
172 فارسی Lethal effect of high temperatures on the eggs of 1389 2010 Summary Fasciolosis is a cosmopolitan parasitic disease with considerable economic and public health importance. Fasciola hepatica is the major cause of fasciolosis in man and domestic animals. Although remarkable research works have been done around the optimum temperature and time required for miracidial development, little is known about the exact susceptibility of Fasciola hepatica eggs to high temperatures. In the present study, Fasciola hepatica eggs were initially incubated at 40°C, 45°C, and 50°C for various times (1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 h), followed by incubation at 28°C for 16 days. Miracidial formation was subsequently investigated on the 16th day of incubation. Even though the rate of miracidial formation in the control group was 52, in the eggs incubated at 40°C for 1, 3, and 5 h, the miracidial formations were 51.4, 42.4 and 39.9, respectively, and these values in the group incubated at 45°C were 46, 42.5 and 33.7, as well. However, in the case of incubation at 50°C for 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 h, these values were recorded as 1.96, 0.57, 0.07, 0.00 and 0.00, respectively. The results indicated that the eggs were susceptible to high temperatures and incubation of the eggs at 50°C for 4 h was enough to significantly inactivate the eggs and prevent miracidial formation (P0.001). However, using the livestock faeces as fertilizer in many rural areas may lead to the contamination of pasture. According to the findings of this study, in the areas with a high prevalence rate of Fasciola hepatica, manure storage for a sufficient time or heating the livestock manure before use as fertilizer is strongly recommended. مشاهده
173 انگليسی A study on gastrointestinal helminths of camels in 1389 2010 Summary Abattoir survey was carried out to determine the prevalence of gastrointestinal helminths and the seasonal fluctuations in intestinal worm burdens and faecal worm egg counts of camel in Khorasan Razavi province in the northeast of Iran. A total of 306 dromedaries (Camelus dromedarius) in the Mashhad abattoir, in the northeast of Iran and the capital of Khorasan province were examined between October 2007 and September 2008. By coproscopy examinations, 75.1 of dromedaries were found to be harboring different types of nematod eggs. Faecal flotation revealed the presence of Nematodirus, Strongyloides, Trishuris, Marshallagia, stongyle type nematode eggs. In addition, gastrointestinal tracts of 50 camels slaughtered in the Mashhad abattoir were used for identification and count of helminths. Postmortem examinations revealed that the prevalence of helminths were Trichostrongylus probolurus (64), Trichuris globulosa (40), Camelostrongylus mentulatus (38), T. colubriformis (34), Stilesia globipunctata (30), Nematodirella dromedarii (22), Haemonchus longistipes (18), Nematodirus oiratianus (16), Cooperia oncophora (16), Trichuris barbetonensis (10), Parabronema skrjabini (10), Nematodirella cameli (10), Marshallagia marshalli (4), Teladorsagia circumcincta (4), Moniezia benedeni (3), Moniezia expansa (3) and Trichostrongylus vitrinus (2). Nematodirella dromedarii, Trichostrongylus probolurus, Trichostrongylus colubriformis, Cooperia oncophora, and Nematodirus oiratianus, were identified from dromedary in Iran for the first time. The pathological lesions in the affected abomasums, as well as small and large intestines, were hyperaemic and thickened mucosa with haemorrhagic foci. Histopathological examination revealed inflammatory reaction in the abomasa, flattened mucosa and villous atrophy with inflammatory reactions composed of eosinophils and lymphocytes in the intestines, respectively. The prevalence observed in the present study indicates the necessity of using an anthelmintic drug for increasing the health and productivity of camels. مشاهده
174 انگليسی Iranian Journal of Veterinary Research, Shiraz University, Vol. 11, No. 2, Ser. No. 31, 2010 1389 2010 Summary Hemorrhagic bowel syndrome is a highly fatal intestinal disease of adult dairy cattle with uncertain cause. In a dairy herd in Khorasan Razavi province, Northeast of Iran, two cows showed depression, anorexia, decrease in milk production, ruminal hypomotility, bruxism and dehydration. At necropsy, massive hemorrhage and clot formation was observed within the jejunum and bacterial culture of the intestinal ingesta and lesions showed the presence of a large number of Clostridium perfringens. Subacute ruminal acidosis was detected in fresh and mid-lactation cows. This report shows the possibility of diagnosis of other hemorrhagic bowel syndrome cases in dairy cows in Iran. مشاهده
175 انگليسی Surgical repair of third-degree perineal laceration by 1389 2010 Summary Third-degree perineal lacerations in 7 mares were repaired surgically by a one-stage method (Goetz technique). Primary healing occurred in all of them without any complication. The conception rate obtained after surgery was 70.1. Five horses out of seven got pregnant after surgery and no further injury was seen at subsequent foaling. Three mares have produced several healthy foals without any subsequent injury. According to the results of the present study, single-stage surgical repair of third-degree perineal laceration (Goetz technique) appeared to have a good prognosis for subsequent fertility in mares. مشاهده
176 فارسی Electrocardiographic changes in the littermate mongrel 1390 2010 Summary Evaluation of the cardiovascular system of canine pediatrics requires awareness of the anatomical and physiological changes occurring from birth to six months of age. The aim of this study was to report electrocardiographic changes in the littermate mongrel dogs from birth to six months. Serial six-lead electrocardiograms were recorded from ten normal littermate mongrel dogs kept on right lateral recumbency, aged between birth and six months. Heart rate significantly decreased until the age of six months, reaching values of 99 ± 5 beats per min. Age as well as body weight caused a gradual increase in duration of the P wave, P-R and Q-T intervals, S-T segment and also amplitude of the R and T waves. Sinus rhythm was commonplace in dogs under 18-week-old and sinus arrhythmia was found from 16 weeks of age. Sex only influenced the amplitude of the R and Q waves. Males had higher mean values of the R wave amplitude (0.991 ± 0.050) than females (0.740 ± 0.039), but females had higher mean values of the Q wave amplitude (0.256 ± 0.013) than males (0.217 ± 0.010). The mean electrical axis (±SD) of QRS waves in this study was 69.61° ± 21.47°. The possible dependence of the electrocardiographic alterations on age should be taken into consideration in practical veterinary medicine when working with dogs of different ages. مشاهده
177 انگليسی Ultrastructural study of naturally occuring ovine 1389 2008 Summary Ovine pulmonary adenocarcinoma (OPA) was studied in the lungs of 15 naturally-affected sheep (9 with classical and 6 atypical lesions) by transmission electron microscopy. Two lung samples from normal sheep were used to develop the ultrastructural criteria. Pathologic lesions consisted of focal-multifocal to coalescent nodules or masses in the cranioventral or diaphragmatic lobes. Ultrastructural characteristics of tumor cells in the alveoli and bronchioles allowed categorization of these cells into three groups; neoplastic alveolar type (AT) П cells in the alveoli contained numerous cytoplasmic lamellar bodies, well developed rough endoplasmic reticulum and glycogen particles; neoplastic clara cells in the bronchioles contained apical electron-dense granules and well-developed smooth endoplasmic reticulum; undifferentiated tumor cells in the alveoli and bronchioles lacked characteristic lamellar bodies or electron-dense granules. Neither complete virions nor viral inclusions were seen in the neoplastic cells. In the present study, there were no ultrastructural differences in the neoplastic cells between classical and atypical forms. It seems that type II pneumocytes and clara cells are the origin of the neoplasia in the alveoli and bronchioles, respectively. مشاهده
178 انگليسی Radiographic comparison of five different techniques for 1389 2011 Summary Numerous techniques for injection into the distal sesamoid bursa (navicular bursa) have been described, especially in equine, but there are few specific descriptions regarding this practice being done in cattle. Five different techniques were compared for injection into the distal sesamoid bursa in cattle including distal plantar approach parallel with the coronary band, proximal plantar approach, distal plantar approach parallel with the sole, abaxial approach, and distal interphalangeal joint injection. The results revealed that the numbers of needle insertion until proper placement is significantly less in the DIPJ and the DPPS techniques compared to the others (P0.05). Also, based on the times of contrast agent injection after the correct successful needle insertion, there were significant differences between DIPJ with DPPCB, PP30 and the Ab45 techniques (P0.05). According to the absence of direct communication between the distal sesamoid bursa and distal interphalangeal joint, the placement of the needle through distal plantar approach parallel with the sole was suggested. مشاهده
179 انگليسی Evaluation of thoracic trauma in dogs and cats: a review 1389 2010 Summary The objective of this study was to assess the etiology, diagnosis, treatment methods, surgical findings, postoperative results and necropsy findings of seventeen cases of thoracic trauma by evaluating medical records. A car accident, falling down, stabbing and bites were identified as the causes of trauma. Diagnosed pathologies in the cases included pneumothorax, hemothorax, pulmonary contusion, lung lobe collapse or eventration, rib fractures, etc. The treatment methods employed in these cases were medical therapy, thoracocentesis, tube thoracostomy, lateral intercostal thoracotomy, median sternotomy and thoracic wall revisions. Atelectasis, rupture, laceration or contusion of the lung lobes, pulmonary artery rupture, rib fracture and etc. were the surgical findings. Overall, seven dogs and four cats recovered completely. Two dogs were euthanized due to other pathologies including multisegmental lumbar fracture, paraplegia and postpneumonectomy syndrome. Three dogs and a cat died during treatment management. The necropsies revealed that the animals had pulmonary artery and tracheobronchial ruptures. The cat also had sudden onset cardiac arrest during surgery. In conclusion, cases with thoracic trauma should be assessed closely and managed with the necessary emergency and surgical procedures. مشاهده
180 انگليسی Adaptation of an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent 1389 2000 Summary The objective of this study was to compare an indirect ELISA, based on a purified 60 kDa envelope glycoprotein (gp51SU), with a Pourquire indirect ELISA for the detection of antibodies to the bovine leukemia virus. For conducting this research, 340 serum samples were collected from two different breeds of cows (Sarabi and Holestin) in different herds. Commercial ELISA revealed positive results in 17 (7) Holstein cows. An appropriate ELISA cut-off was determined by receiver operating curve (ROC) analysis in comparison with commercial indirect ELISA. Results showed a relative sensitivity and specificity of 97 and 92, respectively, for a cut-off value of 0.34 in the domestic ELISA. In conclusion, the results of the present study showed that domestic developed kit can be used for diagnosis of bovine leukemia virus with appropriate sensitivity and specificity. In addition, a comparison of the results from a native breed, Sarabi, with Holstein showed that there was no significant (P0.05) difference in the frequency of infection with BLV between the two breeds. مشاهده
181 فارسی Effect of hydroalcoholic extract of caraway on thyroid 1389 2010 Summary Caraway is one of the medicinal plants used for digestion problems, however, it has been reported that the long term use of this plant in large doses might cause hyperthyroidism symptoms such as leanness, hair loss, severe sweating and tremulousness. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of hydroalcoholic extract of caraway on the level of thyroid hormones and morphologic changes of thyroid gland in rats. For this purpose, 60 rats were divided into 5 experimental and control groups. Experimental groups were orally given 100, 400, 800 and 1600 mg/kg of extract for 45 days by gavage. The same volume of saline was given to the control group. Blood samples were taken before and after the experiments for the measurement of hormones. The rats were dissected under deep anesthesia and their thyroid glands were removed, processed and stained with H&E. Results show that T3 and T4 were increased and TSH was decreased significantly at high doses compared to those in the control group, but no change was observed in the structure of the gland and the size of follicles. It seems that caraway can temporally increase thyroid hormones and cause hyperthyroidism, but further studies are required to clarify the issue. مشاهده
182 انگليسی Isolation and characterization of Lactococcus garvieae 1389 2011 Summary A total of 200 moribund rainbow trout with clinical signs of a hyperacute haemorrhagic septicemia were collected from rainbow trout farms in Fars, Kohkiloyeh-Boyer Ahmad and Charmohal-Bakhtiari provinces in the south and southwest of Iran during summer 2002 to winter 2008 for detection of Lactococcus garvieae, the causative agent of lactococcosis. Fish kidney samples were cultured aseptically onto brain heart infusion agar plates and incubated at 25°C for 48 h. Using conventional biochemical tests, L. garvieae was detected from 32 fish (16 of total fish samples). Additionally, isolates were confirmed as L. garvieae using a specific PCR assay based on 16S rDNA gene by producing a single band of 1107 bp. Partial analysis of 16S rDNA revealed 100 sequence similarity for all Iranian isolates and there was a close genetic relationship among these isolates and those previously reported from mullet in Taiwan (AF352166) and yellowtail in Japan (AB267897) based on GenBank data. Results of antibiogram tests on L. garvieae isolates showed a high susceptibility to erythromycin, enrofloxacin, chloramphenicol and clarithromycin. In pathogenicity tests, immersion of fish in a bacterial suspension of 6 × 105 colony forming unit/ml of L. garvieae in challenge experiments showed 60 mortality during 14 days post-infection. Experimentally, infected fish showed typical blackening of skin haemorrhages, exophthalmia and wide haemorrhages on viscera. The present study provides useful molecular and biochemical information for L. garvieae isolates in Iran compared with those from different hosts and geographic locations. مشاهده
183 فارسی Correlation between lipid-lowering and bone-protective 1389 2010 Summary This study was conducted to investigate the correlation between lipid-lowering and bone-protective effects of eicosapentaenoic acid on steroid-induced bone changes in rats. Twenty-one male 10-week-old Wistar rats were divided into 3 groups (n = 7 each) and treated with 0.9 NaCl SC (group 1) or methylprednisolone 7 mg/kg SC once a week (group 2) or methylprednisolone 7 mg/kg SC once a week + eicosapentaenoic acid 160 mg/kg, PO daily (group 3), for 6 weeks. At the end of the experiment, serum total cholesterol and triglycerides concentrations were determined using enzymatic colorimetric assays and bone histomorphometric analyses were performed on cancellous bone of femoral epiphysis and metaphysis using a photomicroscope and a digital camera. Histomorphometric parameters demonstrated a significant bone loss due to methylprednisolone administration, which was partly restored by eicosapentaenoic acid. A strong inverse correlation was observed between the serum total cholesterol concentration and epiphyseal trabecular width and metaphyseal trabecular osteoid width (R = -0.82, P = 0.04 and R = -0.86, P = 0.01, respectively). Serum triglycerides concentration was also strongly and inversely correlated with the above mentioned parameters (R = -0.88, P = 0.02 for epiphyseal trabecular width and R = -0.81, P = 0.02 for metaphyseal trabecular osteoid width). The correlation between the lipid-lowering and bone-protective effects of eicosapentaenoic acid may be helpful in the clarification of its effects on bone and lipid metabolism. مشاهده
184 انگليسی A study on Dirofilaria immitis in healthy urban dogs 1389 2010 Summary Heartworm infection is one of the most important parasitic diseases in dogs and an increasing number of cases are reported each year by necropsy in Ahvaz. This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of Dirofilaria immitis infection and to investigate the risk factors related to heartworm disease in urban dogs in this area. Blood samples were collected from 100 dogs from Feb 2007 to Feb 2008. All samples were examined by modified Knott test, direct smear and antigen detection (Immunochromatographic antigen rapid canine D. immitis Ag Test Kit) technique to detect circulating microfilaria and adult antigen of D. immitis, respectively. Of the total 100 dogs, 1 were positive by direct smear, 5 were positive by modified Knott test and 6 were positive by antigen detection. In addition, 1 of positive dogs were determined to have occult D. immitis infections. Dirofilaria immitis was the only canine filarial parasite present in this study. From these three methods, modified Knott test, due to microfilarial identification on concentrated blood had the highest validity. The difference between outdoor and indoor dogs was found significant (P = 0.033), whereas no statistically significant differences were observed between different age groups, sexes and breeds (P0.05). The highest heartworm prevalence by modified Knott test was observed in older than 6-year-old dogs (8.3) followed by 3–6 years (2.7) and the 6-month to 3 years (3.5) age groups. The infection was more prevalent in males and short haired breeds. Our results suggest that heartworm treatment and preventive care should be considered in urban dogs of Ahvaz, Iran. مشاهده
185 انگليسی The presence of Listeria monocytogenes in raw milk 1389 2010 Summary The purpose of this preliminary study was to determine the prevalence of raw milk contamination with Listeria monocytogenes. In this study, 100 bulk tank milk samples were collected randomly and delivered to Pegah Pasteurization Factory in Mashhad. For isolation and identification of L. monocytogenes, the samples were first enriched using cold enrichment method in Listeria enrichment broth, followed by plating onto supplemented Oxford agar. For final identification of suspected colonies a multiplex-PCR assay, using two pair of primers was employed. The prs primers are specific for putative phophoribosyl pyrophosphate synthetase (prs) gene of Listeria spp. and the LM lip1 primers are specific for prf A gene of its monocytogenes serovar. Using this method, the contamination of raw milk with L. monocytogenes was determined to be 4 and the sensitivity of the primers was 3.5 × 103 cfu ml-1, and the specificity was determined to be 100. Considering the high specificity and sensitivity of the employed multiplex-PCR assay, it is recommended to use this method for the identification of suspected colonies of Listeria spp. and L. monocytogenes. مشاهده
186 انگليسی Determination of aspartic protease gene dosage in the 1389 2010 Summary Aspartic proteases are a relatively small group of enzymes which express in various nematodes including Onchocerca volvulus. An estimation of the gene copy number corresponding to the OV7A clone, which contains a cDNA insert encoding approximately two-thirds of the entire coding sequence of aspartic protease of O. volvulus, was made by slot blot analysis in a closely related species O. gibsoni genome. Nylon membrane was loaded with serial dilutions of genomic DNA alongside the OV7A plasmid DNA before hybridizing the membrane to that 32P-labeled cDNA insert. To prepare the initial probe, OV7A cDNA insert was amplified using gene-specific primers. By comparing the signal intensity of slot blot hybridization of known amounts of genomic DNA and plasmid DNA containing the cDNA insert under similar conditions, the abundance of sequence homologues to the 32P-labeled cDNA insert in the genome was calculated. For confirmation, southern blot analysis was performed by digesting genomic DNA with a panel of different restriction enzymes. Hybridizing patterns of the same probe revealed a single band except when predicted internal restriction sites were affected. It was confirmed that Onchocerca contains a single copy of the gene corresponding to this cDNA insert per haploid genome. مشاهده
187 انگليسی Diversity of caprine and ovine Pasteurella multocida 1389 2010 Summary In this study, to increase information about the relationship between caprine and ovine isolates of Pasteurella multocida, 16S rRNA gene sequencing of 9 goats (5) and sheep (4) isolates were investigated. Also, capsular type and toxA gene presentation was studied in this paper. All isolates, except one, belong to capsular type A, and toxA+ strain distributed among strains were isolated from both species. Comparison of the 16S rRNA gene sequence showed the role of goat as a reservoir for P. multocida to sheep independent of toxA genes transmission. مشاهده
188 انگليسی The possible relationship of megaesophagus and canine 1389 2010 Summary Megaesophagus (esophageal dilatation) is a neuromuscular disease. In this disorder, the esophagus is abnormally stretched and air is collected with food in it. Two male dogs aged 4 and 6-year-old, German shepherd breeds and weighing 18.4 and 23.2 kg were presented to the Veterinary Hospital of Shahid Chamran University with complaints of regurgitation, dehydration, anorexia, depression, dysphagia, myoclonus, hypersalivation, gurgling sound during swallowing and fatigue in the past month. They were not vaccinated against distemper and other viral diseases. Physical examination revealed a relatively thin body condition. A plain radiograph of the chest revealed advanced megaesophagus with aspiration pneumonia. Rapid antigenic test (immunochromatography assay) was positive for canine distemper. CBC was abnormal (leucopenia, lymphopenia and neutropenia). Supportive treatments were administered for them. We advised the dogs be placed in a vertical position for 15 min after the meal. Only one dog was sent back home in good health four weeks later and the disease did not relapse for more than six months. The second dog had a symptom of megaesophagus and did not respond to supportive treatments completely. A possible relationship between megaesophagus and canine distemper infection has been reported in the present survey. مشاهده
189 انگليسی Study on pattern of Neospora caninum tachyzoite 1389 2010 Summary The intracellular parasite Neospora caninum is prevalent in several countries and is increasingly recognized as an important cause of abortion and stillbirth in cattle. For characterizeing the tachyzoite antigens of Neospora caninum in aborted cows, sera were obtained from 116 cows which were aborted in the third semester of the pregnancy period and had antibodies to Neospora caninum in ELISA. To obtain the protein content of Neospora, purified tachyzoites were lysed, electrophoretically separated and blotted to nitrocelloluse membrane for immunostaining. Minimum 9 and maximum 13 protein bands ranging from 10 to 90 kDa were observed after immunostaining. It seems that, in almost all of the cows, two protein bands with a molecular weight of 45 and 41 kDa, have a prominent reaction in Western blotting. According to our findings, these two protein bands are the most important antigens observed after Western blotting, in seropositive aborted cows. مشاهده
190 انگليسی Study on pattern of Neospora caninum tachyzoite 1389 2011 Summary The intracellular parasite Neospora caninum is prevalent in several countries and is increasingly recognized as an important cause of abortion and stillbirth in cattle. For characterizeing the tachyzoite antigens of Neospora caninum in aborted cows, sera were obtained from 116 cows which were aborted in the third semester of the pregnancy period and had antibodies to Neospora caninum in ELISA. To obtain the protein content of Neospora, purified tachyzoites were lysed, electrophoretically separated and blotted to nitrocelloluse membrane for immunostaining. Minimum 9 and maximum 13 protein bands ranging from 10 to 90 kDa were observed after immunostaining. It seems that, in almost all of the cows, two protein bands with a molecular weight of 45 and 41 kDa, have a prominent reaction in Western blotting. According to our findings, these two protein bands are the most important antigens observed after Western blotting, in seropositive aborted cows. مشاهده
191 انگليسی Equine marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells: 1389 2010 Summary Most studies regarding the marrow-derived equine mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have mainly focused on the cell transplantation without considering the capacity of differentiation and in vitro requirements of the cells. These concerns were investigated in the present study. Equine MSCs were isolated from the sternal marrow aspirates and expanded through two successive subcultures. Passage-2 equine MSC cultures were then treated with appropriate supplements in order to examine the cell osteogenic, chondrogenic and adipogenic differentiation potential. Furthermore, the culture of the cells was investigated in terms of the optimal concentration of fetal bovine serum (FBS) and the initial cell-seeding density. Additionally, a growth curve was plotted for the cells to study their growth characteristics. According to our findings, equine MSCs were easily generated specialized bone, cartilage and adipose cell lineages as confirmed by specific staining and RT-PCR analysis. Moreover, the cells exhibited rapid expansion when being cultivated in the medium with 15 FBS at 100 cells/cm2. Growth curves indicated that these cells rapidly entered the log phase after a brief lag (adaptation) period. In summary, marrow-derived equine MSCs possess tripotent differentiation capacity and rapid growth rate in the appropriate culture conditions. مشاهده
192 انگليسی Evaluation of H9N2 avian influenza virus dissemination 1388 2009 Summary Widespread occurrence of H9N2 low pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI) viruses in many Asian countries during the past decade has resulted in the need for evaluation of the pathogenesis of H9N2 virus infection. In this study, tissue tropism and dissemination of A/Chicken/Iran/772/1998(H9N2) virus throughout the body of broiler chickens were investigated. The clinical signs, gross lesions and antibody titer of the infected chicks were also monitored. Fifty one-day-old commercial broiler chicks were divided randomly into two groups (forty chicks in the experimental and ten chicks in the control group). At the age of five weeks the chicks in the experimental group were inoculated intranasally with the virus. The samples from various tissues were collected at 1, 3, 6 and 9 days post-inoculation (DPI). We used reverse transcriptase/polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay to evaluate the virus dissemination. Chickens exhibited mild respiratory signs, depression and 5 mortality. Viral RNA was detected in the kidneys on days 3, 6 and 9 PI. The virus was also found in the spleen, trachea and lungs on days 3 and 6 PI. Viral RNA was observed only on day 6 PI in feces. The most remarkable clinical signs and virus detection appeared on day 6 PI. Overall, out of 22 samples taken from each organ of the experimental (dead plus euthanized) birds, 4, 5, 11, 4, and 5 samples from trachea, lungs, kidneys, spleen and feces showed viral RNA, respectively. We could not trace the virus in the blood and pancreas. Data indicated that the number of infected chickens and viral RNA detection from tissues was reduced with increasing antibody titer on day 9 PI. Our findings suggest that the virus has tissue tropism for respiratory, urinary, lymphoid and digestive systems. مشاهده
193 انگليسی Gross anatomy of the heart in Ostrich 1389 2009 Summary Today, with emphasis on the mechanical heart and heart transplantation from one human to another and one species to another, a knowledge of the anatomy of the bird’s heart could contribute to these accomplishments. Eight male adult ostriches were used to study the heart macroscopically. This study revealed that the ostrich heart has some different features from the other birds. In the ostrich, fibrous pericardium as sternopericardial ligament attaches along the thoracic surface of the sternum. The central edge of muscular valve hangs down into the right ventricle and gives attachment to its rough parietal wall by a thick muscular stalk. The left and right pulmonary veins enter the left atrium independently and their openings were completely separated from each other by a septum. In the heart of the ostrich, the moderator bands were found in both the right and left ventricles in different locations. The right ventricle presents one tendinous moderator band near the base of the ventricle that extends from septum to the muscular valve. Also the moderator bands as tendinous thread like or flat sheet are usually present at about apex of the right ventricle that extends from septum to the parietal wall. In the left ventricle, there were some tendinous moderator bands close to the apex that extends from septum to the parietal wall and between trabeculae carneae of the parietal wall. مشاهده
194 فارسی Prevalence of subacute ruminal acidosis in some dairy 1389 2009 Summary To estimate the prevalence of subacute ruminal acidosis (SARA) in dairy cows, a total of 196 ruminal fluid samples were drawn by rumenocentesis from 10 dairy herds of Khorasan Razavi province, northeast of Iran. Two groups of 12 cows, early lactation and mid-lactation cows were sampled in each dairy herd and ruminal pH was determined immediately using a portable pH-meter. A total of 54 cows (27.6) were found to be experiencing SARA. No significant differences were found between SARA affected and non-affected cows in ruminal contractions, faecal quality and fat and protein components of milk. مشاهده
195 انگليسی Pharmacokinetics of ceftriaxone in buffalo calves 1389 2009 Summary Pharmacokinetics of ceftriaxone was studied in buffalo calves (Bubalus bubalis) after single intravenous and intramuscular administration of 10 mg/kg body weight. The drug concentrations in plasma samples were measured by high performance liquid chromatography with UV detection. Following intravenous administration, the drug was rapidly distributed (Cpo: 106.5 ± 9.64 μg/ml; t1/2α: 0.09 ± 0.01 h; Vdarea: 0.48 ± 0.05 L/kg) and eliminated (t1/2β: 1.27 ± 0.04 h) from the body with a clearance rate of 4.40 ± 0.44 ml/min.kg. Following intramuscular administration, the peak plasma concentration of the drug was 15.8 ± 2.4 μg/ml at 0.5 h and the drug was detected up to 12 h. The drug was rapidly absorbed from the site of injection (t1/2ka: 0.35 ± 0.01 h), widely distributed (Vdarea: 1.53 ± 0.2 L/kg) and slowly eliminated from the body (t1/2β: 4.38 ± 0.4 h; ClB: 4.01 ± 0.30 ml/min.kg). The bioavailability of ceftriaxone was 70.2 ± 2.0 following intramuscular injection. Intramuscular injection of ceftriaxone has favourable pharmacokinetics and moderate bioavailability in buffalo calves and can be used for susceptible infections in calves. مشاهده
196 انگليسی Characterization of avian adenovirus type-4 causing 1389 2009 Summary Avian adenovirus was isolated from naturally infected birds during 1990 to 2003 in the vicinity of Karachi, Pakistan. The virus is known to cause hydro-pericardium syndrome (HPS) in poultry. The mortality was recorded 20-50 in commercial broilers. Fifty field samples were collected; however, six samples were selected for molecular studies. These isolates were grown and characterized by cell culture using chicken embryo liver cell culture, chicken embryo pathogenicity, agar gel precipitation (AGP), serum neutralization test, DNA extraction, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and restriction enzyme analysis (REA). Reference strain J2-A (ATCC VR-829) was used to confirm that HPS isolates belongs to avian adenovirus type-4. The disease was reproduced in 28-day-old broilers by intramuscular inoculation of cell extracts. Typical hydropericardium was observed in experimental chickens 72 h post-inoculation. The 50 neutralization endpoint of pooled sera of these isolates was not recorded more than 1:40. The results showed that there was no difference in PCR product of 1319 bp with H3/H4 primer on agarose gels, which is characteristic of group 1 avian adenovirus (AA). Restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis of PCR products using restriction enzyme Hpa II resulted in five bands confirming the presence of AA in the analyzed samples. مشاهده
197 انگليسی Molecular cloning of adenylate kinase from the human 1389 2009 Summary Adenylate kinases (ADK) are ubiquitous enzymes that contribute to the homeostasis of adenine nucleotides in living cells. In this study, the cloning of a cDNA encoding an adenylate kinase from the filaria Onchocerca volvulus has been described. Using PCR technique, a 281 bp cDNA fragment encoding part of an adenylate kinase was isolated from an O. volvulus cDNA library. Use of this fragment as a probe allowed the isolation of a larger cDNA clone through the searching the GenBank expressed sequence tag database. The full-length cDNA encodes 236 amino acid residues with a predicted molecular mass of 26.177 kDa. The deduced amino acid sequence exhibited 80 identity to the homologous adenylate kinase identified from Caenorhabditis elegans. Domain analysis of the resulting protein sequence was found to contain “adenylate kinase signature” motif which is highly conserved in all known ADKs. Multiple alignments showed that the N-terminal is well conserved, whereas the C-terminal is the most variable region. مشاهده
198 انگليسی Serological study of bovine viral respiratory diseases in 1389 2009 Summary Respiratory disorders are major concern for dairy cattle industry. Viruses and bacteria in combination with stress play a key role in triggering acute respiratory infections. The most important viral agents are bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV), bovine herpes virus type 1 (BHV-1), bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV), parainfluenza virus type 3 (PIV-3) and bovine adenovirus (BAV). This cross-sectional study was conducted to evaluate the serological status of BVDV, BHV-1, BRSV, PIV-3 and BAV in dairy herds in Kerman province, Iran. From June to November 2007, 181 serum samples were collected from 1–3-year-old cattle from 15 industrial dairy farms in Kerman province using cluster sampling. The samples were tested by commercial indirect ELISA kits. Antibodies were detected against BVDV, BHV-1, BRSV, PIV-3 and BAV in 77.90, 30.39, 100, 100 and 100 of serum samples, respectively. All farms were positive at least for one of these viruses and antibodies against all the 5 viruses were detected in 4 (26.66) herds among 15 dairy farms. According to the present study, BVDV, BRSV, PIV-3 and BAV are common viruses in dairy herds in Kerman province. مشاهده
199 انگليسی The role of central endogenous histamine and H1, H2 and 1389 2009 Summary The role of endogenous histamine and H1, H2 and H3 central receptors on food intake in broiler chickens was investigated. For this purpose, a probe was used to manipulate the concentration of endogenous histamine by intracerebroventricular (ICV) injection of thioperamide, an H3 receptor antagonist, and R-α- methylhistamine, an H3 receptor agonist and subsequently the effects of brain histaminergic system on food intake was assessed. Moreover, to determine the receptors involved in histamine-induced feeding behaviour changes, H1 and H2 blockers were administered to thioperamide-treated chickens. Injection of thioperamide (600 and 300 nmol) decreased food intake dose-dependently (P0.05). On the contrary, ICV injection of R-α- methylhistamine (400 and 200 nmol) increased food intake (P0.05). Chlorpheniramine (128 and 256 nmol), a H1 receptor antagonist, increased food intake (P0.05). Famotidine, a H2 receptor antagonist at 74 or 148 nmol had no effect on food intake but at 296 nmol significantly decreased food intake (P0.05). Pretreatment with chlorpheniramine (256 nmol) significantly attenuated thioperamide effects (600 nmol) on food intake (P0.05). In conclusion, the results of the present study demonstrated that histamine exerts anorexigenic effects through H1 but not H2 receptors in broiler chickens. Furthermore, it was shown that thioperamide through stimulation of synthesis and release of endogenous neuronal histamine can decrease food intake in broiler chickens. مشاهده
200 انگليسی Pituitary primary cell culture of Common carp 1389 2009 Summary In this study, five carp pituitary glands were collected and dispersed enzymatically and mechanically. Then, the cells were cultivated as monolayer in MEM (minimum essential medium Eagle). The culture media were collected after 72 h and frozen at -20°C. Carp ovarian follicles also were separated mechanically and incubated in BSS (basic salt solution) Cortland medium in 24-well microplates for 48 h at 20°C. Then, they were divided into two groups: control group which were incubated in BSS medium and experimental group which subdivided into three subgroups according to treatment with different concentration of collected pituitary secretion (50, 100 and 200 μl/ml). Follicles culture media were collected 24 h later and were analyzed for 17-β-oestradiol (E2) and 17-α-hydroxy progesterone (P4) content by radioimmunoassay (RIA). The results showed that adding low concentration (50 μl/ml) of collected pituitary secretion (CPS) increased steroid hormones (E2 and P4) secretion of incubated ovarian follicles significantly (P0.05) but the high concentration of CPS (200 μl/ml) significantly decreased the secretion of E2 and P4 (P0.05). Collected pituitary secretion at the concentration of 100 μl/ml had no significant effect on steroid hormones (P0.05). مشاهده
201 فارسی Magnetic resonance imaging of feline eye 1389 2009 Summary The purpose of this study was to investigate magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the normal feline eye and optic nerves using T1-weighted and T2-weighted images. A total of 6 healthy female domestic short hair cats age 2-2.5 years and weighing 3.2 ± 0.4 kg were selected. Magnetic resonance imaging data were collected using GEMSOW (Philips) at a magnetic field strength of 1.5 T. Dorsal, sagittal, and transverse plane images were obtained from left and right eyes. Intraocular structures of the cats visible on T1-weighted and T2-weighted images include cornea, anterior chamber, posterior chamber, lens, iris, sclera, and chiasma. Cornea was well detected in T1-weighted, the iris in T2-weighted and chiasma was well detected in T2- weighted in dorsal plane. Measurements of the visible structures on T1-weighted and T2-weighted images did not show any significant difference between the left and right eyes (P0.05). MRI provides excellent anatomical detail of the feline eye and optic nerve due to its superior soft tissue contrast and its multiplanar and multislice imaging capability. مشاهده
202 فارسی Infection with Dactylogyrus spp. among introduced 1389 2009 Summary In the present study, we reported infection with eighteen species of the genus Dactylogyrus, belong to the family Dactylogyridae from five breeder fish species, including common carp (Cyprinus carpio), grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella), silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix), big head carp (Hypophthalmichthys nobilis) and black carp (Myelopharyngodon piceus) which introduced and imported to Iranian freshwaters from Russia, Romania, Hungary and China over the last 40 years. The infection was also found in Carassius auratus gibelio, it is not known when this fish species was introduced into the country. The Dactylogyrus spp. were as follows: Dactylogyrus achmerovi, D. anchoratus, D. aristichthys, D. baueri, D. dulikeity, D. ctenopharyngodonis, D. extensus, D. hypophthalmichthys, D. intermedius, D. intermedioides, D. lamellatus, D. magnihamotus, D. nobilis, D. sahuensis, D. suchengtaii, D. taihuensis, D. vastator and D. wegeneri. Among these, D. vastator and D. anchoratus infecting common carp and D. lamellatus infecting grass carp are very harmful and were responsible for high mortalities observed in fry and fingerling production in Iran. Uncontrolled import of live fish into the country can lead to transmission of pathogenic monogeneans or other group of parasites to native fishes, causing a great economical and ecological threat to valuable native fishes. For example, transmission of D. anchoratus from common carp to Barbus sharpeyi, an important native fish species, despite of the high host-specificity of monogeneans, indicates the possibility of transmission of exotic monogenean parasites to native hosts. It is strongly suggested that the risk of introducing exotic pathogens along with importing fish or any other living organism to the country, should be assessed well in advance, in order to protect native species and the ecosystem. مشاهده
203 انگليسی Histomorphometrical study of the cervix during the 1388 2009 Summary In this study, genital tracts of 20 healthy non-pregnant buffaloes were collected from Urmia abattoir. These genital tracts were selected based on their ovaries conditions, half of them were in follicular phase and the other half were in luteal phase. The samples were taken from anterior, middle and posterior regions of the cervix and fixed in 10 buffer formalin. Then, histological sections of 5-7 μm thickness were prepared and stained with haematoxylin and eosin for histomorphometrical study and toluidine blue for study of mast cells. Histomorphometrical study was accomplished by graded and latticed objective lens device. The results revealed that the thickness of epithelium significantly (P0.05) increased in the luteal phase. Mean thickness of mucosa-submucosa layers in the middle (290.4 ± 12.69 μm) and posterior (283.14 ± 16.49 μm) regions of the cervix in the follicular phase was significantly more than the luteal phase (P0.05). Mean thickness of tunica muscularis increased significantly (P0.05) during the follicular phase in the anterior region of the cervix (3325.28 ± 286.69 μm). This study also revealed that the mean distribution of mast cells in the luteal phase (0.53 ± 0.02) was significantly more than the follicular phase (P0.001). Generally, this study showed that the histomorphometrical changes in the cervix of buffalo occur in the follicular and luteal phases of oestrous cycle. These changes may be related to the fluctuation of oestrogen and progesterone hormones and distribution of mast cells. مشاهده
204 انگليسی Fatal splenic rupture caused by an atypical malignant 1388 2009 Summary Postmortem examination of a 5.5-year-old Holstein cow with history of sudden death showed a very huge spleen (120 × 45 × 10 cm) associated with severe haemoperitoneum. Histopathological findings included extensive infiltration of medium to large sized lymphocytic and lymphoblastic cells with small amounts of cytoplasm, round nuclei with coarsely granular chromatin in the spleen, and limited foci of similar cellular infiltration in the liver. This case was diagnosed as a fatal splenic rupture caused by an atypical malignant lymphoma. مشاهده
205 فارسی Spontaneous differentiated squamous cell carcinoma of 1388 2009 Summary A 2-year-old male hamster was presented because of left facial swelling and salivation. Necropsy was performed and affected cheek pouch with tissue samples of regional and internal organs were submitted for histopathological study. In histopathological examination it was found that the tumor consisted of cords and islands of tumoric epithelial cells which were diffused in the dermis. Vacoulation of cytoplasm in many cells were striking features. The lesion was infiltrated by mononuclear cells. These findings were consistent with differentiated squamous cell carcinoma, which restricted only to the left cheek pouch. There was no evidence of tumoral invasion to the other organs. Cheek pouch spontaneous tumors in hamsters have been rarely reported. مشاهده
206 فارسی Congenital penile urethral aplasia in 1389 2009 Summary A 4-day-old Holstein bull calf with considerable oedema of the belly (water belly) was referred to the Veterinary Teaching Hospital of the School of Veterinary Medicine, Shiraz University. The owner did not observe any urination since birth. Rupture of the urethra was suspected. Perineal urethrotomy was performed. Subsequently, catheterization of urethra revealed the obstruction near the external urethral orifice. Urethrotomy showed a three cm long rupture of urethra proximal to the penile orifice. Surgical exploration showed the penile urethral aplasia which confirmed by histopathological findings. Permanent perineal urethrostomy was the surgical treatment of choice. Fluid and antibiotic therapy were administrated postoperatively. Postoperative follow-up showed a healthy calf without any signs of water belly. مشاهده
207 انگليسی Effects of age on the prevalence of cardiac 1388 2010 Summary This study describes the prevalence of cardiac dysrhythmias occurring over a single 24 h period in ponies and compares the heart rate and frequency of dysrhythmias in two groups of ponies of different ages. Electrocardiograms were recorded using a Holter monitoring system from twenty four ponies aged less than 15-year-old (n = 14) and greater than 15-year-old (n = 10). Subsequent analyses of cardiac rhythm revealed that only 3/24 ponies maintained a regular rhythm throughout the recording period. In the remaining 21 ponies, 6 different types of dysrhythmias were detected, the majority of which were vagally mediated; sinus arrhythmia (n = 12), sinoatrial block (n = 6) and second degree atrioventricular block (n = 10). Premature beats of both atrial (n = 3) and ventricular (n = 1) origin were observed only in the older group. There were no significant differences between the 2 groups with respect to mean 24-h heart rates or the prevalence of cardiac dysrhythmias. مشاهده
208 فارسی Effect of different levels of monensin in diets containing 1389 2010 مشاهده
209 انگليسی Anatomical parameters of cardiopulmonary system, venous blood 1389 2020 Summary The present study was designed to examine the anatomical parameters of the cardiopulmonary system, the function of venous blood gas parameters and the development of ascites incidence in two genetic line chickens. Three hundred forty day-old chickens from two pure broiler breeder lines, which were different in their growth rate and susceptibility to ascites syndrome were obtained. The relative heart and lung weights, the volumes of the heart, lung and thorax cavity, the incidence of ascites, and the venous blood gas parameters in these two genetic line chickens were followed. In the present study, the incidence of ascites and right ventricular hypertrophy was markedly higher in the fast-growing broiler chickens compared to the slow-growing chickens, as two genetic line chickens exhibited significant differences in their growth performance traits. The volumes of the thorax cavity, before and after removing the heart and lung tissues, were lower in fast-growing broiler chickens compared to the slow-growing chickens. The relative lung volume was significantly lower in the fast growth chickens than the slow growth chickens at the earlier age, but it did not differ at the later age. Additionally, a rise in carbon dioxide tension and a decline in oxygen pressure in the venous blood of rapid growth compared to the slow growth broiler chickens were observed. It could be concluded that there is an association between the insufficiencies of the cardiopulmonary system with the function of the venous blood gas parameters and the development of ascites syndrome in fast growing broiler chickens. مشاهده
210 فارسی Phenotypic characterization and PCR-ribotyping of 1389 2010 Summary Contamination sites of Pseudomonas fluorescens were traced in the production line for milk pasteurization in a large dairy plant in Shiraz, Iran. Samples of raw and pasteurized milk were collected at six sites along the line. All milk samples were incubated at 7°C until the aerobic plate count had reached 106-107 cfu mL-1. Colonies were picked randomly and identified. No growth of gram negative psychrotrophic bacteria (GNP) was detected in the immediately pasteurized milk samples (just after the pasteurization), during long incubation at 7°C. Recontamination most often occurred in the filling step. In this study 34.1 and 4.9 of the milk packages showed contamination with GNP and P. fluorescens, respectively. Twenty three P. fluorescens isolates were examined for phenotypic characteristics and 16S-23S PCR ribotyping. Phylogenetic analysis was conducted on the phenotypic and genotypic characteristics. The P. fluorescens isolates were shown to belong to 6 biotypes (B1-B6). The predominance of a particular ribotype was often observed for a given biotype, although there were two ribotypes in each of the B2 and B6 biotypes. The 16S- 23S PCR-ribotyping technique allowed differentiation between the isolates. Based on this method, the isolates belonged to 5 subtypes. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S-23S PCR-ribotyping and phenotypic characterization could be helpful in tracking contamination routes in the production line for milk pasteurization. مشاهده
211 انگليسی Effects of water desalination on milk production and 1389 2010 Summary Fourteen primiparous Holstein cows (180.0 ± 4.3 days in milk) with a mean (±SD) daily milk yield of 35.0 ± 1.3 kg and a body condition score of 3.2 ± 0.2 were allotted into two groups (n = 7), and were fed a ration consisting of (dry matter basis) 35 corn silage, 25 alfalfa hay and 40 concentrates. Salt was provided free choice. The experiment was performed during the period of heat stress, i.e., when the temperature-humidity index was greater than 72. One group was offered desalinated water containing 570 mg total dissolved solids (TDS) and another group was offered water containing 1400 mg TDS per L. Milk yield was measured weekly, and milk samples were taken on days 21 and 42 for determination of milk composition. Blood samples were taken on days 21 and 42 from the median caudal vein of the tail and the serum concentrations of Na+, K+, Ca2+, Mg2+, tri-iodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4) were measured. Ruminal fluid was taken by rumenocentesis on day 42 for determination of volatile fatty acids (VFA) and pH. Milk yield, milk composition, serum concentrations of T3 and T4, Na+, Ca2+ and Mg2+, ruminal fluid VFA concentration and pH were not significantly affected by water TDS (P0.05); however, cows receiving desalinated water produced 2 kg more milk per cow per day. Serum K+ concentration was significantly higher in cows consuming saline water (P0.05). The present data indicated that water with a TDS of 1400 mg per L had no adverse effect on lactating cows; therefore, it is not necessary to desalinate water in the region under study. However, in light of the possible effects of saline water on thyroid hormones, further studies concerning the influence of saline water on the metabolism of high producing cows in hot climates are warranted. مشاهده
212 انگليسی Maintenance of horse embryonic stem cells in different 1389 2010 Summary Embryonic stem cells (ESCs) are originally derived from the ICM of blastocysts and are characterized by their ability to self-renew and their pluripotencies. Only a few reports have been published on ESC isolations and line establishment in animals, even fewer in horses. However, it is still important to isolate equine ESCs for animal biotechnology and therapeutic applications. In the present study, we tried to derive horse ESC lines from the ICM of blastocysts fertilized in vivo and maintain their pluripotencies in different conditions. The primary horse ESCs were able to self-renew when they were cultured in basic medium on γ-irradiated MEFs. After 15 passages, immunohistochemistry of the putative horse ESCs showed that some cells in the colonies were positive for Oct-4, SSEA-1, GCTM-2, TRA-1-60 and TRA-1-81. Moreover, to optimize the culture conditions, these putative horse ESCs were cultured in basic medium supplemented with human leukemia inhibitory factor (hLIF) only, human basic fibroblastic growth factor (hbFGF) only, or hbFGF plus hLIF with or without heterologous (MEF) feeder cells. Based on our results, the heterologous feeder (MEF) cells are necessary to maintain the undifferentiated state for horse ESCs, and ESC-like cell morphology of horse ESCs were well maintained in the basic medium supplemented with or without hLIF. This result suggested that hLIF was neither prerequisite nor negative for maintenance of horse ESCs; bFGF seemed to be negative for maintenance of horse ECSs and the combination of hLIF and bFGF was unable to improve the culture condition. مشاهده
213 انگليسی Relationship between in vitro antimicrobial sensitivity of 1389 2010 Summary The objective of the present study was to determine whether there was an association between the in vitro antimicrobial sensitivity test results of subclinical mastitis pathogens and bacteriological cure following intramammary treatment using a combination of nafcillin, penicillin, and streptomycin (NPS). Eighty-six intramammary pathogens from 43 cows were examined in this study. Most intramammary infections were due to coagulase-negative staphylococci, coliforms, and environmental streptococci. The antibiotic sensitivity to NPS was determined using the Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion method. Bacteriological cure rates for sensitive, intermediate, and resistant isolates in the standard treatment group (3 intramammary infusions of NPS once daily) were 84.4, 88.9, and 100, respectively. These figures in the extended treatment group (6 intramammary infusions of NPS once daily) were 100 for the 3 categories. Bacteriological cure was not associated with the sensitivity test result. Based on this study, Kirby-Bauer sensitivity test results were not useful as predictors of the bacteriological outcome of subclinical mastitis treated with intramammary NPS. مشاهده
214 انگليسی Identification of Theileria species in sheep in the eastern 1389 2010 Summary Theileria species are common in tropical and subtropical regions and cause great economical losses in ruminants. Two species, T. lestoquardi and T. ovis, are suspected to cause ovine theileriosis in Iran. The epidemiological aspects of ovine theileriosis in Iran are poorly understood and further investigations by sensitive and precise techniques are required. In a previous study, a sensitive and specific PCR-RFLP method was used for the identification of Theileria spp. in sheep. In the present study, Theileria species involved in ovine theileriosis were determined in five different regions in eastern half of Iran (Zabol, Lar, Ferdows, Semnan and Gorgan). Blood samples were collected in EDTA. Of 220 blood samples obtained from sheep in different regions, 60 (132.220) were positive for Theileria spp. by nested-PCR compared with 22.27 (49.220) by microscopic examination. Using RFLP of PCR products, out of 132 positive blood samples, 55.3 (73.132) were positive for T. lestoquardi and 44.7 (59.132) were positive for T. ovis. The infection with these two Theileria species in different areas is compared in the article. This is the first report in which ovine theileriosis has been studied in different regions in Iran using molecular identification techniques. مشاهده
215 انگليسی Effects of vitamin C on testicular and seminal 1389 2010 Summary The effect of subcutaneous injections of vitamin C on the seminal characteristics of Markhoz bucks (2–4- year-old) was studied. The bucks, trained to serve an artificial vagina, were randomly allotted into three equal groups (n = 4) and received daily either zero (1 mL normal saline; control group), or 20 (VitC20 group) or 40 (VitC40 group) mg per kg body weight vitamin C from July 06, 2006 to Oct. 06, 2006. Blood samples were taken from the jugular vein at monthly inter, als, and semen samples were collected at 15-day intervals. Testicular dimensions in the scrotum (circumference, width, and length) were also determined on the day before semen collection. The ejaculates were evaluated for volume, sperm concentration, pH, motility, and abnormal and live sperm. Testicular measurements were not affected by administration of vitamin C. The interaction between vitamin C and the sampling time was significant (P0.05) for the concentration of vitamin C in the blood plasma and seminal fluid, sperm motility, sperm viability, sperm abnormality, and the number of live-normal sperm in the ejaculate. Vitamin C increased the levels of vitamin C in blood and seminal plasma. Both doses of vitamin C increased the percentage of progressively motile sperm showing forward motility. VitC40 injection for 90 days increased sperm motility and the effect was still evident up to 30 days after the cessation of injections. The percentage of live sperm and mass motility showed similar trends. Both doses were equally effective in decreasing the percentage of abnormal sperm. The total number of live and normal sperm in the ejaculate increased by vitamin C injections and the effect was still evident after the injections had been discontinued. The present data indicates the importance of vitamin C in the reproduction of male goats, as also shown for several mammalian species. They further show that under certain conditions, the in vivo synthesis of this vitamin in ruminants might not be sufficient for optimum reproduction. مشاهده
216 انگليسی Antigenic detection of Cryptosporidium parvum in urban 1389 2010 Summary Cryptosporidium parvum is a zoonotic protozoan parasite with a wide range of vertebrate hosts. The present study was conducted to determine the prevalence of Cryptosporidium parvum in urban and rural dogs of the Ahvaz area. Faecal samples were collected randomly from 93 dogs between May 2005 and September 2007. The studied dogs were divided into two groups (urban and rural) and based on age into three groups (6 months, 6 months–3 years and 3 years). The results were analyzed by using Chi-square analysis and Fischer’s exact test. Prevalence to Cryptosporidium parvum antigens was 4.3 (4 of 93) by means of ELISA, indicating that this antigen is present in the ecosystem. The infection was more prevalent in rural dogs (6.4; 3 of 47) in comparison with urban dogs (2.17; 1 of 46), nevertheless, there were no significant differences between the different groups (P0.05), but the infection was more prevalent in diarrheic dogs (17.65; 3 of 17) compared with non-diarrheic dogs (1.3; 1 of 76), and the difference was significant (P=0.019). Infection was not significant in the different age groups (P0.05). Concurrent detection of Cryptosporidium parvum with canine distemper (one sample) and parvovirus (one sample) were shown in the studied dogs. Modified Ziehl-Neelsen staining was also carried out and the prevalence of infection was 2.15 (2 of 93). The use of ELISA allowed the detection of more positive cases than light microscopy. This study showed that Cryptosporidium parvum can be a risk factor, particularly for those dogs in contact together in the population of urban and rural dogs. مشاهده
217 انگليسی Comparative study of antibody titers produced against 1389 2010 Summary Rabies is acutely fatal encephalitis caused by a neurotropic virus. This virus belongs to the family of Rhabdoviridae and genus of Lyssavirus. The virus is almost always transmitted to human through infected mammalian saliva. Rabies is inoculated to a wound by an infected animal bite. Since infection is established in the CNS, the outcome is almost always fatal. According to the outstanding role of vaccination against rabies in animals, as well as post-exposure treatment regimen in human, production of cell-cultured rabies vaccine is the most common interest of researchers. Two BHK-rabies vaccines, one made in the Pasteur Institute of Iran and two in Schering-Plough Animal Health of Madrid, Spain have been tested on 12 dogs divided into two groups. Sera were taken monthly over 18 months. To evaluate the titer of the rabiesneutralizing antibody, these sera were analyzed by the rapid fluorescence focus inhibition test (RFFIT) in the end of each month. Both study groups showed a sufficient immunogenic response without any significant difference at least one year after first vaccination. With respect to the effective immunization of rabies vaccines, their annual injections would be sufficient. According to the results, at the end of the study (18th month) serum titer in only one dog (No. 7) was less than protective level. Two animals in group one (No. 2 and No. 5) also had serum titers less than protective level. Mean of post vaccination antibody titer were not different in either groups (P=0.35). مشاهده
218 انگليسی Penile fibrosarcoma tumor in a bull 1389 2010 Summary This is a report of a penile fibrosarcoma in a two-year-old crossbred Holstein bull. The ulcerated tumor mass with dimensions of 7 × 9 × 6.5 cm, was enveloped the glans and body of the penis. It had a white-gray color at cross section appearance. There was no metastatic evidence of regional lymph node enlargement. Histopathologically, elongated spindle-shaped cells arranged densely in the interwoven pattern had a low rate of mitosis with oddly-shaped nuclei and pleomorphism. Immunohistochemically, the neoplastic cells were positive for vimentin and S100, but negative for α-smooth muscle actin, desmin, C-KIT and GFAP. مشاهده
219 انگليسی A report on bovine fetal Ectopia cordis cervicalis 1389 2010 Summary A Holstein heifer with symptoms of dystocia was admitted in the Large Animal Clinic at the University of Tabriz. In the vaginal examination, the fetus was found at posterior presentation and by doing some obstetrical maneuvers, a male calf was delivered. An interesting phenomenon was the presence of two skin sacs in dimensions of 12 × 12 cm and 12 × 18 cm at the right and left upper cervical regions, respectively; and also the heart beats under the neck skin at the lower cervical region. Due to severe dyspnea, after 2 min the calf died. At necropsy, the heart was located outside of the thoracic cavity, under the neck skin. The direction of the heart axis was reversed as the base was directed caudoventrally and the apex craniodorsally. Unlike a normal calf’s heart, the shape of its apex was rounded like a dog heart. Histopathologic examination revealed severe congestion, edema and hemosiderosis in the lungs, passive venous congestion and scattered foci of cardiomyolysis in the myocardium. Based on anatomical and histopathological findings, the disorder was diagnosed as bovine fetal Ectopia cordis cervicalis associated with two cervical sacs. مشاهده
220 فارسی Iranian Journal of Veterinary Research, Shiraz University, Vol. 10, No. 2, Ser. No. 27, 2009 1389 2010 Summary Antioxidant properties of ghrelin have been demonstrated in recent studies. In the present study, the effects of chronic administration of ghrelin on the motility and plasma membrane integrity of rat spermatozoa during incubation at 37ºC were investigated. Thirty 45-day-old male Wistar rats were divided into control and treatment groups. Rats in the treatment group were daily injected subcutaneously with 1 nmol of ghrelin for 10 consecutive days and the control rats received normal saline. Sperm was collected after killing of rats on days 5, 15 and 40 after the last injection, and sperm characteristics were examined at 0, 3 and 5 h after incubation at 37ºC. Mass motility and forward progressive movement of spermatozoa were significantly higher in ghrelin-treated animals at 3 and 5 h of incubation on day 5 (P0.05). After 3 h of incubation on day 15, only mass motility was greater than that of the control group. Plasma membrane integrity was assessed by hypoosmotic swelling (HOS) “water test”. The mean value of HOS reacted spermatozoa was higher in the treatment group on days 5 and 15 during 0, 3 and 5 h of incubation (P0.05). However, the percentage of HOS-positive spermatozoa was not significantly different on day 40 between groups. There was a high correlation at 3 and 5 h of day 5 between the forward progressive movement (r = 0.92 and 0.94, P0.0001) as well as overall sperm motility (r = 0.78 and 0.81, P0.01) with HOS test in the ghrelin-treated animals. These results can be attributed to the antioxidative effects of ghrelin on the rat sperm especially on its plasma membrane which probably protects the sperm plasma membrane against oxidative damage during incubation and causes subsequent significant increase in the HOS test results. This may result in higher sperm motility index during 5 h of incubation. مشاهده
221 انگليسی The effects of a microbial inoculant and formic acid as silage 1388 2009 Summary The effects of a microbial inoculant (containing propionic and lactic acid bacteria) and formic acid on chemical composition, ruminal degradability of dry matter (DM) and nutrient digestibility of corn silage were examined. Whole-plant corn was ensiled for 60 days in plastic polyethylene bags, and three treatments were compared, 1: control (no additive), 2: Propionibacterium acidipropionici plus Lactobacillus plantarum at 3 × 1010 cfu/g of fresh forage, and 3: formic acid (98) at 2.41/t fresh forage. The silages were subjected to chemical analysis, DM degradability and nutrients digestibility in sheep. At the end of ensiling period, treatment 3 had significantly higher (P0.05) content of crude protein (CP), lactic acid, total acids, DM recovery and pH values than other treatments. Treatment 2 had the lowest pH value, the highest level of propionic acid, and the lowest level of butyric and total acids (P0.05). No traces of ethanol were detected for neither of silages. CP digestibility was higher (P0.05) for treatment 1 compared with others, while ether extract (EE) digestibility was higher (P0.05) for treatments 1 and 3 compared with treatment 2. Effective DM degradability was higher for treatment 3. All silages went under rapid fermentation and were wellpreserved and treatment 2 was more stable after opening. The degree of improvement in fermentation using microbial inoculant was lower than formic acid but expected to improve the aerobic stability by inhibition of yeast activity, especially in warm climates. مشاهده
222 انگليسی Correlations between seminal plasma enzyme activities 1389 2010 Summary The objective of this study was to investigate aspartate-amino-transferase (AST), γ-glutamyl-transferase (GGT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), lactate-dehydrogenase (LDH) and acid phosphatase (AcP) activities and semen parameters (volume, pH, concentration, total sperm number (TSN), progressive motility, dead sperm, total morphological defect (TMD) and hypo-osmotic swelling test (HOST)) in seminal plasma of Arabian horses. Furthermore, correlations between enzyme activities and semen parameters were examined. The study was performed using seven healthy Arabian stallions of proven fertility, between 11 and 17 years of age, from the Karacabey Stud Farm in Bursa, Turkey. Overall, 21 semen samples were collected from stallions during the breeding season from March to May. A significant negative correlation was observed between semen volume and concentration of TMD, AST, ALP (P0.05) and LDH (P0.01). pH showed a significant correlation with live:dead ratio, GGT activity (P0.05) and progressive motility (P0.01). All semen concentrations correlated significantly with TSN, TMD, ALP, AcP (P0.01). Furthermore, significant correlations were found between live:dead ratio and TSN, HOST (P0.05); TSN and ALP, AcP (P0.01); progressive motility and HOST (P0.01), GGT (P0.001); AST and ALP, LDH, AcP (P0.001); GGT and LDH (P0.05); ALP and LDH, AcP (P0.01) and LDH and AcP (P0.001). No significant correlation was found between enzyme activities in stallion seminal plasma and semen parameters in different months, except for pH and HOST. مشاهده
223 انگليسی An experimental study on early pathogenesis of a very 1388 2009 Summary In this study, immunohistochemistry was used to clarify the early stages of viral kinetics and cyclic course of IBDV, IR499, which has been described earlier as a very virulent strain (vvIBDV). Fifteen, 4- week-old SPF chickens were inoculated with 10³ EID50 of vvIBDV, IR499, via oculo/nasal route. Five birds served as controls, and inoculated with phosphate buffered saline (PBS). The birds were then bled, and tissue samples from bursa of Fabricius, cecal tonsils, liver, spleen, thymus and thigh muscle were harvested at 3, 6, 12, 24 and 48 h post-inoculation (p.i.). Typical positive signals were first observed as early as 3 h p.i. in lymphoid cells of cecal tonsils (the organ of primary affinity) and Kupfer cells of liver. Viral antigens in bursa were first found at 6 h p.i. which represents the occurrence of primary viraemia. After secondary viraemia, the virus appeared in spleen and thymus at 12 h p.i. These findings at early stages of viral infection, represented IBDV, IR499, as a very virulent strain with a rapid and generalized course, at in vivo level. مشاهده
224 انگليسی Standardization of different levels of lactose hydrolysis 1389 2009 Summary Yoghurt is a unique fermented dairy product, consumed throughout the world and the trend of consumption is increasing due to its unique health benefits. Yoghurt mix is often supplemented with MSNF (milk solids-non-fat), it may contain as much as 5.7 unhydrolysed lactose. Lactose can be hydrolysed with an enzyme lactase. Deficiency of lactase in lactose-intolerant persons leads to gastrointestinal disorders; such consumers may find it difficult to consume lactose unhydrolysed yoghurt. The production of lactose hydrolysed yoghurt by pre-hydrolysing of lactose in the yoghurt mix by enzymatic hydrolysis of lactose was studied using standard materials and methods. Among the different levels of enzyme examined (0.12 to 0.56 of yoghurt mix with increment of 0.04 at each level), 0.16, 0.32 and 0.52 were found suitable to hydrolyse 50, 70 and 90 lactose in the yoghurt mix, respectively. Lactose hydrolysed yoghurt (LHY) prepared from 70 followed by 50 lactose hydrolysed mix (LHM) had significantly higher scores for body and texture, flavour and overall acceptability than control (P0.05). However, 90 LHY secured significantly lower scores for sensory scores (P0.05) and lactose hydrolysis in mix had no effect on colour and appearance of yoghurt at all levels of hydrolysis. Lactose hydrolysis reduced the setting time by 30-45 min over control (210 min) (P0.05). The curd strength was checked by measuring penetration (mm/5sec) using a cone penetrometer. The yoghurt from 50, 70 and 90 LHM had shown significantly increased penetration of 280, 325 and 395 mm/5sec as compared to control (195 mm/5sec) and the amount of whey separation increased as the degree of lactose hydrolysis increased (P0.05). مشاهده
225 انگليسی Agonistic acts as possible indicator of food anticipatory 1388 2009 Summary Food anticipatory activity (FAA) was assessed in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) in two small raceways using demand-feeding (T2) and hand-feeding (t2). The fish of both raceways were subjected to restricted feeding (RF) at two times in two places and the fish distribution and/or trigger actuation, total agonistic behaviour between fish, and swimming speed were measured. Food anticipatory activity did not appear clearly when using the usual measures. The present study suggests that the expression of FAA is not limited to trigger actuations, fish positioning or swimming activity but may also be described by swimming speed and agonistic behaviour. مشاهده
226 فارسی Gastric ulceration in Persian Arab horses in Iran: 1388 2009 Summary Gastric endoscopy was performed in the 24 Persian Arab horses from several race training in Tehran and Tabriz for detection of gastric ulcer. Gastric ulcer was evident in 14 Persian Arab horses (58.3). Ten out of 14 ulcers were in nonglandular region of the stomach. The horses with the history of long term treatment with non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) had high prevalence of the gastric ulcer in the glandular mucosa. In this study the prevalence of gastric ulceration was higher in horses with active training program than others. Twelve out of 14 (71) horses with gastric ulcers had a history of active training. The difference of two groups in respect to training was not statistically significant (P0.05). The number of monocytes was significantly lower and concentrations of potassium were significantly higher in horses with gastric ulcer (P0.05). The results of this study showed that the frequency of gastric ulceration in the training Persian Arab horses was relatively high. Further studies are required to evaluate the clinical importance of ulcer in these horses. مشاهده
227 انگليسی Isolation and characterization of Lactobacillus species 1388 2009 Summary Lactic acid bacteria are characterized as gram-positive, usually non-motile, non-sporulating bacteria that produce lactic acid as a major or sole product of their fermentative metabolism. In this study, the presence of lactobacilli were investigated in the intestines of beluga (Huso huso) and Persian sturgeon (Acipenser persicus), inhabiting Caspian sea. The obtained data showed that various species of lactobacilli populations were found at high levels in the intestines of fishes. Total number of lactobacilli was about 105.3 and 106.4 cfu/g of intestinal content for beluga and Persian sturgeon, respectively. Physiological and biochemical characteristics of 84 strains isolated from intestines of beluga and Persian sturgeon revealed that these strains can be categorized into 2 metabolic groups; facultative and obligate heterofermentatives. The most common presumptive lactobacilli species were Lactobacillus sakei and Lactobacillus plantarum. The current study is the first report on the isolation of lactobacilli from the intestine of beluga and Persian sturgeon. مشاهده
228 انگليسی Effect of dietary oil seeds on n-3 fatty acid enrichment, 1388 2009 Summary A 42-day study was conducted to evaluate the influence of full-fat flaxseed (FS) and canola seed (CS) on broiler performance, fatty acid (FA) profile of meat, serum lipid content and antibody response to sheep red blood cells antigen (SRBC). A total of 324 one-day-old chicks were attributed to 6 experimental groups. C: control (soybean-corn); CS1:7.5 CS; CS2:15 CS; CS-FS:10 FS + 10 CS; FS1:7.5 FS; FS2:15 FS. The diets containing FS and CS had a significant negative effect on performance parameters (P0.01), however, feed consumption was not significantly (P0.05) different among treatments. Inclusion of FS and CS significantly increased (P0.01) the concentration of omega-3 FA and decreased the content of the arachidonic acid and n-6:n-3 polyunsaturated FA ratio. The serum lipid content and antibody titre against SRBC were not affected by dietary oil seeds (P0.05). مشاهده
229 فارسی Evaluation of Echinococcus granulosus coproantigens by 1388 2009 Summary Definitive hosts of the Echinococcus granulosus (E. granulosus) parasite are carnivores such as dogs, wolves and foxes. Detection of this parasite through faecal examination is not possible. In this study, dotblotting test for E. granulosus-specific coproantigens has been evaluated in dog. Three 2–3-month-old puppies were treated with piperazine and then faecal samples were collected as pre-infection samples. Seven days later, hydatid cysts from livers and lungs of sheep were fed to the puppies. Faecal samples were collected weekly for five weeks as post-infection samples. Soluble protein of pre- and post-infection faecal samples were prepared and dot-blotting test was conducted. In parallel experiments, the presence of E. granulosus eggs and also dot-blotting test were evaluated in 15 faecal samples of dogs collected from Razi Veterinary Hospital in Mashhad. For the detection of protein bands in pre-infection and fifth-week postinfection samples, polypeptide profile was analysed by sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). The results showed that incremental spot colours was observed in samples of experimentally infected dogs collected from the first to fifth post-infection weeks. In dot-blot analysis of faecal samples in 15 dogs, 4 samples were positive, and also these four samples were positive for E. granulosus eggs. In SDS-PAGE, one band in pre-infection and four bands in fifth-week post-infection samples were observed. The molecular weight of pre-infection sample of experimentally infected dogs was 16 kDa and the molecular weights of the samples collected five weeks post-infection were 14, 22, 36 and 45 kDa, respectively. In conclusion, the results of this experiment showed that the dot-blotting method does not produce a reliable outcome. For evaluation of the specific coproantigens of E. granulosus in dogs, coproantigen-ELISA test is needed. مشاهده
230 فارسی Macroscopic and microscopic studies of annual ovarian 1388 2009 Summary The aim of this investigation was to study macroscopic and microscopic structures of ovaries in Barbus grypus of Karoon river and their changes during annual maturation cycle. For this purpose, 120 adult B. grypus with a mean weight of 835.0 to 1012.0 g, were caught from Karoon river and transferred alive to the laboratory. After biometrical studies, the weights and morphological appearances of gonads were recorded. Then, tissue samples from the anterior, middle and posterior portions of the gonad were excised and fixed in Bouin’s solution. For microscopical studies, 5 μm paraffin sections were prepared and stained with haematoxylin and eosin and periodic acid Schiff (PAS). Gonado-somatic indices, macroscopical and microscopical changes of ovaries were studied during different months of the year. The results showed that gonado-somatic index ranged from 0.35 ± 0.080 in September to 2.25 ± 0.321 in June, and the maximum values were seen in June. Cyclic changes of ovarian maturation were divided into seven stages histologically. Ovarian maturation cycle in B. grypus began in late summer. Spawning period of B. grypus continued approximately from late April to early August, which indicated that B. grypus has a prolonged spawning season. Ovarian type of B. grypus was group synchronous with a capacity for multiple ovulations within a reproductive season. مشاهده
231 انگليسی Microsporidian infection in lizardfish, Saurida 1388 2009 Summary Lizardfish is one of the economically important fishes of Persian Gulf. In recent years, white, ellipsoid, round or elongated nodules were found in body cavity of this fish species which in preliminary microscopic examination were recognized as microsporidia. To determine the approximate prevalence rate of microsporidian infection and to establish its taxonomic position, 50 lizardfish were bought from the local markets of Ahvaz city (the center of Khozestan province – Iran) and transferred to the laboratory for parasitological examination. In the laboratory, internal organs including liver, kidneys, spleen, intestines, gonads and muscles were examined grossly and microscopically for the microsporidian infection using wet and dry smear (stained with Giemsa). Histopathological sections were prepared from the cysts of infected fishes and stained with haematoxylin and eosin to see the arrangement of the spores within the cysts. Some of these small cysts were sampled and fixed in 3 glutaraldehyde for electron microscopic study. According to the results, the total infection rate was 44. The infection rate in the peritoneum, stomach, gonads, intestine, spleen, muscles and liver were 16, 2, 4, 8, 2, 10 and 2, respectively. The cysts were mostly ovoid in shape with mean size of 4.3 ± 1.8 mm (0.8 to 10 mm). The spores were ovoid and uninucleate with mean diameter of 2.4 × 1.3 μm. Polar tube coiled between six and eight time, in one row. According to the histopathology and light and electron microscopic studies, the parasite was recognized as Glugea sp. مشاهده
232 انگليسی Macro anatomical investigations of the cranial cervical 1388 2009 Summary In the present study, eight specimens of sheep (1 year) of both sexes were dissected to provide a comprehensive description of the weight, allocation and nerve branches of the cranial cervical ganglion. The cranial cervical ganglion was found beneath the mandibular salivary gland. It was located ventromedial to tympanic bulla and ventrally to atlantic fossa. In three out of eight animals it was at the dorsal region of the base of epiglottic cartilage, medial to paramastoid process and medial of the external carotid and occipital arteries. The cranial cervical ganglion was fusiform and reddish in colour. The weight, length, width and thickness (Mean ± SE) of the cranial cervical ganglion in sheep were 0.12 ± 0.01 g, 8.52 ± 0.34 mm, 2.31 ± 0.03 mm and 2.00 ± 0.03 mm, respectively. It was found that the branches of the cranial cervical ganglion were internal carotid, external carotid and jugular nerves. مشاهده
233 انگليسی Microsporum canis infection in a red fox (Vulpes vulpes) 1388 2009 Summary A 3-month-old male red fox that was in contact with a Persian cat referred to the small animal hospital, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Tehran with multi-focal circular non-pruritic skin lesions and hair loss mainly on the head and extremities. A complete series of dermatologic tests such as Wood’s light examination, direct microscopic examination, and fungal culture were performed. The isolated pathogen was identified as Microsporum canis. The animal was treated using topical and systemic ketoconazole for 4 weeks. After treatment, the lesions were completely disappeared, and there was no recurrence of skin lesions during the follow-up period. It should be noted that asymptomatic cats may carry M. canis, thus may increase the risk of fungal infections for their owners and other pets as well. This is the first documented report of M. canis infection and its treatment in a red fox. مشاهده
234 انگليسی Concurrent atrioventricular block, sinus arrest and 1388 2009 Summary In human several kinds of electrocardiographic findings have been reported in association with pneumothorax such as decreased and/or alternating QRS amplitude (electrical alternans). However, electrocardiographic changes concurrent with pneumothorax have rarely been discussed in veterinary literature. A 3-year-old male crossbreed dog was presented with a history of car accident. Thoracic auscultation revealed decreased lung sounds. Heart sounds were also markedly muffled bilaterally. An electrocardiogram revealed sinus arrest in association with first degree atrioventricular block. Pneumothorax was the main finding in thoracic radiographs. Seven days after initial admission, thoracic radiographs revealed that pnuemothorax was resolved and all electrocardiographic abnormalities returned to normal limits. مشاهده
235 انگليسی Comparison of the effects of different doses of 1388 2009 Summary Seventy seven adult large mixed breed dogs of either sex were included in this study. The animals were randomly divided into four groups and received the following drug combinations intramuscularly: Group 1 xylazine (0.5 mg/kg) and acepromazine (0.05 mg/kg), Group 2 xylazine (0.8 mg/kg) and acepromazine (0.03 mg/kg), Group 3 xylazine (0.3 mg/kg) and acepromazine (0.08 mg/kg) and Group 4 xylazine (0.5 mg/kg) acepromazine (0.05 mg/kg) and atropine (0.04 mg/kg). Results showed no significant differences in the Pwave and QRS complex durations, PR interval and R waves among the 4 groups. QT interval significantly decreased following drug administration in group 4 compared to groups 1 (P = 0.03) and 3 (P = 0.004). There were significant increases in the QT interval in groups 1 (P = 0.001) and 3 (P = 0.01) after drug injections. Heart rate (HR) significantly decreased in groups 1, 2 and 3 after drug injections (P = 0.004, 0.01 and 0.03, respectively). There was a significant negative correlation between HR, PR and QT intervals, and a positive correlation between HR and P-wave amplitude. There were no significant differences between all groups in the incidence of first and second degree AV blocks. مشاهده
236 انگليسی PCR screening of the Wolbachia in some arthropods 1389 2009 Summary Wolbachia is an obligatory, intracellular α-proteobacterium which infect the reproductive and somatic tissues of some arthropod and nematode populations. Because there are not any available data on the presence of this bacterium in Iran, the present study was done to determine the presence of this bacterium among 30 species of arthropods and nematodes. After DNA extraction from samples, we screened Wolbachia spp. with specific primers using PCR method. A total of 770 arthropods (of 22 genera) and 41 nematodes (of 6 genera) were screened for Wolbachia. Overall 167 arthropod samples (18 colonies) from 7 genera and 1 nematode sample were found positive. Positive PCR products of 16S rDNA gene were digested with RsaI restriction enzyme and the types of Wolbachia were recognized as A supergroup of Wolbachia. مشاهده
237 انگليسی Effect of lead on thyroid function in sheep 1389 2009 Summary The objective of this experiment was to determine the effect of long-term low-dose administration of lead (Pb) on thyroid function in sheep. In this experiment 10 healthy Iranian male sheep, aged about oneyear- old were randomly allocated into two equal groups of control (n = 5) and experiment (n = 5). Both groups were kept under the same conditions of food and environment. The treatment group received lead acetate (5 mg/kg/day) orally for 8 weeks. Blood sampling of two groups was done on the same days, on days 0 (before receiving lead acetate in treatment group), 14, 28, 42, 56 and 70 after lead administration, every morning (8 to 9 a.m.). The function of the thyroid was evaluated by measuring the levels of serum thyroid hormones T3, T4, FT3, FT4 and TSH. The hepatic function in both groups was evaluated by measuring hepatic enzyme activities including alanin amino transferase (ALT), aspartate aminotreansferase (AST), γ glutamyl transferase (GGT), and total bilirubin (TBIL). Serum levels of T3 (on days 14, 56 and 70) T4 (on days 14, 28, 42, 56 and 70), FT3 (on days 56 and 70), FT4 (on days 42, 56 and 70) and TSH (on days 14, 28, 42, 56 and 70) significantly decreased in lead-treated sheep when compared to the control group (P0.05). Serum enzyme activities of ALT (on days 28 and 42), AST (on days 28, 42, 56 and 70) and TBIL (on days 28 and 70) in Pb treated sheep increased significantly in comparison with the control group (P0.05). Our findings suggest that Pb exposed sheep can be at risk of low thyroid function. مشاهده
238 انگليسی Mycological and histopathological findings of 1389 2009 Summary Disseminated candidiasis is an opportunistic infection in immunosuppressed animals by Candida species. The purposes of this study were to determine the predominant candidal forms in different tissues and tissue reactions. Sixteen dogs were selected in this study. The treatment dogs were immunosuppressed by intravenous administration of cyclophosphamide and after 5 days, they were challenged with 1 × 105 blastospores of C. albicans by intravenous injection. Both mycological and histopathological examinations were performed for detection of Candida in various tissues. The results showed that the highest counts of C. albicans were recovered from the lungs, followed by the kidneys, heart and liver on day 2 after challenge. The presence of yeast mixed with hyphal forms of C. albicans was confirmed in all tissues. In most tissues, the yeast cells of Candida were predominant, whereas hyphal forms, particularly true hyphae, were mostly found in the brain and eyes. مشاهده
239 فارسی Identification of lactic acid bacteria isolated from 1388 2009 Summary Morphological, cultural, physiological and biochemical characteristics were employed to identify lactic acid bacteria (LAB), isolated from drinking yoghurt in different areas in Fars province, Iran. From 18 drinking yoghurt samples a total of 673 LAB positives were determined, in which 117 (17.38) and 556 (82.62) were identified as lactic acid cocci and lactic acid bacilli, respectively. Additionally, our biochemical tests showed the occurence of 52 (44.44) Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris and 65 (55.56) Leuconostoc mesenteroides subsp. cremoris among lactic acid cocci, and in the case of lactic acid bacilli, Lactobacillus helveticus 85 (15.3); Lactobacillus plantarum 124 (22.3); Lactobacillus brevis 117 (21); Lactobacillus casei subsp. casei 86 (15.5) and Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus 144 (25.9). Among lactic acid cocci and bacilli, Leuconostoc mesenteroides subsp. cremoris and Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus were found to be the more dominant species, respectively. The current study constitutes the first step in the designing process of LAB starter cultures, in order to protect the typical organoleptic characteristics of traditional drinking yoghurt. However, in the future we can consider genetical characterization and selection of the most desirable strains which can assess their potential as starter cultures for commercial use. مشاهده
240 انگليسی Assessment of antimicrobial resistance of cultivable 1388 2009 Summary This study was performed to detect cultivable canine gastric Helicobacter-like organisms (GHLO’s) and to evaluate their sensitivity to common antibiotics in two groups of naturally infected dogs (pets and stray dogs). Gastric samples were taken from the body and antrum of 30 pets and 30 stray dogs. From each part of canine gastric mucosa, four gastroscopic samples were used for impression smear, rapid urease test (RUT), polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and culture examination. 88.5 and 95 of gastric samples were positive for the presence of GHLO’s in cytological and PCR examination, respectively. From 60 canine gastric cultures, successful growth happened in 17 cases. Antimicrobial sensitivity test was performed by disk method. All isolates of helicobacters were highly susceptible to polymyxin B, ampicillin, tetracycline, clarithromycin, erythromycin and gentamicin. Two isolated GHLO’s were resistant to metronidazole. One strain also was resistant to amoxiclav, ceftriaxone, norfloxacin and oxytetracycline. This matter could show the resistance of some strains of helicobacters to different antimicrobials in veterinary medicine. With regards to the results of this study, it is recommended that antibiotic sensitivity test or use of concurrent different antibiotics be tried in the case of treatment resistance. مشاهده
241 انگليسی Typing of Ovar-DRB1 second exon with PCR-RFLP 1388 2009 Summary Several studies have focused on polymorphisms of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) in sheep, Ovar-MHC. This molecule plays a pivotal role in antigen presentation for eliciting immune responses against invading pathogens. The best-characterized genetic control of disease resistance and immune response in animals is associated with MHC. Numerous molecular genetic investigations have been undertaken to detect polymorphisms of MHC genes and their association with resistance to infectious diseases. We have examined Ovar-DRB1 in DNA samples of 82 Shaul Sheep using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) method. Identities of 8 different patterns and 5 distinct DRB1 alleles among Iranian Shaul Sheep have been determined. PCR-RFLP analysis allows rapid identification of Ovar-DRB1 types and enables rapid discrimination between homozygotes and heterozygotes. Data obtained from the present study have revealed that the exon 2 region of Ovar-DRB1 was highly polymorphic in sheep. So PCR-RFLP can be applied to the analysis of this locus. مشاهده
242 انگليسی Effect of systemic antibacterial administration during 1388 2010 Summary A total of 183 coagulase negative Staphylococcal infected quarters and 64 uninfected quarters were randomly allotted to 4 experimental groups: infected quarters that did not receive any treatment (positive control group; n = 60); infected quarters that received Tylosin (n = 61) or Cefquinome (n = 62) and also uninfected quarters that did not receive any treatment were considered as negative control group (n = 64). Treated heifers received Tylosin or Cefquinome 10 to 14 days before the expected calving date. The bacteriological cure rate based on sampling obtained 3 days after calving was significantly higher (P0.01) in mammary glands treated with systemic Tylosin (85.3) than in the positive control group and mammary glands treated with systemic Cefquinome (69.4). At the same time Tylosin treated heifers had significantly lower (P0.01) somatic cell count scores compared to the positive control and Cefquinome groups. With the exception of one heifer that calved 8 days earlier than the expected calving date, there was no detectable antibiotic residues in the milk of the treated heifers on the 3rd day of lactation. مشاهده
243 انگليسی Comparison of in vivo with in situ mobile bag and three 1388 2009 Comparison of in vivo with in situ mobile bag and three step enzymatic procedures to evaluate protein disappearance of alfalfa hay and barley grain مشاهده
244 فارسی Production of bacteriocin by a novel Bacillus sp. strain 1389 2008 Summary Bacteriocins are proteinaceous antibacterial compounds that exhibit bactericidal activity against species closely related to the producer strain. The aim of this research was to investigate the production of bacteriocin by Bacillus spp. isolated from intestinal bacterial flora of the Caspian Frisian Roach (Rutilus frisii kutum). A bacteriocin produced by the bacterium Bacillus cereus strain RF 140 was identified. The antimicrobial activity started at the exponential growth phase and maximum activity was at the stationary growth phase. A crude bacteriocin obtained from culture supernatant fluid was inhibitory to indicator strains, including Listeria monocytogenes, Clostridium perfringens, and several species of Bacillus. Bacteriocin was stable at 80°C, but the activity decreased and was lost when the temperature reached 100 and 121°C, respectively. It was resistant to the proteolytic action of papain, catalase and amylase, but sensitive to proteinase K, pronase E and trypsin. Maximum bacteriocin activity was observed in the pH 4-9. This study indicates the importance of the bacteriocin produced by B. cereus strain RF 140 against food-borne pathogenic microorganisms such as L. monocytogenes and C. perfringens, and presents a potential for use as a biopreservative in food. مشاهده
245 انگليسی Characteristics of staphylococci isolated from clinical 1388 2009 Summary Staphylococci isolated from 98 mastitic cow’s milk samples were analyzed for the production of alpha, beta and delta-hemolysin on sheep, bovine and horse red blood cells and in vitro susceptibility to several antimicrobial agents. Out of a total of 18 isolated strains, 100 demonstrated hemolytic activity either alone or in combined forms. Among 8 isolates of S. aureus 3 isolates produced α/β and 5 produced α/β/δ hemolysins. From 10 isolates of coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS), 2 α, 2 δ, 2 α/δ and 4 α/β/δ hemolysins producing isolates were confirmed. S. aureus isolates were resistant to cloxacillin (100), penicillin (87) and ampicillin (62.5). CNSs showed resistance only to amoxicillin (60). The results suggest that a cow’s infected mammary glands are an important reservoir of hemolytic staphylococci. A high degree of S. aureus antimicrobial resistances was detected. مشاهده
246 انگليسی Reasons for culling of Holstein dairy cows in Neishaboor 1388 2009 Summary This study was designed to determine the culling rates of 23 Holstein dairy herds (with an average size of 180 cows per herd) in Neyshabur area in northeastern Iran over a period of three years from 2001 to 2003. The average annual culling rate was 13.1, (98.5 involuntary and 1.5 voluntary). Of the total disposals (1612 cows), 53.48 were culled by the end of five years of age. Poor fertility was the most important reason for culling (34.9 of disposals), followed by digestive disorders (12.6), alimentary problems (10.85), mastitis (9.6) and lameness (8.3). More detailed epidemiological studies are needed to plan and implement healthcare programs. These programs targeted toward diseases that lead to culling would be prerequisite for a profitable farming. مشاهده
247 انگليسی Antibody response against hydatid fluid, protoscolex and 1388 2009 Summary In this study, the immunogenicity of three types of antigens (hydatid fluid, protoscolices and whole body of E. granulosus) was investigated in lambs by ELISA. Sixteen 4–6-month-old lambs of mixed sexes were divided into 4 groups of 4 lambs (three immunized and one control group). Twelve lambs as immunized groups received 2 mg of hydatid fluid, protoscolices and whole body of E. granulosus antigens dissolved in 1 ml of PBS per immunization for each lamb, respectively. As an adjuvant, Freund’s complete adjuvant (FCA) was mixed with antigens to form a water-in-oil emulsion which was inoculated subcutaneously on day 1 of the trial. Each control lamb was inoculated with a total of 2 ml of PBS emulsified in equal volumes of FCA. Lambs were boosted on day 28 with the same preparation as described above except that FCA was replaced by Freund’s incomplete adjuvant (FIA). Three weeks after the second immunization, each lamb received a challenge infection with 2000 protoscolices intraperitoneally and also 10 gravid proglotid of E. granulosus orally. Sera were collected before and after immunization and serum antibodies were tested by ELISA. The results showed that the production of antibody had a significant difference between the test groups and the control (P0.05). Lambs immunized with whole body of E. granulosus showed the highest antibody production. The level of antibody production between the lambs immunized with hydatid fluid and the protoscolices was not different significantly (P0.05), whereas, the level of antibody production between the lambs immunized with hydatid fluid and whole body of E. granulosus was different significantly (P0.05). The results of this study showed that the antigens of whole body of E. granulosus might be a good candidate for immunization and diagnosis of hydatid cyst in the intermediate hosts of E. granulosus. مشاهده
248 انگليسی Antigenic detection of Feline Panleukopenia virus (FPV) 1388 2009 Summary The present study was carried out for the antigen detection of Feline panleukopenia virus (FPV) in diarrhoeic cats referred to the Veterinary Clinic of the School of Ahvaz University, in southwest Iran. Faecal samples were collected from 67 diarrhoeic household cats during 2005 to 2007. According to the age and clinical signs, the cats were divided into two groups; 6 months and 6 months, hemorrhagic and non hemorrhagic diarrhoea, respectively. Faecal samples were tested by immunochromatography assay test and 34 of cats were found positive to FPV antigen. The infection was more prevalent in cats less than 6 months (37) compared with animals older than 6 months of age (31). No significant differences were observed between different clinical signs, age and sex of the animals (P0.05). The affected cats had no history of vaccination against Tri-cat, but in the healthy cat population, 18 were vaccinated. The difference between the two groups was significant (P0.05). مشاهده
249 انگليسی Cast immobilization for treatment of dorsally subluxated 1388 2009 Summary Subluxation of the proximal interphalangeal joint (PIPJ or pastern joint) is an uncommon condition that occurs in the forelimb or hindlimb. Thoroughbred racehorses rarely show dorsal pastern subluxation (Thoroughbred ringbone) secondarily to an injury to the soft tissues supporting the fetlock. A 4-year-old Thoroughbred mare was presented with signs of lameness, swelling of the dorsal aspect of the pastern region of the right forearm and audible clicking sound when weight was placed on the limb. The condition seemed to have been developed as a consequence of extreme overexertion 4 days before referral. Radiographic examination of a non-weight bearing limb showed dorsal subluxation of the pastern joint. Under general anesthesia the affected limb was immobilized by cast after reduction of the luxated bone into the PIPJ. The affected limb was kept immobilized for four weeks. Then the cast was removed and the animal was given rest for two months. Consequently, weight bearing on the affected limb was improved and no signs of lameness were observed after six months. مشاهده
250 انگليسی Hypospadias in goats 1388 2009 Summary Hypospadias is an uncommon congenital defect of urinary tract in farm animals. This defect has been recorded rarely in calves, lambs and foals in the world. The aetiology of hypospadias is not well understood, it seems to be multifactorial and may be related to genetic, endocrinological, and environmental factors. During April to October 2007, twenty-four goat kids with sings of hypospadias were referred to the Veterinary Hospital of Kerman University, Iran. The age of patients ranged from one week to three months old. Penile and testicular hypoplasia were observed in all of them. In one case, ectopic penis (between anus and scrotum) was found. In one goat, opening of the urethra was located in the scrotal region and in the others it was in the penile position. Urine had leaked into the subcutaneous tissue of the ventral abdominal wall and prepuce but the skin of the swollen area was normal and no signs of urine scalding were visible. For the treatment of patients, penile urethrostomy at the proximal region of the defect was performed by suturing the urethral epithelium to the skin with 3-0 nylon sutures in a simple interrupted pattern. There was no complaint about postoperative complications from goat’s owners. مشاهده
251 انگليسی The effect of platelet activating factor on the motility and 1388 2009 Summary Platelet activating factor (PAF) is a novel signaling phospholipids that in addition to platelet activation has many biological properties. The acrosome reaction, as an essential step in mammalian fertilization, can occur in response to several agents such as PAF. Therefore, the present study aimed to assess the effect of PAF on the motility and acrosome reaction of ram spermatozoa. Semen was collected from 18 fertile rams and incubated with four levels of PAF (10-7, 10-8, 10-9 and 10-10 mol) at 37°C for 15, 30, 60 or 120 min. Sperm motility and acrosome reaction were analyzed at varying levels of PAF with different incubation periods. With increasing PAF concentration, acrosome reaction was enhanced, while sperm motility was reduced (P0.001). As the period of incubation increased, there was a gradual decrease in sperm motility and increase in acrosome reaction percentages. There were high correlation between PAF concentrations and incubation times on induction of acrosome reaction (R2 = 0.86) and reduction in sperm motility (R2 = 0.82). In addition, it was found that a PAF level of 10-9 and incubation time for 30 min is the best optimum for inducing acrosome reaction in ram spermatozoa without drastically decreases in sperm motility. The present study optimized for the first time the concentration and incubation time of PAF for induction of acrosome reaction in fresh ram spermatozoa. مشاهده
252 انگليسی L-methionine attenuates gentamicin nephrotoxicity in 1388 2009 Summary The clinical uses of gentamicin have so far been restricted due to nephrotoxicity and ototoxicity. The exact mechanism of nephrotoxicity is still unknown; however, it appears that free radicals may be involved. Methionine has previously been shown to alleviate oxidative stress involved in ototoxicity due to its antioxidant properties. Therefore, the effect of methionine supplementation on the gentamicin induced nephrotoxicity was examined in this study. Twenty eight male Wistar rats were randomly divided into 4 equal groups to receive a daily corresponding dose of either gentamicin (80 mg/kg B.W.; i.m.; group GN), Lmethionine (100 mg/kg B.W.; i.p.; MT), combination thereof (MG), and normal saline as control (CT). After slaughtering the animals on day 11, values of blood urea nitrogen (BUN), serum creatinine concentration (SCr), urinary gamma glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT) activity, and renal cortical reduced glutathione (GSH) contents with histopathologic investigations were measured. In group GN, biochemical profiles showed a remarkable increase in BUN, SCr and urinary GGT concentration, and depletion of renal cortical of GSH. In addition, histopathologic studies revealed severe acute tubular necrosis, congestion and hyaline casts, verifying gentamicin-induced nephrotoxicity. In group MG, only mild epithelial changes and renal congestion were prominent findings. Moreover, these changes in rats given the combined therapy (MG) were significantly less than those of group GN, thereby suggesting that supplemented L-methionine ameliorate gentamicin nephrotoxicity in rat. In group MT, only medullary congestion was seen without change in the biochemical factors as was in the CT group with normal kidney structure. Generally, results of this study showed that methionine may significantly prevent gentamicin nephrotoxicity, removing the oxidative stress. مشاهده
253 انگليسی Ultrasonographic findings of some ocular structures in 1388 2009 Summary Ultrasonography is a relatively easy, safe and non-invasive examination method which can be used in diagnosis of ocular disorders as complementary to routine ophthalmic examinations. As there has been no collated study undertaken on the normal measurements of ocular structures in Caspian miniature horse, obtaining these measurements could be a benchmark to diagnose some of the diseases and eye problems of this miniature breed. Transpalpebral ultrasonographic scanning of left and right eyes of six Caspian horses was performed using a 10-13 MHz transducer. Qualitative ultrasonographic findings of the eyes were described and measurements of the ocular structures were obtained. Mean ± standard deviation of the anterior-posterior length of the eye axis, thickness of the lens, depth of the anterior chamber and depth of vitreous were as 32.9 ± 1.0, 10.8 ± 0.8, 3.0 ± 0.5 and 18.3 ± 1.0 mm, respectively. مشاهده
254 انگليسی Morphological and histological study of superior 1388 2009 Summary In this study ten pairs of superior gland of third eyelid of 10 adult male camels free of apparent ocular disease were examined to compare the normal anatomical and histological properties of these glands. After dissecting, all of the glands were characterized and measured (length and width) on both the left and right side. In the camels, the superior gland of the third eyelid was oval shaped and irregular in outline. The gland was located within the orbit on the medial aspect of the eyeball in animals that possess a nictitating membrane. Posterior surface of the gland was convex and attached to the nictitating membrane. The anterior surface that is contacted with the bulb of the eye was concave. The mean length of the superior gland of the third eyelid was 28.7 ± 2.7 mm and 27.2 ± 2.4 mm in the left and right side, respectively in the anteriorposterior direction. The mean width was 17.4 ± 0.8 mm and 16.1 ± 0.9 mm on the left and right side, respectively in the superior-inferior dimension. There was significant difference between the width of the left and right superior gland of the third eyelid. The mean width of the left superior gland was greater than the right (P0.05). The histology of the gland revealed secretary units of tubuloacinar and serous with scattered alveolar units. Secretory cells had the typical appearance of serous cells. Tubuloacinar units completely surrounded the hyaline cartilage of the third eyelid. The Masson Trichrome stained connective tissue septae surround the individual acinus and tubules in camel superior gland. Larger sheets of connective tissue with inter and intralobular ducts as well as veins and arteriols were found and separated the gland into lobules. مشاهده
255 انگليسی Cryopreservation of in situ cool stored buffalo (Bubalus 1388 2009 Summary The objectives of this study were to investigate the effects of testis-epididymis cool storage on viability and progressive motility of buffalo epididymal sperm (EP) and to compare the influences of two basic semen extenders on post thaw EP viability and progressive motility. Abattoir collected buffalo testicles were allotted to three storage times (0 h: n = 10; 24 h: n = 10 and 48 h: n = 12). Following storage, isolated sperm were subjected to cryopreservation with two different cryoprotective media: whole cow milk-7glycerol (MG) or egg yolk-tris-citrate-7glycerol (EYG). Pre freeze and post thaw sperm progressive motility and viability were evaluated. Results indicated that viability and progressive motility of sperm decreased after 24 h cool storage of the epididymis (P0.05). There was no difference between 24 and 48 h of storage on sperm viability (P0.05), but progressive motility decreased across storage times (24 h versus 48 h: P0.05). Cryopreservation severely influenced viability and progressive motility of EP (P0.05). Milk-7glycerol protected viability and progressive motility of EP against cold shock more efficiently than EYG (P0.05). The results of this study demonstrate that it is possible to preserve buffalo EP within the epididymis at 4°C short term, but that it has poor freezability upon recovery by basic semen freezing protocols. مشاهده
256 انگليسی Study on the growth and survival of Escherichia coli 1388 2009 Summary The behaviour of Escherichia coli O157:H7 was studied during the manufacture and storage of Iranian white cheese in brine. Cheese was manufactured using pasteurized cow milk and inoculated with E. coli O157:H7 with inoculum level of 103 cfu/ml. Four treatments were designed. Cheeses were made with or without starter culture and kept immersed in 6 or 8 salt brine during ripening and storage. Cheese samples were analysed for E. coli O157:H7 during manufacture and storage period. During cheese manufacture the number of E. coli O157:H7 increased by 106 cfu/g, but during ripening and cheese storage the number of organism decreased significantly in the cheese samples made with starter culture (P0.05). The results showed an inhibitory effect of starter culture on E. coli O157:H7, but the organism can survive in this kind of cheese for up to 60 days of storage, respecting using starter culture, salt brine concentration and cheese storage time. مشاهده
257 فارسی Key words: Escherichia coli O157:H7, Iranian white cheese, Starter culture, Brine salting 1388 2009 Summary The behaviour of Escherichia coli O157:H7 was studied during the manufacture and storage of Iranian white cheese in brine. Cheese was manufactured using pasteurized cow milk and inoculated with E. coli O157:H7 with inoculum level of 103 cfu/ml. Four treatments were designed. Cheeses were made with or without starter culture and kept immersed in 6 or 8 salt brine during ripening and storage. Cheese samples were analysed for E. coli O157:H7 during manufacture and storage period. During cheese manufacture the number of E. coli O157:H7 increased by 106 cfu/g, but during ripening and cheese storage the number of organism decreased significantly in the cheese samples made with starter culture (P0.05). The results showed an inhibitory effect of starter culture on E. coli O157:H7, but the organism can survive in this kind of cheese for up to 60 days of storage, respecting using starter culture, salt brine concentration and cheese storage time. مشاهده
258 انگليسی Canine atopic/allergic dermatitis in Mashhad (North- 1388 2009 Summary The aim of this study was to elucidate the prevalence of canine atopic/allergic dermatitis in Mashhad (North-East of Iran) in a hospital-population of dogs and to evaluate its clinical features according to the diagnostic criteria of the disease by Willemse and Prélaud. Among 111 canine patients with dermatologic problems, admitted to Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Veterinary Teaching Hospital between October 2007 and October 2008, atopic/allergic dermatitis was diagnosed in a total of 8 dogs by combining the compatible historical evidence and clinical signs and the seasonality of the clinical signs. The affected dogs consisted of 2 males and 6 females (females predisposition). Terriers were the most often represented breeds (6/8), which is mainly because of overrepresentation of this breed in our hospital. The age of the dogs when presented varied from 6 months to 4.5 years (median: 1.7 years). Pruritus, the outstanding clinical sign in all the 8 dogs, was either localized (5/8) or generalized (3/8). Most of the animals (6/8) had non-seasonal pruritus. Skin lesions were generalized (64) or localized (36), involving the head, the ear flaps, the neck, the lateral and dorsal aspects of the body trunk, the axillae and ventral chest, the abdomen and inguinal region, the perineum and the feet. Otitis externa, seen in 3/8 cases, was unilateral (1/3) or bilateral (2/3), either non-exudative or purulent. مشاهده
259 انگليسی Stereological study of Arabian ram testis during 1388 2009 Summary Quantitative microscopic structure of testis in adult Arabian rams, raised under closed grazing system in Khuzestan province of Iran, was studied in four seasons over a one year period. For this purpose, thirty adult rams were randomly selected and the live weight and scrotal circumference of rams were recorded. At the beginning of each season, among the study group, four rams were randomly selected, slaughtered and their left testes were removed and weighed. For microscopic studies, tissue samples were excised from the left testes, fixed in Bouin’s solution and embedded in paraffin. Cross-sections (5 μm thickness) were stained with haematoxylin-eosin and evaluated with quantitative techniques. The results showed that scrotal circumferences, weight and volume of testis varied significantly throughout the year, with the lowest values in early summer (P0.05). Seminiferous tubule diameter was highest in early winter (220.97 ± 12.15 μm). Also, relative and total volumes of seminiferous tubules and germinal epithelium gradually increased during the summer and autumn, with highest values in early winter. Higher relative volume of seminiferuos tubuli lumina (P0.05) was found in early summer (12.15 ± 0.35). Lower relative volume of interstitial tissue (P0.05) was found in early winter (15.70 ± 0.49). Scrotal circumference was significantly correlated with the seminiferous tubule diameter and the total volume of seminiferous tubules (r = 0.70, P0.01). The results indicated that the stereological structure of testis in Arabian rams raised under closed grazing system in the Khuzestan province of Iran is highly affected by season. مشاهده
260 فارسی Molecular identification of anaplasmosis in goats using a 1388 2009 Summary In this study blood samples were collected from 193 goats in north and northeastern Iran with the aim to develop a PCR-RFLP assay, as a specific and sensitive diagnostic tool enabling direct and concurrent identification of two Anaplasma species (A. ovis, A. marginale) in goats. A polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for amplification of a fragment of the major surface protein 4 (msp4) gene from A. ovis and A. marginale was developed. The results revealed that 123 out of 193 blood samples were positive for Anaplasma spp. infection. All 43 positive samples detected by microscopic examination were approved as positive by PCR, whereas no rickettsials were seen through light microscopy in the other 80 PCR positive cases. All positive samples were A. ovis as confirmed by restriction fragments length polymorphism (RFLP) method. Our results showed that PCR-RFLP of the msp4 gene could be a useful method for the detection of A. ovis in goats. مشاهده
261 انگليسی The effect of short-time microwave exposures on 1388 2009 Summary Salmonella species show different disease syndromes and host specificity, according to their antigenic profile. Salmonella enterica serovar typhimurium is one of the most frequently isolated serovar from foodborne outbreaks. Poultry meat has been identified as one of the principal foodborne sources of Salmonella. In this study, the effect of microwave treatment of chicken meat samples which were inoculated with Salmonella typhimurium were investigated. Drumette of broiler carcasses were soaked in fully growth of Salmonella typhimurium in BHI broth. The swab samples were taken from the inoculated samples, after different times of radiation (5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30 and 35 sec), using a domestic microwave oven at full power. The bacterial counts were performed on XLD agar. After each experiment the surface temperature of treated samples were measured. It was concluded that the microwave radiation which enhances the surface temperature more than 72°C, can eliminate the superficial contamination of chicken meat with Salmonella typhimurium. مشاهده
262 انگليسی A serological survey on Brucella canis in companion 1388 2009 Summary Canine brucellosis is a zoonotic infectious disease caused by Brucella canis. This bacterium can be transmitted to humans as well as other dogs. It is a significant cause of reproductive failure, predominantly in kennels. The aim of this study was to determine the seroprevalence of Brucella canis infection in companion dogs referred to the Veterinary Hospital of Shahid Chamran University of Ahvaz in the southwest of Iran. A total of 102 blood samples were obtained from dogs between 2006 and 2008. Sera were examined by Immunochromatography assay. The studied dogs were divided into two age groups (1-5 years and 5 years) and based on clinical signs (related signs to brucellosis such as scrotum dermatitis, diskospondylitis, lymphadenitis, abortion and infertility) into two groups also. Prevalence to Brucella canis antibodies in these dogs was 4.90 (5 of 102). The infection had more prevalence in dogs above 5 years (9.3; 4 of 43) in comparison with dogs less than 5 years (1.69; 1 of 59), but the difference between the two age groups was not statistically significant (P0.05). There was no significant difference between the different sexes either (P0.05). Nevertheless, the difference for related signs to brucellosis was significant between the groups (P=0.018). Three out of 14 cases (21.4) which had clinical signs and two out of 88 cases (2.3) which had no clinical signs were seropositive. This study showed that antibody against Brucella canis is present among the companion dog population of the Ahvaz area and preventive measures should be taken to control pathogenic bacteria. مشاهده
263 انگليسی Prevalence of parasitic infections in the red fox (Vulpes 1388 2009 Summary Red foxes and golden jackals are the two most abundant wild carnivores of Iran which have the ability to adopt a variety of habitats and human proximity. Despite this, very few investigations on their helminth and none on their external parasites infections have been carried out in Iran. Between 2003 and 2004, a total of 79 jackals and 37 foxes were collected from 3 different climatic zones of Iran and examined for helminth and ectoparasite infections. A number of parasites including: Mesocestoides lineatus, Taenia hydatigena, Dipylidium caninum, Diplopylidium nolleri, Ancylostoma caninum, Uncinaria stenocephala, Toxocara canis, Onicola canis, Dirofilaria immitis, Rhipicephalus sp., Ctenocephalides canis and Pulex irritans were common parasites between jackals and foxes, whereas Echinococcus granulosus, Spirocerca lupi, Rictularia affinis, Macracanthorhynchus hirudinaceus, Dermacentor sp. parasitized jackals and Jeuyoxiella pasquali, Ixodes ricinus, Haemaphysalis sp. were collected only from foxes. All ectoparasites, S. lupi and O. canis reported from jackals and foxes in this study represent new host and distribution records. مشاهده
264 انگليسی The development of mouse early embryos in vitro in 1388 2009 Summary This study was designed to examine the effects of retinoic acid adding to cumulus and/or fibroblast cells monolayer on the development of mouse early embryos. One-cell mouse embryos were obtained from NMRI mice after superovulation by an intraperitoneal injection of 5 IU equine chorionic gonadotrophin (eCG) followed 48 hrs later by 5 IU human chorionic gonadotrophin (hCG). Mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEF) were obtained from mouse fetuses and cumulus cells (CC) were prepared from mouse cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs). To produce monolayer of cumulus and fibroblast cells, 1.0 × 105 cells/ml were plated into culture dishes in 100 μl droplets. The collected mouse embryos were cultured randomly into six different conditions, being supplemented (experiment, Exp) or not (control, Con) with 0.28 μg/ml of retinol acetate methyl-β-cyclodextrin (RA) for 96 hrs at 37°C in 5 CO2 in air, including: (1) culture media only (Con 1); (2) culture media plus RA (Exp 1); (3) co-culture with CC (Con 2); (4) co-culture with CC plus RA (Exp 2); (5) co-culture with MEF (Con 3) and (6) co-culture with MEF plus RA (Exp 3). The culture medium was Alpha Modification of Minimum Essential Medium Eagle (α-MEM) + 10 fetal bovine serum (FBS) with 100 IU/ml penicillin and 100 μg/ml streptomycin. The proportions of embryos passing the two-cell block were significantly higher in the MEF (Con 3) group compared to the other treatment groups (P0.05). The percentage of the two-cell passed embryos developing to the blastocyst stage was significantly higher in the co-culture groups than that of the culture medium alone (P0.05). After 96 hrs in culture, the rate of blastocyst stage for both groups of CC co-culture treatment (Con 2 and Exp 2) was identical but, adding RA into the MEF co-culture (Exp 3) resulted significantly lower in vitro development than that of the Con 3 group (29.2 vs. 57.7, P0.05). These results suggest that supplementation of co-culture groups with RA could not affect the embryos passing the block and developing to the blastocyst stage, although the presence of RA into the culture medium alone may improve passing the critical two-cell stage. Also, in vitro addition of RA to cells without receptors for retinol during long term co-culture may result early embryonic growth retardation مشاهده
265 انگليسی Mitochondrial DNA characterization of Sergentomyia 1388 2009 Summary Sergentomyia sintoni is the natural vector of Sauroleishmania species of lizards. This sandfly is abundance in and around the burrows of great gerbils. S. sintoni was collected from peridomestic animal shelters, inside and around houses and also from the nearby burrows of the gerbil reservoir hosts, Rhombomys opimus, in several provinces of Iran. Mitochondrial Cytochrome b (Cyt b) of sandflies, which is a maternally-inherited gene marker was used to characterize different haplotypes and populations of this sandfly. The analyses were based on the last 717 bp of the Cyt b gene followed by 20 bp of intergenic spacer and the transfer RNA ser (TCN) gene, i.e. the 737 bp fragment (without primers) amplified with the primers CB1-SE and CB-R06. The ITS-rDNA gene was also used to find Leishmania infections in S. sintoni. Cyt b 5´ fragment sequences were obtained from 22 S. sintoni, Cyt b 3´ fragment sequences were also obtained from 22 and Cyt b Long fragment sequences were obtained from 19 S. sintoni. By using nested PCR of ITSrDNA gene, at least two species of L. major and L. gerbilli s.l. were found in S. sintoni. It needs further studies for considering the vectorial role of S. sintoni in ZCL foci, it’s important role in maintaining L. major infections in the great gerbil and transmitting Leishmania species to people and among the reservoir hosts. مشاهده
266 انگليسی Development of a multiplex polymerase chain reaction 1387 2009 Summary Bovine brucellosis is a zoonotic disease distributed worldwide and characterized by abortion and reduced fertility in cows. Since brucellosis eradication programme in Iran uses vaccination, test, slaughter and quarantine as control measures, it is essential to distinguish vaccine strains from strains that cause infections among vaccinated cattle herds. We developed and evaluated a multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay to identify and differentiate the vaccine strains from wild field isolates, including all Brucella types usually found in cattle in Iran. Two pair primers were used to amplify eri and wbo regions of DNA sequences those strain-specific targets for B. abortus S19 and RB51 vaccine strains. This multiplex PCR method evaluated with DNA from reference strains, two vaccine strains and 29 field strains of Brucella. The results showed that the multiplex PCR can differentiate Brucella isolates into three categories: strain 19 (S19), strain RB51 and field strains. This PCR assay was successfully used, compared with traditional method to differentiate of S19 and RB51 from field Brucella isolates. مشاهده
267 انگليسی Using various antigen preparations to produce 1387 2009 Summary The objective of this study was to compare different antigen preparations to produce monoclonal antibodies against bovine leukaemia virus gp51SU. The four antigen preparations for immunization of BALB/c mice were: CL: BLV-FLK cell lysate, UF: a fraction of CL (between 30 and 100 kDa), WVP: whole virus particles and SP: with ion exchange chromatography, gp51SU was semipurified. A total of nine successful fusions were performed which resulted in production of 23 monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) specific against gp51SU. The highest ratio of specific hybridoma colonies in each fusion was with SP preparation. Based on the reactivity of the mAbs in Western blotting, mAbs were classified into four groups: anti-gp51SU (23 mAbs), anti-gp30TM (8 mAbs), anti-Pr72 (5 mAbs) and antibodies against other viral proteins (7 mAbs). Some of the anti-gp51SU mAbs reacted with more than one band in Western blotting, suggesting that these colonies recognized not only gp51SU but also its precursors. مشاهده
268 انگليسی Application of a modified human enzyme-linked 1388 2009 Summary Cystic hydatid disease (hydatidosis) is one of the most important zoonosis that is caused by the larval stage of Echinococcus granulosus. As its diagnosis by clinical symptoms alone is difficult and confusing, serologic diagnostic techniques are used to confirm the disease. These techniques can also be used for epidemiologic studies. The present study was performed with a commercial human enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kit for the diagnosis of hydatidosis in sera collected from sheep with hydatidosis. Sera were collected from 68 cases of hydatidosis proven by inspection of hydatid-infested livers and lungs of the sheep slaughtered in Mashhad abattoir and also from 11 healthy cases. Sera samples were examined by ELISA kit. The results showed that out of 68 cases of hydatidosis in sheep, 67 samples had positive absorbance. Also from 11 healthy samples, 9 had negative absorbance value. The sensitivity and specificity of the test were 99 and 82, respectively. Therefore, it can be concluded that it is possible to use human ELISA kit for the diagnosis of hydatidosis in sheep. مشاهده
269 فارسی Morphology of retinal photoreceptor layer in continuous 1388 2009 Summary The morphology of retinal photoreceptor layer was studied in continuous light-exposed and darkadapted domestic male cats (Felis catus). The eyes of 12 healthy adult cats (4 in continuous light-exposed group, 4 in continuous dark-adapted group, and 4 in control group) were routinely fixed and studied by electron microscope. Results showed that the general structure of photoreceptor layer in this animal was the same as other species; rods were elongated and slender cells. Cone photoreceptors were shorter and stouter than rod photoreceptors. Cats exposed to continuous light for 24 hrs showed increased numbers of melanosome in retinal epithelial layer. The outer segments of rods and cones were long. Vacuoles increased the extracellular space and some condensed nuclei were observed in the inner segments. Continuous darkadapted group showed a few melanosomes. In this group, the extracellular space, large swelling and condensed nuclei were more than those in other groups. مشاهده
270 انگليسی Toxic effects of hydroalcoholic extract of Citrullus 1387 2009 Summary Citrullus colocynthis (CCT) is used in traditional medicine to inhibit the implantation of embryos. The objective of this study was to determine the number of embryos per pregnancy and the mortality rate in pregnant mice. 115 vaginal plug-positive mice were divided into 4 groups. The animals were given 30, 60 and 120 mg/kg hydroalcoholic extract of CCT until 17th day of gestation. Control group was fed with solvent. At the day 17, the animals were sacrificed and the number of pregnant mice and embryos per pregnancy were counted. We found that while in 30 mg/kg group the mean number of embryos per pregnancy was around 10, no embryo was found in other groups. Furthermore, 3 out of 30 mice in 30 mg/kg group died, while in 60 mg/kg and 120 mg/kg groups the number of death was 7 and 14, respectively. In conclusion, CCT reduces the number of embryos and increases the mortality rate in pregnant mice in a dosedependent manner. مشاهده
271 انگليسی Assessment of epididymal sperm obtained from 1388 2008 Summary Testicles were isolated from dromedary camels in a local slaughterhouse at breeding and non-breeding seasons. Sperms were recovered from different parts of the epididymis (caput, corpus and cauda) and stained separately on slide glasses by eosin nigrosin staining method and dried by a hair dryer and carried to the laboratory. In the lab, slides were observed for evaluation of the proportion of live sperms and the proportion of sperms with cytoplasmic droplets under a light microscope. The proportions of live sperm cells were 76.8, 86.9 and 88.8 for caput, corpus and cauda epididymis, respectively. In the left testicle these values were 85.3, 83.1 and 88.4 for caput, corpus and cauda epididymis, respectively. No significant difference was also observed in the live sperm cells obtained from right and left testicles. The proportions of live sperm cells were 83, 90 and 86 in breeding and 80, 82 and 90.5 in non-breeding seasons for caput, corpus and cauda epididymis, respectively, which were not significantly different. The proportions of live sperms with protoplasmic droplets were 66, 70 and 74 in breeding and 73, 70 and 82 in non-breeding seasons for caput, corpus and cauda epididymis, respectively, which were not significantly different. The proportions of live sperms with protoplasmic droplets were significantly different neither among right and left testicles nor in different parts of epididymis. We concluded that sperm cells could be obtained from every part of the epididymis. مشاهده
272 انگليسی Effects of ephedrine and its combination with caffeine on 1388 2008 Summary The effect of ephedrine at 0 (E0C0, n = 10), 8 (E8C0, n = 10) and 10 (E10C0, n = 10) mg per kg metabolic body weight or mixture of ephedrine/caffeine, at doses of 8 mg ephedrine/80 mg caffeine (E8C80, n = 10), or 10 mg ephedrine/100 mg caffeine (E10C100, n = 7), per kg metabolic body weight on body composition of feedlot Mehraban ram lambs (8-month-old) was studied. The lambs were fed for 95 days with a fattening ration ad lib., and ephedrine and ephedrine/caffeine, dissolved in distilled water, were drenched daily. The control sheep (E0C0) were drenched with distilled water only. Ephedrine/caffeine mixture caused a significant decrease in weight and daily gain. Dressing percentage was not affected by treatment, but carcass depreciation (shrinkage) was significantly reduced in E10C100 treatment (1.3 vs. 2.0 in control lambs). The mixture significantly increased the crude protein (in dry matter) but decreased dry matter and fat contents of the carcass meat. Internal fat (absolute values and as a percentage of slaughter weight) was significantly higher in the control sheep as compared with other groups. Serum glucose concentration was significantly lower in the control than in other groups. Serum cholesterol levels increased in groups receiving the ephedrine (E8C0 and E10C0) compared with the control, but caffeine returned their values to the control levels. Total serum protein level increased slightly but significantly in E8C0 and E10C100 groups, and serum total lipid and triacylglycerol levels did not change significantly. The results showed that oral administration of ephedrine/caffeine altered the body composition of Mehraban fat-tailed rams, and that feeding of 10 mg ephedrine and 100 mg caffeine per kg metabolic body weight (E10C100) was most effective in changing the body composition. مشاهده
273 انگليسی Clinical, haematologic and pathologic aspects of 1388 2007 Summary Studies on the pathogenesis of Babesia ovis infection following blood transfusion of infected blood to sheep with intact spleen and splenectomised sheep showed that all animals developed fever concurrent with a parasitaemia that were occurred within 2-4 days post-inoculation (dpi), clinical signs of disease were severe and included varying degrees of anorexia, listlessness, anaemia, moderate jaundice and haemoglobinuria. In intact animals, the hyperthermia returned to normal on the fourth day after the peak pyrexia and parasitaemia was eliminated within the course of the disease in four cases. However, other cases which had severe clinical signs of the disease were died. The parasitaemia reached a maximum of 7 in splenectomised sheep 7-8 dpi; in animals with intact spleen, the parasitaemia was much lower and reached to a maximum of 1. In both of the infected groups, the red cell counts, haematocrit and haemoglobin concentration fell soon after the appearance of parasitaemia, reaching their lowest levels simultaneously with the peak parasitaemia. The total leukocyte counts were significantly decreased. The total serum bilirubin levels of the infected group rose above the normal and peaked on 14-16 dpi; the rise in AST, BUN and creatinine levels were slight. The kidneys and lungs were the organs most severely affected by experimental infection with B. ovis. Acute alveolar oedema and infiltration of neutrophils and macrophages in interstitial tissue were present, acute diffuse proliferative glomerulitis, congestion and stasis in glomerular capillaries and acute tubular necrosis were also present. مشاهده
274 انگليسی Willingness to pay for contract health care services in 1388 2008 Summary A study was undertaken in southern peninsular state of India, the Tamil Nadu State, to assess the farmers’ “Willingness to pay” (WTP) for receiving annual health care services to their dairy animals. The districts of the state were categorized as “Livestock developed” (LD) and “Livestock under developed” (LUD) based on initial base line developed. Contingent valuation (CV) approach was used to study the farmers’ maximum WTP value for two types of health care services: (a) providing health care services at government veterinary centres (in-centre) and (b) extending health care services at farmers’ doorsteps (farm gate). A payment card (PC) format was used to assess the farmers’ maximum WTP for receiving health care services to cows and buffaloes. The Maximum Likelihood Interval technique was used on interval midpoints. Overall mean WTP value for annual health care services in cows was INR 202.34 for in-centre services, while it was INR 261.66 for home services. Similarly, overall mean WTP value for annual health care services in buffaloes was INR 135.78 for in-centre services and INR 186.20 for farm gate services. The mean stated WTP values for both in-centre and at home services in the LD districts were highest as compared to LUD districts, leaving a scope for increased cost recovery. These WTP estimates exhibited the scope of cost recovery measure that can be implemented in lieu of free services extended currently, besides presenting a clue for designing a “vet-claim” policy in line with “medi-claim” policy for humans. مشاهده
275 انگليسی Isolation of Escherichia coli O157:H7 from ground beef 1388 2008 Summary Escherichia coli O157:H7 is an important human pathogen causing haemorrhagic colitis, haemolyticuraemic syndrom and thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura. In this study, 100 ground beef samples were collected randomly from beef markets in June 2004. For isolation of the bacteria, samples were firstly enriched in modified trypticase soy broth, followed by plating onto sorbitol MacConkey agar supplemented with cefixime and potassium tellurite. Consequently, the suspected non-sorbitol fermenting (NSF) colonies were confirmed by biochemical tests and employed for polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay, using primers specific for O157 and H7 antigens gene. In this study, 7 NSF E. coli colonies were isolated; in PCR assay only one of them confirmed as E. coli O157:H7. The PCR assay employed in this study may be a possible alternative to immunological assays which detects somatic and flagellar antigens. مشاهده
276 انگليسی Determination of somatic and excretory-secretory 1388 2008 Summary Human fascioliasis due to unknown species and animal fascioliasis caused by both or one of Fasciola spp. are commonly seen in Iran. To compare electrophoretic patterns of somatic and excretory-secretory antigens of F. hepatica and F. gigantica by sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE), the adult flukes were collected from infected slaughtered bovine livers. E/S and somatic antigens were prepared by incubation and homogenizing of adult flukes, respectively. The antigens were electrophoresed using SDS-PAGE. Following SDS-PAGE, E/S proteins of F. hepatica and F. gigantica were characterized by the presence of 6 common major peptide bands with molecular weights of 15, 16, 20, 24, 33 and 42 kDa. Differences between F. hepatica and F. gigantica somatic proteins were noticed. F. gigantica had 11 major protein bands with molecular weights of 18, 22, 24, 33, 36, 42, 46, 57, 60, 62 and 68 kDa, whereas F. hepatica had proteins characterized by 8 distinct bands with molecular weights of 18, 22, 24, 33, 36, 42, 46 and 62 kDa. مشاهده
277 انگليسی Displacement of the abomasum to the left side and 1388 2008 Displacement of the abomasum to the left side and pyloric obstruction in a goat مشاهده
278 انگليسی Oesophageal and gastric gongylonemiasis in a donkey 1388 2008 Summary Members of the genus Gongylonema are nematodes that commonly infect ruminants, particularly sheep and goats. An 11-year-old donkey mare was referred to the Veterinary Teaching Hospital, School of Veterinary Medicine, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad, northeastern Iran, with a history of acute colitis. At post-mortem examination, there were several white to pink zigzag tracks in the mucosa of the oesophagus and the stomach which contained long white worms. Microscopic examination of the parasite revealed that it was Gongylonema pulchrum. مشاهده
279 انگليسی Exocrine pancreatic adenocarcinoma in 1388 2008 Summary A 4-year-old female miniature pincher with a 40-day history of weight loss, lethargy and vomiting was referred to Small Animal Hospital, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Tehran. The case also had severe jaundice, chronic diarrhoea and steatorrhoea. The efforts for saving the life of the case were not successful and finally the animal died of hypovolaemic shock and electrolyte imbalance. At necropsy, the body was cachectic, oedematous and severely icteric. A haemorrhagic ascitic fluid, without fibrin and clot was also noticed in the abdominal cavity. Firm tumour masses originated from pancreas were seeded to peritoneum with multiple attachments to duodenum. There were also metastasis to regional lymph nodes and liver. Based on histopathologic characteristics of the tumour, the mass was diagnosed as relatively welldifferentiated exocrine pancreatic adenocarcinoma. مشاهده
280 انگليسی Use of three-dimensional ultrasonography of the eye 1388 2008 Summary This study was conducted to determine the use of three-dimensional ultrasonography (3DU) in ocular imaging of the dog and measuring of its optical axis. 12 healthy mixed-breed dogs including 6 males and 6 females were studied. 3DU of the eyes were done using a 5–12 MHz linear trapezoid transducer. 3DU of the eyes were evaluated and the normal optical long axis through a line between the cornea and the optic disc in three-dimensional images were measured. In 3D images, vitreous body, anterior chamber, and lens cortex and its nucleus had a distinct anechogenic to hypoechogenic pattern. Details of the eyes compartments were better observed by rotating the images in all possible angles and planes using 3D facilities. Anterior and posterior lens capsule and the optic disk were hyperechogenic. The mean ± SD optical axis was 20.7 ± 0.9 mm in males and 26.3 ± 0.6 mm in females (P0.05). No significant difference existed between the measurements made in left and right eyes. We found marked advantages in image acquisition for interpretation of all aspects of the ocular structures. مشاهده
281 انگليسی Effect of feed restriction on compensatory growth 1387 2008 Summary Forty eight 8-month-old male goats were divided into three groups. In each group, eight goats were feedrestricted for 45, 60 or 75 days, and eight goats served as the control. Restricted groups were fed with a maintenance ration, and the control goats were fed with a ration supporting 50 g of daily weight gain. At the end of restriction period, the restricted goats were offered the same ration as the control goats. When the average weight of the 75-day restricted goats approached that of the control, the goats were slaughtered. The carcass, several organs, carcass cuts and dissectible (trimmed) fat were weighed, and the chemical composition of the meat was determined. Feed restriction decreased the proportion in live weight of the dissectible fat, internal fat, liver and testis weight, meat dry matter and fat content, but the proportion of intestinal and splenic weights, and meat protein content were increased. Re-alimentation after 75 days of restriction was associated with a greater daily gain and less internal fat. Other measurements were not different from the control. Data showed that 8-month-old native kids are capable of considerable compensatory growth after 75 days of feed restriction without any deleterious effect on carcass composition. مشاهده
282 انگليسی Summary 1387 2008 Summary Forty eight 8-month-old male goats were divided into three groups. In each group, eight goats were feedrestricted for 45, 60 or 75 days, and eight goats served as the control. Restricted groups were fed with a maintenance ration, and the control goats were fed with a ration supporting 50 g of daily weight gain. At the end of restriction period, the restricted goats were offered the same ration as the control goats. When the average weight of the 75-day restricted goats approached that of the control, the goats were slaughtered. The carcass, several organs, carcass cuts and dissectible (trimmed) fat were weighed, and the chemical composition of the meat was determined. Feed restriction decreased the proportion in live weight of the dissectible fat, internal fat, liver and testis weight, meat dry matter and fat content, but the proportion of intestinal and splenic weights, and meat protein content were increased. Re-alimentation after 75 days of restriction was associated with a greater daily gain and less internal fat. Other measurements were not different from the control. Data showed that 8-month-old native kids are capable of considerable compensatory growth after 75 days of feed restriction without any deleterious effect on carcass composition. مشاهده
283 انگليسی Pharmacokinetics, dosage regimen and in vitro plasma 1388 2008 Summary The pharmacokinetics of levofloxacin following its single intramuscular administration (3 mg/kg) was investigated in six male buffalo calves. Peak plasma level of 2.95 ± 0.13 μg/ml was observed at 1 h and the drug level above MIC90 in plasma was detected up to 12 h of administration. The bioavailability was 68.1 ± 5.4 and levofloxacin was bound to the plasma proteins to the extent of 19.1 ± 1.5. High values of AUC (8.81 ± 0.37 μg.h/ml) and Vdarea (1.06 ± 0.04 L/kg) reflected a vast area of body covered by drug concentration and appropriate penetration of levofloxacin into various body fluids and tissues. The elimination half-life and mean residence time were 3.27 ± 0.31 h and 5.4 ± 0.59 h, respectively. The total body clearance was 343.2 ± 14.1 ml/kg/h. An appropriate intramuscular dosage regimen for levofloxacin in buffalo calves would be 1.7 mg/kg repeated at 12-h intervals. مشاهده
284 انگليسی Effect of experimentally induced subchronic selenosis on 1387 2008 Summary The present investigation was performed to determine the effect of long-term administration of sodium selenite on the biochemical indices and concentration of thyroid hormones in calves. Sodium selenite solution was drenched at 0.1 and 0.25 mg per kg body weight for 12 weeks. Higher dose produced characteristic symptoms of selenosis whereas mild symptoms were observed with lower dose. The toxic symptoms appeared when blood selenium level was 1.68 ± 0.13 μg per ml. There was a significant (P0.05) increase in the activities of the aspartate aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, blood urea nitrogen and creatinine levels in the treated animals. The repeated administration of sodium selenite resulted in a significant p-value decline in thyroxine levels on the 10th week and increase in triiodothyronine on the 8th week of treatment. The findings of the present study suggested that sodium selenite induced selenosis alters thyroid hormone levels in plasma. مشاهده
285 انگليسی Isolation and identification of Campylobacter spp. and 1387 2008 Summary The genus Campylobacter is of great importance to public health because it includes several species that may cause diarrhoea. Poultry and poultry products are known as important sources of human campylobacteriosis. In this study, during the autumn months of 2005, a total of 100 samples from poultry carcasses, representing 20 broiler flocks were obtained by rinse test, after the chilling stage of processing. The samples were enriched in Preston broth, followed by streaking on selective media. Then, the suspected colonies were isolated on sheep blood agar and tested for morphology, motility and Gram-staining. Biochemical tests and hippurate hydrolysis activity were also performed. Concurrently, a multiplex PCR assay (m-PCR) with two sets of primers was employed for identification of Campylobacter genus and Campylobacter coli. The m-PCR assay was applied on bacterial cultures harvested from selective media plates. By conventional culture method, including hippurate hydrolysis test from suspected colonies, 76 of samples were positive for Campylobacter spp. and 2 for C. coli. In m-PCR assay 28 of the harvested cultures, were positive for Campylobacter genus but C. coli were not detected in any of the samples. According to this preliminary study, it seems that the contamination rate of poultry carcasses with other species of Campylobacter genus is higher than contamination with C. coli. مشاهده
286 انگليسی The pharmacokinetics and milk residual behaviour of 1387 2008 Summary The objective of this study was to evaluate kinetics and the residual decline of tylosin in milk and plasma of lactating Najdi ewes following single intramuscular injection of tylosin at the dose of 10 mg/kg. Blood and milk samples were collected from the ewes before and at different time intervals after treatment. Tylosin concentrations were determined by microbiological agar plate assay using Bacillus subtilis ATCC 6633 as the test organism. The pharmacokinetic parameters were processed using the methods of least square and statistical moments. The plasma levels of tylosin against time were adequately described by a onecompartment open model. The mean obtained values indicated a fairly low area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC) (3.0 μg.h/ml) and the maximum plasma concentration (Cmax) of 0.63 μg/ml with Tmax of 1.33 h. The plasma elimination half-life (t1/2el) and the mean residence time (MRT) were 2.3 h and 3.9 h, respectively. A different pattern was shown for milk, in which measurable residual levels are found in all animals up to 72 h after treatment. The mean value of milk AUC was 88.1 μg.h/ml and the t1/2el was 3.3 h. In vitro mean plasma and milk proteins binding of tylosin were 19.3 and 30.2, respectively. The milk withdrawal period of tylosin in lactating Najdi ewes should be at least 72 h to avoid risks in consumers. مشاهده
287 انگليسی Effects of three steroidal compounds on oestrus 1387 2008 Summary Pregnancy prevention raises much concern to many pet owners. Female cats usually show undesirable behaviour during oestrus. Nowadays, researchers try to explore the reliable and effective ways to prevent oestrus signs in queens. The results of their studies prove that hormone therapy is probably one of the most reliable methods for this purpose. The aim of our study was to compare the effect of three steroidal preparations on oestrus suppression in queens. Twenty clinically healthy adult female cats and three healthy adult male cats with natural libido were used in the present study. The female cats were randomly divided into 4 groups (n = 5). The male cats were caged separately and maintained near females for sexual stimulation. The photoperiod was regulated artificially to induce oestrus in cats (14 h light and 10 h dark). The experimental cats were kept in a roofed room for about 3 months for adaptation and confirmation of oestrus detection. After this period, group I (control group) did not receive any treatment, group II received 12.5 mg methyltestosterone/week orally for 90 days, group III received one tablet of contraceptive LD/day (0.15 mg levonorgestrel + 0.03 mg ethinyloestradiol) orally for 90 days and group IV received 3 mg medroxyprogesterone acetate intramuscularly. The cats were monitored clinically every day (4 h in the morning and 4 h in the afternoon). The number of queens observed in oestrus and the number of oestrous cycles were recorded during the study. The results of the present study showed that in group I (control) oestrus was detected twice in 2 out of 3 cats. In group II oestrus was detected 3 times in 3 cats, which was not statistically different to that of the group I (P0.05). In group III oestrus was detected 13 times (more than the other groups). All 5 cats of this group showed oestrus, which was statistically increased compared to group I (P0.05). In group IV no oestrus was detected, which was statistically decreased compared to group I (P0.05). According to our results, methyltestosterone prevented the oestrus for only 1 month so that it can be used for oestrus suppression for a short time; contraceptive LD unexpectedly increased the frequency of oestrus in queens, therefore this drug can not be advised for prevention of the oestrus in queens; however, medroxyprogesterone acetate completely prevented the oestrus during the treatment. Therefore, Medroxyprogesterone acetate is reliable, and only one injection is sufficient to prevent the occurrence of the oestrous cycle. مشاهده
288 انگليسی Experimental infection of stray cats with human isolates 1387 2008 Summary To improve our understanding of Helicobacter infection in cats and to determine whether they are reservoirs for H. pylori and sources of zoonotic transmission to humans, we selected cats as an experimental animal model for gastric colonization by H. pylori. Sixteen stray cats underwent Helicobacter eradication treatment followed by three consecutive oral inoculations of a cocktail of human H. pylori isolates. Four out of sixteen inoculated cats became colonized by H. pylori as confirmed by genus- and species-specific PCR. In conclusion, human H. pylori isolates are able to colonize the stomach of cats. It seems that the stray cat can be used as an experimental model in the future investigations of H. pylori-induced pathogenesis as well as evaluation of anti-H. pylori prevention and treatment regimens. Further experimental studies using more animals are needed to identify the usefulness of the cat as an experimental model. مشاهده
289 انگليسی Parasitic fauna of the spiny eel, Mastacembelus 1387 2008 Summary The parasite fauna of 50 specimens of spiny eel obtained from two lakes, Zarivar (in Kurdistan province) and Parishan (in Fars province) and one river, Heleh (Booshehr province) were examined during the year 2003. A total of nine parasite species were found. Gills of spiny eel were infected with Ichthyophthirius multifiliis, Trichodina pediculus (protozoa) and Mastacembelocleidus heteranchorus (monogenea). Argulus foliaceus and an unknown Argulus species were found on both the skin and gills of the specimens. Adult stages of Lernaea cyprinacea were observed on the skin and copepodid stage of this parasite observed on the gills (crustacean). An unknown coelozoic cestode, Polyonchobothrium sp. was recovered from the intestine, Diplostomum spathaceum (metacercaria) from the lens and Contracaecum sp. from the intestine wall of the infected specimens. Except Contracaecum sp. (nematoda), which was reported previously, other parasitic species mentioned in this study are reported for the first time from Iran. General prevalence of parasitic infection in specimens obtained from Zarivar lake is also recorded. مشاهده
290 انگليسی The effect of hypernatraemia on ketamine 1387 2008 Summary We studied the effects of a single ketamine injection in an experimental model of chronic hypernatraemia in rats. Three groups, each of 20 male Wistar rats were chosen for the experiment; the control group was given water and the test groups were given 1 (group 1) and 2 (group 2) NaCl solutions for two weeks. All groups were fed with the same diet, containing about 0.5 salt. Other living conditions for all groups were similar. Before using saline in the test groups and before induction of anaesthesia, blood samples were drawn to measure the serum sodium level. A single ketamine injection (125 mg/kg, IP) was used in all groups. Latency times to inhibit the righting reflex and to inhibit the response to painful stimulus, re-appearance time of response to painful stimulus and recovery time from anaesthesia were measured; mortality rates during anaesthesia were also recorded. During consumption of salt solutions and before induction of anaesthesia, we had no animal death. The serum sodium level in group 2 was significantly higher than group 1 and the control group. The required time to inhibit the righting reflex and the response to painful stimulus in group 2 was significantly shorter than group 1 and the control group. These parameters in group 1 were also significantly shorter than the control group. The required time for re-appearance of response to painful stimulus and for recovery from anaesthesia in group 2 was significantly longer than group 1 and the control group. We observed severe pulmonary complications in the test groups during anaesthesia. Mortality rate in group 2 was 60 and in group 1 was 20; the control group had no significant problems during anaesthesia. Hypernatraemia decreased the induction time of anaesthesia. The duration of ketamine anaesthesia increased and the recovery from anaesthesia was associated with significant delay. مشاهده
291 انگليسی Idiopathic lingual fossa ulcer in cattle in Iran 1387 2008 Summary Disease agents that principally target the tongue are relatively rare. It seems that type of food and roughage play an important role to predispose the animals to lingual ulcers. During a period of four years different aspects of cattle lingual fossa ulcer were studied in a semi-industrial dairy farm in Tehran. The affected animals showed various stages of ulcer formation in their lingual fossa. Histopathological examination revealed parakeratotic hyperkeratosis, spongiosis and hydropic degeneration of the epithelial lining. There were also coagulative necroses associated with heavy infiltration of neutrophils in muscle fibers of the tongues. Some cases showed granulomatous reaction with the proliferation of connective tissue. Progressive lingual ulcers were induced in three calves following close exposure to the affected animals. Based on these findings, the disease was diagnosed as idiopathic contagious lingual fossa ulcer in cattle. مشاهده
292 فارسی Determination of serum haptoglobin reference value in 1387 2008 Summary Blood samples were collected from the jugular vein of 101 clinically healthy Iranian fat-tailed sheep according to their age (1, 1-3, 3-5 and 5 years) and sex. Serum haptoglobin (Hp) was measured based upon the preservation of the peroxidase activity of haemoglobin, which is directly proportional to the amount of Hp. The reference value for serum Hp of apparently healthy Iranian fat-tailed sheep was 0.05-0.18 g/l. Age and sex had no significant effect on the serum concentration of Hp in examined animals. مشاهده
293 انگليسی Measurement of cadmium residues in muscle, liver and kidney 1387 2008 Summary The aim of the present study was to determine the levels of cadmium in the muscle, liver and kidney of cattle from Isfahan and to compare the results with those reported by other countries and with the maximum acceptable levels for human consumption. Samples of muscle, liver and kidney from 60 animals aged 1–10- year-old were collected from the carcasses slaughtered at Isfahan abattoir. Samples were digested with acid and cadmium concentrations were determined by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrophotometry (GFAAS). The mean concentrations of cadmium in muscle, liver and kidney were 3.3, 49.7 and 137.1 μg/kg fresh weight, respectively. The mean concentration of cadmium in tissue samples was generally lower than the maximum acceptable concentration in European Commission (EC). Statistical analysis showed a significant difference in cadmium concentration of liver and kidney between various age groups (P0.05). مشاهده
294 انگليسی Acanthocheilus rotundatus (Nematoda: Acanthocheilidae) 1387 2008 Summary In a parasitic study on five Sharks (Carcharhinus macloti) caught from the Iranian coasts of Persian Gulf, two of five sharks appeared to have nematode in their intestine. Using light microscopy, the nematode was identified as Acanthocheilus rotundatus. A. rotundatus is characterised by 3.3-4.5 cm in length, semithick cuticle, small lips, semicircular and tri-lobed pseudolabia (not offset from anterior end), each lip provided on inner surface with two pairs of small pointed teeth. مشاهده
295 انگليسی Seroprevalence survey on Reovirus infection of broiler 1387 2008 Summary Reovirus infections are actually related to a lot of disease conditions with different clinical manifestations. Reoviruses have been isolated from a variety of tissues in poultry, suffering from different disease conditions including viral arthritis/tenosynovitis, stunting syndrome, respiratory disease, enteric disease, immunosuppression and malabsorption syndrome. Economic losses related to reoviral infections are frequently associated with increased mortality, viral arthritis/tenosynovitis and general lack of performance, including diminished weight gains, high feed conversions, uneven growth rates and reduced marketability of the affected birds. The aim of this survey was to study the prevalence of reoviral infection of broiler chickens in Tehran province. The samples were selected by cluster sampling method from sera in Razi Vaccine and Serum Research Institute. The selected sera had been collected from different slaughterhouses of Tehran province during 2004 to 2005. Commercial ELISA test was done on 582 serum samples of broiler chickens. The total number of 572 serum samples were positive and the prevalence of Reovirus infection was 98.3 (CI = 96.9-99.2). The result shows high prevalence of antibody titre in broiler chickens. The resistance of the virus could be one of the reasons for such a high prevalence. This high prevalence put emphasis on the vaccination of the breeder flocks and shows the necessity of more studies on aspects of Reovirus infection in broiler chicken. مشاهده
296 انگليسی Concurrent diabetes mellitus and lymphoma in a 1387 2008 Summary Concurrent disorders with diabetes mellitus is one of the most challenging subject. Our knowledge of the most common concurrent disorders in diabetic dogs may be useful in diagnosis of these disorders and better treatment of diabetic dogs. In this study diabetes mellitus was diagnosed in a 7-year-old male German shepherd dog, based on clinical and laboratory findings. Following the diagnosis of diabetes mellitus, insulin therapy was started and blood glucose concentration reached to the accepted level. Eleven months later the dog was presented again with acute episodes of collapse and hypoglycaemia. The owner noted that there was no change in the animal’s routine insulin treatment programme and the dog had received his daily insulin injections. Further ancillary diagnostic tests were refused by the owner and the animal was humanely euthanized. Histopathological diagnosis was correlated with lymphoma. The association between diabetes mellitus and lymphoma has been reported in human medicine but the similar clinical condition has not been reported in veterinary literature. مشاهده
297 انگليسی Secondary glaucoma due to anterior chamber lipoma 1387 2000 Summary The present study introduces a rare case with secondary glaucoma due to anterior chamber lipoma and uveitis in a Pekingese dog in Iran. A four-year-old castrated male Pekingese dog was referred to the private clinic with impaired vision of the left eye, pain, rubbing the left eye onto carpet, presence of a milkycoloured mass into the anterior chamber, and loss of appetite. The clinical examination, haematological and biochemical tests, fluorescein staining, measurement of intraocular pressure and ultrasonography were conducted. Based on all results, medical and surgical treatments were carried out. The mass was removed surgically and its histopathologic study revealed lipoma. The eye appearance became normal within 6 weeks. Authors concluded that the milky-coloured mass in the anterior chamber may have caused secondary glaucoma due to obstruction of the aqueous outflow from iridocorneal angle and uveitis. مشاهده
298 انگليسی Temporary atrial standstill in a crossbred dog associated 1387 2008 Summary A 6-year-old male crossbred dog was referred to the Veterinary Medical Teaching Hospital of Islamic Azad University of Karaj with the history of abdominal distention, rectal tenesmus and stranguria. Abdominal radiographs and ultrasonography indicated large distended urinary bladder and prostatic enlargement. ECG showed temporary episodes of atrial standstill. The only abnormalities detected by serum biochemical analysis were mild uraemia and hyperkalaemia. The cause of hyperkalaemia and mild uraemia was postrenal azotaemia which was occurred as a consequence of bladder outlet obstruction secondary to prostatic enlargement. There was a good response to castration as a choice of treatment. Gradual improvement in the signs of rectal tenesmus and stranguria was observed over a period of three weeks following castration. Furthermore, ECG records during post-surgical period were normal. مشاهده
299 انگليسی Immunization of rabbits against Hyalomma anatolicum 1387 2008 Summary The protective capacity of the crude extracts from larval and nymphal stages of Hyalomma anatolicum anatolicum was examined in the New Zealand white rabbits. The rabbits were randomly divided into 3 groups of five animals. The rabbits in groups 1 and 2 were immunized with crude extracts of larval and nymphal antigens, respectively and group 3 was served as control. Following challenge of each rabbit with 2000 larvae of H. a. anatolicum, engorged nymphs were collected, weighed and then cultured in an incubator. A significant decrease in weight of engorged nymphs was only observed in group 1 that immunized with crude extracts of tick’s larvae (P0.05). Polypeptide profile of the larval and nymphal extracts was analysed by SDS-PAGE, and antigenic pattern with serum of immunized rabbits was evaluated by Dot and Western blot test. The molecular weight of the fraction of larval extract after SDS-PAGE showed six polypeptide bands as follows: 97, 84, 66, 55, 45 and 36 kDa, and in nymphal extract 13 polypeptide bands of 205, 116, 97, 84, 66, 55, 45, 36, 29, 24 and 20 kDa and two bands between 116 and 205 kDa were found. In Western blotting, positive reaction was only observed with sera of group 1 in the bands with 97, 84 and 66 kDa. It seems that the larval extract of H. a. anatolicum can be used as a source of biological material for isolation of protective antigen. مشاهده
300 انگليسی The chemical composition, rumen degradability, in vitro 1387 2008 Summary The chemical composition, in situ rumen degradability coefficients of dry matter (DM) and crude protein (CP), in vitro gas production and in vivo digestibility were evaluated for olive cake (OC) silage treated (DM basis) with different additives as follows: (1) untreated OC; (2) OC, 8 molasses and 0.4 formic acid and (3) OC, 8 molasses, 0.4 formic acid and 0.5 urea. After addition of the additives, materials were ensiled for 60 days in plastic bags. The addition of molasses, formic acid and urea resulted in higher DM, CP, pH and NH3-N content. There were some reductions in neutral detergent fiber, acid detergent lignin and acid detergent fiber contents of silages especially with treatment 3. The additives increased the nutritive value and preserved well the ensiled OC. Ruminal maximum potential degradability (a+b), and effective degradability (ED) of DM and CP were higher for treatment 3. Total gas production was higher (P0.05) for treatments 2 and 3 and was associated with increased (P0.05) in vitro organic matter digestibility and a non-significant increase in metabolizable energy content. Only CP digestibility was affected by treatments and was highest for treatment 3. In vitro dry matter and organic matter digestibilities improved with treatments 2 and 3. The results indicated that, treating OC (DM basis) before ensiling with molasses (8), formic acid (0.4) and urea (0.5) resulted in a satisfactory and economical source of a non-conventional feed for ruminants. مشاهده
301 انگليسی Evaluation of serum and milk amyloid A in some 1387 2008 Summary This study was designed to evaluate serum and milk amyloid A (SAA) as an inflammatory indicator in inflammatory diseases. Twenty clinically healthy cows and 100 cows with various inflammatory diseases were selected for this study. Blood samples were collected from the coccygeal vein of both healthy and diseased groups. Milk samples were taken from four quarters of both groups. Milk samples of four quarters from each cow were mixed, then one sample was taken from pooled milk. There was significant difference in concentrations of serum and milk AA between clinically healthy cows and diseased cows (P0.05). The difference of SAA and MAA between cows with subclinical mastitis and other inflammatory disease of cows was also significant (P0.05). In conclusion, serum and milk amyloid A are useful diagnostic indicators in the inflammatory diseases of cows. مشاهده
302 انگليسی Induction of general anaesthesia with intraosseous 1387 2008 Summary The technique of intraosseous (IO) infusion has been reemerged as an alternative route of intravascular access for the delivery of fluids and some medications. Complications of IO infusion occur rarely and include fractures and osteomyelitis after long-term use of IO access. The purpose of this study was to compare the efficiency of induction of anaesthesia by a standard intravenous route and an intraosseous route. Ten healthy rabbits were assigned to one of two treatments: thiopental 20 mg/kg administered intravenously via marginal vein of ear and thiopental 20 mg/kg administered intraosseously into the bone marrow of proximal tibia. In each rabbit, the heart and respiratory rates and palpebral, corneal, pinch and withdrawal reflexes were recorded before and every 2 min, for 34 min after induction of anaesthesia. Neither the clinical parameters nor the reflexes showed any significant difference (P0.05) between the treatment groups. In addition, no adverse reaction was seen in rabbits anaesthetized by intraosseous access. The results of this study showed that the intraosseous injection of thiopental is a rapid, simple, safe and effective alternative option for induction of general anaesthesia in rabbits. مشاهده
303 انگليسی Iranian Journal of Veterinary Research, Shiraz University, Vol. 9, No. 3, Ser. No. 24, 2008 1387 2008 Pathological lesions observed in chickens pre-infected with LP H7N1 A/CK/Italy/1279/99 avian influenza and challenged with homologous HP H7N1 A/ostrich/Italy/984/00 مشاهده
304 انگليسی Genetic variations of avian Pasteurella multocida as 1387 2008 Summary Pasteurella multocida is known as an important heterogenic bacterial agent causes some severe diseases such as fowl cholera in poultry and haemorrhagic septicaemia in cattle and buffalo. A polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay was developed using primers derived from conserved part of 16S-23S rRNA gene. The PCR amplified a fragment size of 0.7 kb using DNA from nine avian P. multocida isolates. Sequence alignment of the 16S-23S rRNA genes (ITS) revealed a considerable heterogenicity among the isolates. The percentage of similarity varied from 83.3 to 100 among the isolates. An interesting finding from this study was the presence of an inserted sequence (seven nucleotides) in the 16S-23S rRNA region in 55 of the isolates. According to phylogenic analysis based on ITS sequence alignment, the P. multocida isolates classified into 2 distinct clusters. The virulence of isolates in cluster II were higher than those in cluster I. Ribotyping of P. multocida by using 16S-23S rRNA gene PCR sequencing could be used as a marker in epidemiologic studies. مشاهده
305 انگليسی The transitional zone of the renal artery in cats 1387 2008 Summary The length and structure of the transitional zone in the tunica media in the renal artery of adult male cats were investigated. In addition, the volume of the lumen and different layers in transitional and nontransitional zones in the right and left sides were also determined. Morphometrical, histological and stereological studies were performed on 16 renal arteries of 8 adult male cats. After perfusion and morphometrical measurement, routine tissue processing was carried out by autotechnicon. The processed tissues were embedded in paraffin and sectioned serially into 5 μm thickness. The sections were stained with haematoxylin and eosin and orcein. In the morphometrical measurement, the right renal arteries were longer than the left ones with a mean value of 22.0 ± 0.2 and 18.8 ± 0.1 mm, respectively. Despite the fact that the right renal artery is commonly longer, the length of transitional zone was 7 mm in both renal arteries of adult male cats. The artery has a structure between muscular and elastic type at its origin with several elastic layers in the tunica media which is gradually changed to a muscular type at the distal section after 7 mm from origin of aorta. Transitional zone has an arrangement of parallel elastic fibers which become rare and fragmented towards the non-transitional zone. The volume of tunica intima, tunica media, tunica adventitia and lumen of the artery decrease from transitional zone towards the non-transitional zone and the volume of these areas in both transitional and non-transitional zones in the right renal artery is more than the left one. The volume of the lumen in transitional zone differs significantly compared to non-transitional zone, in both sides (P0.05). Also there is a significant difference in the volume of the lumen in non-transitional zone between right and left renal arteries (P0.05). مشاهده
306 انگليسی Iranian Journal of Veterinary Research, Shiraz University, Vol. 9, No. 3, Ser. No. 24, 2008 1387 2008 Summary In the present investigation a total of six parasite species, some eye-specific and others non-organ specific parasites were found in the eyes of 48 examined fish species, collected from fresh and brackish waters of Iran during 2004-2006. Ichthyophthirius multifiliis was isolated from the external surface of the eyes of Oncorhynchus mykiss, Gyrodactylus stankovici from Cyprinus carpio and Lernaea cyprinacea from Cyprinus carpio and Hypophthalmichthys molitrix. In the vitreous humor parasite species were Tylodelphys clavata (metacercaria) observed in H. molitrix, Alburnus alburnus, Carassius auratus, Cyprinus carpio, Chondrostoma regium, Ctenopharyngodon idella and Capoeta capoeta, and Ornithodiplostomum sp. (metacercaria) in Aphanius vladykovi. Diplostomum spathaceum (metacercaria) was found in the lens of eyes of 40 out of 48 fish species. Among parasite species identified, Tylodelphys clavata and Ornithodiplostomum sp. are recorded in Iran for the first time. Additionally, the geographical distribution and host range of Diplostomum spathaceum metacercaria is also presented in this study. مشاهده
307 انگليسی Nucleotide sequence of cDNA encoding for 1387 2008 Summary Prochymosin is one of the most important aspartic proteinases used as a milk-clotting enzyme in cheese production. In the present investigation we report sequence of cDNA encoding goat (Capra hircus) preprochymosin and compare its nucleotide and deduced amino acid sequences with sequences of other ruminants preprochymosin. As bovine prochymosin, the caprine prochymosin cDNA encodes 365 amino acids with a prosegment of 42 amino acids and the mature goat chymosin begins with glycine. The preprochymosin nucleotide sequence reported in this study differs from other reported goat sequence (AY389343) in three nucleotides, two of which alter the amino acids at positions 19p and 139. مشاهده
308 انگليسی Pharmacokinetics of tetracycline hydrochloride after 1387 2008 Summary Six mixed-breed apparently healthy dogs were intravenously administered a single dose of tetracycline hydrochloride (50 mg/kg) to evaluate the pharmacokinetic parameters of the drug. Blood samples were collected before and at various time intervals after the administration of the drug. Serum tetracycline concentrations were determined over a 24 h period using fluorescence spectrophotometry. Noncompartmental analysis of the data indicated that tetracycline has a half-life of 4.4 h, a body clearance of around 0.7 ml/kg.min and a volume of distribution of about 0.3 L/kg. The pharmacokinetics of tetracycline found in this study is favourable for therapeutic use in the dog. مشاهده
309 انگليسی BVDV induced gastro-neuropathy outbreak in 1387 2008 Summary An outbreak of a lethal disease was reported in 4–6-month-old Holstein calves in a feedlot around Tehran. The signs of central nervous system and gastrointestinal system (GI) involvement were observed in the diseased animals. Necropsy samples of GI, liver, kidney, spleen and lung from 3 died animals were prepared for histopathological examination. Blood and formalin-fixed ear notch samples of 6 calves were submitted for RT-PCR, antigen-capture ELISA (ACE) and immunohistochemistry (IHC) for the detection of BVDV. The results of ACE on buffy coats were negative but RT-PCR of all 6 cases and IHC of 4 cases were positive for BVDV infection. Based on the clinical signs and pathological findings in the GI system and brain, we strongly suggest that the BVDV may represent a gastro-neuropathogen strain. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first outbreak of gastro-neuropathogenic BVDV infection in Iran, which may be acquired postnatally. مشاهده
310 انگليسی Prevalence of Eimeria infection in sheep of 1387 2008 Summary This study was undertaken to determine the prevalence and diversity of Eimeria species in sheep in Tabriz suburb. The prevalence of ovine parasitism due to Eimeria spp. was estimated in 240 sheep aged less than six months to over 12 months, in a period of one year (2003-2004). The samples were collected from pre-slaughtered sheep in Tabriz slaughterhouse and transferred to the parasitology laboratory. Afterwards, sporulation of the oocysts was performed. The overall prevalence of Eimeria infection in sheep was found to be 16.7. Two pathogenic species of Eimeria, including E. ahsata (8) and E. ovina (18) and four nonpathogenic species, E. faurei (18), E. parva (13), E. pallida (8) and E. intricata (35) were identified. All of the infected sheep (40 out of 240) had mixed infections at least with three species. Intensity of the infection was significantly higher in young sheep compared with older animals (P0.05). Gender had a significant effect on the prevalence and intensity of the infection (P0.05). Diversity in Eimeria spp. in different age groups, potentially, might be an important factor contributing to notable losses in small ruminants in this area. مشاهده
311 انگليسی First report of Dermatophilus congolensis dermatitis 1387 2008 Summary Skin lesions were found in two 3–4-year-old Holstein cows in a dairy farm in Shiraz. Lesions were distributed mostly around the neck, forelimbs, hindlimbs, and bilateral of midline portion and varied from nodule-like structure to patch with extensive accumulation of crust. Skin scraping samples were taken from each animal and direct smears were prepared, stained with Giemsa and observed under a light microscope. Some scabs were cultured and incubated both aerobically and anaerobically. Cultured smears were Gram stained and the morphology of isolates were studied. The diagnosis of dermatophilosis was made on the basis of clinical signs, skin lesions and morphological characteristics of the isolates. In this study, the infection could be related to insect population density during the outbreak and exposure to ticks which were observed in the animal environment. Rain scald in the region, especially in the late August and September could be a predisposing factor for flare-up of the infection. This is the first report of dermatophilosis in cattle in Shiraz, southern Iran. مشاهده
312 انگليسی The first report of concurrent detection of canine 1387 2008 Summary Two male dogs at the age of 3 and 5 months of Doberman pinscher and German shepherd breeds were referred to the Veterinary Hospital of Ahvaz University with clinical signs of depression, vomiting, haemorrhagic diarrhoea, profound dehydration, fever and anorexia. The affected dogs had not the history of vaccination. Concurrent infection of canine parvovirus and coronavirus was detected in dogs by means of immunochromatography assay. The haemogram showed lowered white blood cell counts as leukopenia, neutropenia and lymphopenia. The dogs received supportive treatment to correct the life-threatening dehydration and prevention of secondary bacterial infections. Despite treatment, one dog (Doberman pinscher) died within 3 days after the onset of clinical signs, and the second dog recovered after 4 days. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of concurrent infection of canine parvovirus and coronavirus in diarrhoeic dogs in Iran. مشاهده
313 انگليسی Diagnosis and management of hypoglycaemia due to 1387 2008 Summary A 7-year-old castrated male German shepherd dog was presented with a 10-day history of intermittent lethargy, weakness and episodic seizures. Laboratory findings after admission revealed hypoglycaemia and hyperinsulinaemia. Provisional diagnosis of insulinoma was made based on the presence of concurrent hypoglycaemia and elevated insulin level. In exploratory laparotomy a small nodular mass was detected on the pancreas. Other abdominal organs were normal in gross inspection. The mass was removed surgically. Histopathology of the excised pancreatic nodule confirmed the diagnosis of insulinoma. The dog became seizure free following the surgical operation. مشاهده
314 انگليسی Isolation of Leptospira canicola from a dog 1387 2008 Summary A 5-year-old male cross-bred guard dog with signs of anorexia, vomiting and jaundice was referred to Small Animal Hospital, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Tehran. Initial diagnostic laboratory tests revealed leukocytosis, thrombocytopenia, haemoconcentration, azotaemia, high liver enzyme activities, proteinuria and bilirubinuria. Aggressive therapeutic procedures failed to improve the animal deteriorated condition and finally the animal died. After necropsy, specimens were collected for microscopic examination as part of completing diagnostic procedures. Results of urine bacterial culture confirmed leptospirosis as a causative agent. Furthermore, numerous large spiral bacteria were also observed under dark-field microscope. This article summarizes and characterizes the historical and physical findings, laboratory data, bacterial culture and pathological diagnostic features of leptospirosis in the cross-bred dog. Based on published data, this is the first case of confirmed Leptospira isolation from a dog in Iran. مشاهده
315 انگليسی Gross anatomy of the oropharyngeal cavity in the ostrich (Struthio camelus) 1387 2008 Summary There are significant structural differences between the mouth and pharyngeal cavity of birds and mammals. It is usual to refer to a common oropharyngeal cavity of birds because the soft palate, which forms such an obvious delineation between the mouth and pharyngeal cavity, is absent. Six male adult ostriches were used to study the oropharyngeal cavity and its components including the beak, hard palate, pharynx, tongue and the larynx macroscopically. This study revealed that these components in ostrich have different features from other birds. In the ostrich, the beaks are spoon-shaped and the tongue is characterized by a short, broad and semicircular form. The hard palate is concave with a prominent median mucosal fold in its 2/3 rostral area and two oblique choanal slits in its caudal third area. The roof of pharynx presents infundibular slit in midline, a deep concave notch in caudal border and pharyngeal tonsils on its dorsal surface. The larynx protrudes from the floor of pharynx and consists of the unpaired cricoid cartilage and the paired arytenoid cartilages. مشاهده
316 انگليسی Iranian Journal of Veterinary Research, Shiraz University, Vol. 9, No. 4, Ser. No. 25, 2008 Gross anatomy of the oropharyngeal cavity in the ostrich (Struthio camelus) 1387 2008 Summary There are significant structural differences between the mouth and pharyngeal cavity of birds and mammals. It is usual to refer to a common oropharyngeal cavity of birds because the soft palate, which forms such an obvious delineation between the mouth and pharyngeal cavity, is absent. Six male adult ostriches were used to study the oropharyngeal cavity and its components including the beak, hard palate, pharynx, tongue and the larynx macroscopically. This study revealed that these components in ostrich have different features from other birds. In the ostrich, the beaks are spoon-shaped and the tongue is characterized by a short, broad and semicircular form. The hard palate is concave with a prominent median mucosal fold in its 2/3 rostral area and two oblique choanal slits in its caudal third area. The roof of pharynx presents infundibular slit in midline, a deep concave notch in caudal border and pharyngeal tonsils on its dorsal surface. The larynx protrudes from the floor of pharynx and consists of the unpaired cricoid cartilage and the paired arytenoid cartilages. مشاهده
317 انگليسی Pathological changes in turkeys experimentally infected with different doses of A/ostrich/Italy/984/... 1387 2008 Summary Following experimental inoculation of 3-week-old turkeys with different titres (106, 104, 103, 102 and 101 egg infectious dose (EID50)) of A/ostrich/Italy/984/2000 H7N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV), the selected tissues and organs were examined for pathological changes. Tissue samples from different organs that obtained from dead and sacrificed birds were fixed in 10 neutral buffer formaldehyde. Mortality of turkeys which inoculated with different doses of EID50 at different times post inoculation (PI) is as follows: 1) at 48 h PI (HPI): one, two and four turkeys inoculated with 103, 104 and 106 EID50, respectively 2) at 72 HPI: two, two and one turkeys inoculated with 102, 103 and 106 EID50, respectively 3) at 96 HPI: one and two turkeys inoculated with 102 and 104 EID50, respectively and 4) at 120 HPI: just one turkey inoculated with 104 EID50. Birds inoculated with 101 EID50 did not show any mortality. Seven days PI (DPI) the remaining birds were sacrificed. Postmortem examination of birds that died 48 HPI showed very severe hyperaemia and haemorrhage of the lung, slight swelling of kidneys and splenomegaly. Moderate to slight hyperaemia of the lung was observed in the birds sacrificed on day 7. Histopathology showed very severe haemorrhage and vasculitis in the lung, multifocal areas of degeneration and necrosis in the pancreas of birds inoculated with 106 EID50. Hyperaemia, haemorrhage, degeneration and vasculitis were also observed in the lung of birds from the other groups; however the severity of lesions correlated positively with the viral dose. The spleen, caecal tonsils and thymus showed extensive necrosis and lymphoid depletion, even in birds inoculated with 102 and 101 EID50 that were sacrificed 7 DPI, and some repopulation of the spleen was observed 7 DPI. Other organs including the kidneys and adrenal gland showed moderate to slight hyperaemia and necrosis. In conclusion, the lung vascular damage, lymphoid tissue destruction and necrosis were notable even with low viral doses. مشاهده
318 انگليسی The effects of Lactobacillus plantarum and Propionibacterium acidipropionici on corn silage fermenta... 1387 2008 The effects of Lactobacillus plantarum and Propionibacterium acidipropionici on corn silage fermentation, ruminal degradability and nutrient digestibility in sheep مشاهده
319 انگليسی The effect of LH and GnRH analogues on induction of ovulation in Bactrian camel (Camelus bactrianus) 1387 2008 Summary Ovarian follicle response and corpus luteum formation following induction of ovulation using gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) analogues and luteinizing hormone (LH) in Bactrian camel were characterized. Bactrian camels with a mature follicle (13-19.6 mm) received: 1) natural porcine LH (25 mg, IV, n = 4), 2) Buserelin (20 μg, IV, n = 4) and 3) Alarelin (25 μg, IM, n = 4). Daily ultrasonography and blood samplings were conducted between day -3 and +15 of the experiment (day 0 = Induction of ovulation). Data were analyzed by univariat analysis with repeated measures analysis included in the model. Following treatment, mature follicle ovulated within 2 days and a new follicle wave emerged after 2-3 days. New mature follicle reached a size of 13.5 ± 0.14 mm by day 12. Corpus luteum was detected on day 6 and reached the maximum size of 19.73 ± 0.81 mm on day 9. Progesterone concentration initiated to increase on day 5, reached maximum concentration on day 9 and decreased significantly on day 11. In conclusion, due to the lack of significant difference among treatment groups (P0.05), Alarelin may be considered as a drug of choice for inducing ovulation in Bactrian camel because of its effectiveness, simple route of administration (IM vs. IV), lower price, and local availability. مشاهده
320 انگليسی Histomorphometric study of the spinal cord segments in the chick and adult male ostrich (Struthio ca... 1387 2000 Summary In this study, the vertical, transverse and oblique diameters of the spinal cord segments (C1, C6, C12, C18, T1, T4, L1, L4, L6 and L8) and the ratio of gray matter to white matter in chick (l month) and adult (18 months) male ostriches, each group consisted of 3 animals, were measured with standard micrometric method using 6 μm thick sections by light microscope. With advancement of age, the ratio of gray matter to white matter was reduced but the diameters of spinal cord segments were increased. Statistically, there were significant differences in parameters measured between the two age groups (P0.05). مشاهده
321 انگليسی Influence of dried tomato pomace as an alternative to wheat bran in maize or wheat based diets, on t... 1387 2008 Summary In a 2  3  2 factorial arrangement, 144, fifty–four-week-old laying hens, in 12 treatments with 12 replicates for each treatment, received one of 12 diets based on maize or wheat containing three levels of dried tomato pomace (DTP: 0, 50 and 100 g/kg) as a substitute for wheat bran, and two levels of pigment (0 and 900 mg/kg), for 9 weeks. Weight gain (WG), egg production (EP), egg weight (EW), egg mass output (EM) and feed intake (FI) were determined. Shell weight (ShW), shell thickness (ShT), Haugh unit (HU) and yolk colour score (YCS) were also measured. Maize decreased body weight of the birds and increased HU, ShW/EW ratio, ShT, and YCS of the eggs when compared with wheat diets. DTP had no effect on these parameters, but increased YCS. Pigment reduced ShW/EW ratio and ShT, but increased YCS of the eggs. There were significant interactions between the source of energy (ES) and DTP on ShT and YCS of the eggs. There were also interactions significant between ES and pigment on ShT and YCS. As an alternative for wheat bran, 100 g/kg of DTP produced comparable egg quality and laying performance, and it contributed to a deeper yolk colour. مشاهده
322 انگليسی Detection and identification of virulent Yersinia ruckeri: the causative agent of enteric redmouth d... 1387 2008 Summary From the winter 2002 to spring 2006, 126 moribund rainbow trout with clinical signs of external body haemorrhages around and within the oral cavity were sampled from 10 rainbow trout farms situated in the northwest and west of Fars province, Iran and examined for the detection and identification of Yersinia ruckeri, the causative agent of enteric redmouth disease. Fish kidneys were cultured aseptically on brain heart infusion (BHI) agar plates and incubated at 25ºC for 48 h. Using conventional biochemical tests, Y. ruckeri was detected in 7 fish (5.5 of total fish sampled). This was also confirmed using specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay. The 16S rDNA PCR assays produced amplicons of 409 bp when applied to Y. ruckeri isolates as well as a reference strain. Results of antibiogram tests on Y. ruckeri isolates showed a high susceptibility to enrofloxacin, norfloxacin, ofloxacin, trimethoprim and oxytetracycline. In pathogenicity tests, dilution of 4 × 108 colony forming unit/ml of Y. ruckeri by immersion route in challenge experiments showed 70 ± 8.2 mortality during 14 days post-infection. Experimentally infected fish showed typical haemorrhages in mouth, blackening of skin, exophthalmia and a wide haemorrhages on the internal organs. مشاهده
323 انگليسی Growth limits of Staphylococcus aureus as a function of temperature, acetic acid, NaCl concentration... 1387 2008 Summary Staphylococcus aureus is one of the most prevalent causes of gastroenteritis worldwide. Knowing the precise boundary for the growth/no growth interface of S. aureus and also determining the period of time needed for bacterial growth initiation is necessary for food safety risk assessment. This study was designed to examine the combined effects of temperature, acetic acid, inoculum level and NaCl concentration on the growth of S. aureus in brain heart infusion broth. Growth was monitored by visible turbidity over a 20 days period. Statistical analysis of data showed significant effects for selected parameters on growth of S. aureus. Stepwise multiple regression was used to predict the growth initiation (R2 = 0.91, P0.0001). To obtain a boundary model, logistic regression was used. The models accurately predicted the growth initiation and inhibition of S. aureus. مشاهده
324 انگليسی Immunization of Arabian sheep with whole gut homogenate of Haemonchus contortus 1387 2008 Summary Ten female lambs of 7-month-old were divided into two equal groups and raised under a helminth-free conditions. Animals in group 1 were immunized two times by whole gut homogenate (WGH) of Haemonchus contortus emulsified in Freund’s adjuvant. In group 2 (control), animals were injected by phosphate buffered saline emulsified in the same adjuvant. Animals were challenged by 10000 third-stage larvae (L3) of Haemonchus contortus on day 33 after the first immunization and then humanely killed on day 42. Animals were tested for serum antibody and eggs per gram of faeces (EPG) throughout the study and nematodes in their abomasom were counted after necropsy. The results indicated that animals immunized with WGH showed a higher level of serum antibodies. A significant difference was observed in mean optical density of sera in ELISA between the two groups (P0.05) and a 77 and 78 reduction in EPG and nematode counts at necropsy, respectively (P0.05). مشاهده
325 فارسی The prevalence of Escherichia coli O157:H7, Listeria monocytogenes and Campylobacter spp. on bovine ... 1387 2008 Summary This study was carried out to determine the prevalence of foodborne pathogens, Escherichia coli, E. coli O157:H7, Listeria monocytogenes and Campylobacter spp. on slaughtered cattle in Isfahan, Iran. A total of 203 cattle carcasses were sampled by surface section of neck meat taken immediately after slaughter and analyzed using microbiological examinations. Suspected colonies to E. coli O157:H7 were confirmed by a specific polymerase chain reaction method (PCR). The results showed that the contamination rate of samples to E. coli and E. coli O157:H7 were 42.4 and 6.4, respectively. Seasonal distribution showed that the highest prevalence of E. coli and E. coli O157:H7 occurred in summer samples. Six carcasses carried L. monocytogenes whereas Campylobacter spp. were not detected on any carcasses. The results indicated that prevalence of E. coli and E. coli O157:H7 was high on bovine carcasses in Isfahan. This condition should be considered as a probable hazard for human health. مشاهده
326 انگليسی The effects of veterinary services on technical efficiency of dairy farms in Iran: a DEA approach 1387 2008 Summary The aim of this study is to investigate the context by which veterinary services may affect technical efficiency (TE) of Iranian dairy farms. A data envelopment analysis (DEA) was applied to a random sample of 840 dairy farms from six provinces across Iran to estimate regional frontier and metafrontier production functions and also to calculate corresponding TE of these farms. The relationship between the levels of veterinary services and TE scores were then examined using correlation analysis, t-test, and analysis of variance (ANOVA). The results indicated that mean technical efficiency estimated based on the regional frontier production function for selected provinces varies between 0.720 and 0.867 while ranges between 0.445 and 0.595 when evaluated based on the metafrontier production function. Also, our findings showed that veterinary services have a positive effect on TE scores. This implies that TE can be improved by utilizing higher levels of veterinary services. Furthermore, access to more suitable veterinary services was recognized to be a major determinant of technical operation as was the case in Tehran. مشاهده
327 انگليسی An unusual case of nasal mucormycosis caused by Rhizopus oryzae in a German shepherd dog 1387 2008 Summary This study represents an unusual case of mucormycosis localized in nasal cavity of a German shepherd dog. The patient was a 1-year-old male guard dog with unilateral nasal epistaxis, mucopurulent nasal discharge, sneezing and nose pawing. The dog had a history of head trauma about 2 months before admission, which was associated with mild self-limited epistaxis. Initial nasal rhinoscopy showed severe turbinate destruction. The samples of nasal discharge were collected by nasal flush technique and submitted to the Central Laboratory of School of Veterinary Medicine in Tehran for routine cytological, mycological and bacteriological examinations. Direct microscopic examination with 10 KOH/DMSO wet mount revealed the fragments of non-septate hyphae. The fungus was recovered in culture and identified as Rhizopus oryzae. This case showed that the veterinary practitioners should be aware of the possibility of localized nasal mucormycosis when examining dogs with chronic nasal discharge. مشاهده
328 انگليسی Dog-bite induced fatal meningitis in a kitten: a case report 1387 2008 Summary Bacterial infection of the brain is relatively rare in dogs and cats. A cat at approximately three months of age was admitted to the clinic with a history of dog bite seven days before admission. On clinical presentation, the cat was unconscious and in lateral recumbency. One hour after admission, the cat developed severe apnoea and asystole. Cardiorespiratory resuscitation was unsuccessful and the animal died. Necropsy and histopathological examination revealed a purulent meningitis. A sample of purulent exudates was submitted for microbiological examination. Pasteurella multocida was isolated from bacterial culture. Due to the history of dog biting, direct inoculation of P. multocida into the subdural space following penetrating dog-bite wounds was suggested to be the cause of meningitis and death of the kitten. This report highlights the importance of antibiotic therapy in bite wounds to reduce such fatal complications. مشاهده
329 انگليسی First report of Pasteurella dagmatis isolation from a bitch urine in Iran 1387 2008 Summary Pasteurella species are commensal bacteria of the respiratory airways and oronasal cavity of animals. In this study, we report an unusual case of Pasteurella dagmatis isolation from dog urine with uroliths. An 11-year-old female dog was admitted to the Veterinary Hospital of Ahvaz University complaining of abdominal pain, hematuria, dysuria and stranguria. In clinical and radiological examinations, it was found that abdomen was distended due to urinary bladder obstruction with uroliths. Pasteurella dagmatis was isolated from urine specimen collected by cystocentesis. Finally, uroliths were removed by surgery. Appropriate antibiotic treatment with cephalexin caused improvement. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of P. dagmatis presence in dog urine. مشاهده
330 انگليسی Linguatula serrata nymph in a cat 1387 2008 Summary Linguatula serrata is a tongue-shaped parasite that infects carnivores or insectivorous reptile as final host and herbivores as intermediate ones. During necropsy of a 1.5-year-old female stray cat, a few white and fine nodules were observed on the diaphragmatic lobes of the lung. In histopathological examination, the nodules contained a turned spinosum parasite with cuticular spines and in parasitological examination of digested suspension, nymph of L. serrata with characteristic features was seen. This is the first confirmed infestation in a cat with nymph of L. serrata in Iran. مشاهده
331 انگليسی Gross anatomy of the oropharyngeal cavity in the ostrich (Struthio camelus) 1387 2008 Summary There are significant structural differences between the mouth and pharyngeal cavity of birds and mammals. It is usual to refer to a common oropharyngeal cavity of birds because the soft palate, which forms such an obvious delineation between the mouth and pharyngeal cavity, is absent. Six male adult ostriches were used to study the oropharyngeal cavity and its components including the beak, hard palate, pharynx, tongue and the larynx macroscopically. This study revealed that these components in ostrich have different features from other birds. In the ostrich, the beaks are spoon-shaped and the tongue is characterized by a short, broad and semicircular form. The hard palate is concave with a prominent median mucosal fold in its 2/3 rostral area and two oblique choanal slits in its caudal third area. The roof of pharynx presents infundibular slit in midline, a deep concave notch in caudal border and pharyngeal tonsils on its dorsal surface. The larynx protrudes from the floor of pharynx and consists of the unpaired cricoid cartilage and the paired arytenoid cartilages. مشاهده
332 انگليسی The effect of LH and GnRH analogues on induction of ovulation in Bactrian camel (Camelus bactrianus) 1387 2008 Summary Ovarian follicle response and corpus luteum formation following induction of ovulation using gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) analogues and luteinizing hormone (LH) in Bactrian camel were characterized. Bactrian camels with a mature follicle (13-19.6 mm) received: 1) natural porcine LH (25 mg, IV, n = 4), 2) Buserelin (20 μg, IV, n = 4) and 3) Alarelin (25 μg, IM, n = 4). Daily ultrasonography and blood samplings were conducted between day -3 and +15 of the experiment (day 0 = Induction of ovulation). Data were analyzed by univariat analysis with repeated measures analysis included in the model. Following treatment, mature follicle ovulated within 2 days and a new follicle wave emerged after 2-3 days. New mature follicle reached a size of 13.5 ± 0.14 mm by day 12. Corpus luteum was detected on day 6 and reached the maximum size of 19.73 ± 0.81 mm on day 9. Progesterone concentration initiated to increase on day 5, reached maximum concentration on day 9 and decreased significantly on day 11. In conclusion, due to the lack of significant difference among treatment groups (P0.05), Alarelin may be considered as a drug of choice for inducing ovulation in Bactrian camel because of its effectiveness, simple route of administration (IM vs. IV), lower price, and local availability. مشاهده
333 انگليسی Pathological changes in turkeys experimentally infected with different doses of A/ostrich/Italy/984/... 1387 2008 Summary Following experimental inoculation of 3-week-old turkeys with different titres (106, 104, 103, 102 and 101 egg infectious dose (EID50)) of A/ostrich/Italy/984/2000 H7N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV), the selected tissues and organs were examined for pathological changes. Tissue samples from different organs that obtained from dead and sacrificed birds were fixed in 10 neutral buffer formaldehyde. Mortality of turkeys which inoculated with different doses of EID50 at different times post inoculation (PI) is as follows: 1) at 48 h PI (HPI): one, two and four turkeys inoculated with 103, 104 and 106 EID50, respectively 2) at 72 HPI: two, two and one turkeys inoculated with 102, 103 and 106 EID50, respectively 3) at 96 HPI: one and two turkeys inoculated with 102 and 104 EID50, respectively and 4) at 120 HPI: just one turkey inoculated with 104 EID50. Birds inoculated with 101 EID50 did not show any mortality. Seven days PI (DPI) the remaining birds were sacrificed. Postmortem examination of birds that died 48 HPI showed very severe hyperaemia and haemorrhage of the lung, slight swelling of kidneys and splenomegaly. Moderate to slight hyperaemia of the lung was observed in the birds sacrificed on day 7. Histopathology showed very severe haemorrhage and vasculitis in the lung, multifocal areas of degeneration and necrosis in the pancreas of birds inoculated with 106 EID50. Hyperaemia, haemorrhage, degeneration and vasculitis were also observed in the lung of birds from the other groups; however the severity of lesions correlated positively with the viral dose. The spleen, caecal tonsils and thymus showed extensive necrosis and lymphoid depletion, even in birds inoculated with 102 and 101 EID50 that were sacrificed 7 DPI, and some repopulation of the spleen was observed 7 DPI. Other organs including the kidneys and adrenal gland showed moderate to slight hyperaemia and necrosis. In conclusion, the lung vascular damage, lymphoid tissue destruction and necrosis were notable even with low viral doses. مشاهده
334 فارسی Histomorphometric study of the spinal cord segments in the chick and adult male ostrich (Struthio ca... 1387 2008 Summary In this study, the vertical, transverse and oblique diameters of the spinal cord segments (C1, C6, C12, C18, T1, T4, L1, L4, L6 and L8) and the ratio of gray matter to white matter in chick (l month) and adult (18 months) male ostriches, each group consisted of 3 animals, were measured with standard micrometric method using 6 μm thick sections by light microscope. With advancement of age, the ratio of gray matter to white matter was reduced but the diameters of spinal cord segments were increased. Statistically, there were significant differences in parameters measured between the two age groups (P0.05). مشاهده
335 انگليسی Influence of dried tomato pomace as an alternative to wheat bran in maize or wheat based diets, on t... 1387 2006 Summary In a 2  3  2 factorial arrangement, 144, fifty–four-week-old laying hens, in 12 treatments with 12 replicates for each treatment, received one of 12 diets based on maize or wheat containing three levels of dried tomato pomace (DTP: 0, 50 and 100 g/kg) as a substitute for wheat bran, and two levels of pigment (0 and 900 mg/kg), for 9 weeks. Weight gain (WG), egg production (EP), egg weight (EW), egg mass output (EM) and feed intake (FI) were determined. Shell weight (ShW), shell thickness (ShT), Haugh unit (HU) and yolk colour score (YCS) were also measured. Maize decreased body weight of the birds and increased HU, ShW/EW ratio, ShT, and YCS of the eggs when compared with wheat diets. DTP had no effect on these parameters, but increased YCS. Pigment reduced ShW/EW ratio and ShT, but increased YCS of the eggs. There were significant interactions between the source of energy (ES) and DTP on ShT and YCS of the eggs. There were also interactions significant between ES and pigment on ShT and YCS. As an alternative for wheat bran, 100 g/kg of DTP produced comparable egg quality and laying performance, and it contributed to a deeper yolk colour. مشاهده
336 انگليسی Detection and identification of virulent Yersinia ruckeri: the causative agent of enteric redmouth d... 1387 2008 Summary From the winter 2002 to spring 2006, 126 moribund rainbow trout with clinical signs of external body haemorrhages around and within the oral cavity were sampled from 10 rainbow trout farms situated in the northwest and west of Fars province, Iran and examined for the detection and identification of Yersinia ruckeri, the causative agent of enteric redmouth disease. Fish kidneys were cultured aseptically on brain heart infusion (BHI) agar plates and incubated at 25ºC for 48 h. Using conventional biochemical tests, Y. ruckeri was detected in 7 fish (5.5 of total fish sampled). This was also confirmed using specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay. The 16S rDNA PCR assays produced amplicons of 409 bp when applied to Y. ruckeri isolates as well as a reference strain. Results of antibiogram tests on Y. ruckeri isolates showed a high susceptibility to enrofloxacin, norfloxacin, ofloxacin, trimethoprim and oxytetracycline. In pathogenicity tests, dilution of 4 × 108 colony forming unit/ml of Y. ruckeri by immersion route in challenge experiments showed 70 ± 8.2 mortality during 14 days post-infection. Experimentally infected fish showed typical haemorrhages in mouth, blackening of skin, exophthalmia and a wide haemorrhages on the internal organs. مشاهده
337 انگليسی Growth limits of Staphylococcus aureus as a function of temperature, acetic acid, NaCl concentration... 1387 2008 Summary Staphylococcus aureus is one of the most prevalent causes of gastroenteritis worldwide. Knowing the precise boundary for the growth/no growth interface of S. aureus and also determining the period of time needed for bacterial growth initiation is necessary for food safety risk assessment. This study was designed to examine the combined effects of temperature, acetic acid, inoculum level and NaCl concentration on the growth of S. aureus in brain heart infusion broth. Growth was monitored by visible turbidity over a 20 days period. Statistical analysis of data showed significant effects for selected parameters on growth of S. aureus. Stepwise multiple regression was used to predict the growth initiation (R2 = 0.91, P0.0001). To obtain a boundary model, logistic regression was used. The models accurately predicted the growth initiation and inhibition of S. aureus. مشاهده
338 انگليسی Immunization of Arabian sheep with whole gut homogenate of Haemonchus contortus 1387 2008 Summary Ten female lambs of 7-month-old were divided into two equal groups and raised under a helminth-free conditions. Animals in group 1 were immunized two times by whole gut homogenate (WGH) of Haemonchus contortus emulsified in Freund’s adjuvant. In group 2 (control), animals were injected by phosphate buffered saline emulsified in the same adjuvant. Animals were challenged by 10000 third-stage larvae (L3) of Haemonchus contortus on day 33 after the first immunization and then humanely killed on day 42. Animals were tested for serum antibody and eggs per gram of faeces (EPG) throughout the study and nematodes in their abomasom were counted after necropsy. The results indicated that animals immunized with WGH showed a higher level of serum antibodies. A significant difference was observed in mean optical density of sera in ELISA between the two groups (P0.05) and a 77 and 78 reduction in EPG and nematode counts at necropsy, respectively (P0.05). مشاهده
339 انگليسی The prevalence of Escherichia coli O157:H7, Listeria monocytogenes and Campylobacter spp. on bovine ... 1387 2008 Summary This study was carried out to determine the prevalence of foodborne pathogens, Escherichia coli, E. coli O157:H7, Listeria monocytogenes and Campylobacter spp. on slaughtered cattle in Isfahan, Iran. A total of 203 cattle carcasses were sampled by surface section of neck meat taken immediately after slaughter and analyzed using microbiological examinations. Suspected colonies to E. coli O157:H7 were confirmed by a specific polymerase chain reaction method (PCR). The results showed that the contamination rate of samples to E. coli and E. coli O157:H7 were 42.4 and 6.4, respectively. Seasonal distribution showed that the highest prevalence of E. coli and E. coli O157:H7 occurred in summer samples. Six carcasses carried L. monocytogenes whereas Campylobacter spp. were not detected on any carcasses. The results indicated that prevalence of E. coli and E. coli O157:H7 was high on bovine carcasses in Isfahan. This condition should be considered as a probable hazard for human health. مشاهده
340 انگليسی The effects of veterinary services on technical efficiency of dairy farms in Iran: a DEA approach 1387 2008 Summary The aim of this study is to investigate the context by which veterinary services may affect technical efficiency (TE) of Iranian dairy farms. A data envelopment analysis (DEA) was applied to a random sample of 840 dairy farms from six provinces across Iran to estimate regional frontier and metafrontier production functions and also to calculate corresponding TE of these farms. The relationship between the levels of veterinary services and TE scores were then examined using correlation analysis, t-test, and analysis of variance (ANOVA). The results indicated that mean technical efficiency estimated based on the regional frontier production function for selected provinces varies between 0.720 and 0.867 while ranges between 0.445 and 0.595 when evaluated based on the metafrontier production function. Also, our findings showed that veterinary services have a positive effect on TE scores. This implies that TE can be improved by utilizing higher levels of veterinary services. Furthermore, access to more suitable veterinary services was recognized to be a major determinant of technical operation as was the case in Tehran. مشاهده
341 فارسی An unusual case of nasal mucormycosis caused by Rhizopus oryzae in a German shepherd dog 1387 2008 Summary This study represents an unusual case of mucormycosis localized in nasal cavity of a German shepherd dog. The patient was a 1-year-old male guard dog with unilateral nasal epistaxis, mucopurulent nasal discharge, sneezing and nose pawing. The dog had a history of head trauma about 2 months before admission, which was associated with mild self-limited epistaxis. Initial nasal rhinoscopy showed severe turbinate destruction. The samples of nasal discharge were collected by nasal flush technique and submitted to the Central Laboratory of School of Veterinary Medicine in Tehran for routine cytological, mycological and bacteriological examinations. Direct microscopic examination with 10 KOH/DMSO wet mount revealed the fragments of non-septate hyphae. The fungus was recovered in culture and identified as Rhizopus oryzae. This case showed that the veterinary practitioners should be aware of the possibility of localized nasal mucormycosis when examining dogs with chronic nasal discharge. مشاهده
342 انگليسی Dog-bite induced fatal meningitis in a kitten: a case report 1387 2008 Summary Bacterial infection of the brain is relatively rare in dogs and cats. A cat at approximately three months of age was admitted to the clinic with a history of dog bite seven days before admission. On clinical presentation, the cat was unconscious and in lateral recumbency. One hour after admission, the cat developed severe apnoea and asystole. Cardiorespiratory resuscitation was unsuccessful and the animal died. Necropsy and histopathological examination revealed a purulent meningitis. A sample of purulent exudates was submitted for microbiological examination. Pasteurella multocida was isolated from bacterial culture. Due to the history of dog biting, direct inoculation of P. multocida into the subdural space following penetrating dog-bite wounds was suggested to be the cause of meningitis and death of the kitten. This report highlights the importance of antibiotic therapy in bite wounds to reduce such fatal complications. مشاهده
343 انگليسی First report of Pasteurella dagmatis isolation from a bitch urine in Iran 1387 2008 Summary Pasteurella species are commensal bacteria of the respiratory airways and oronasal cavity of animals. In this study, we report an unusual case of Pasteurella dagmatis isolation from dog urine with uroliths. An 11-year-old female dog was admitted to the Veterinary Hospital of Ahvaz University complaining of abdominal pain, hematuria, dysuria and stranguria. In clinical and radiological examinations, it was found that abdomen was distended due to urinary bladder obstruction with uroliths. Pasteurella dagmatis was isolated from urine specimen collected by cystocentesis. Finally, uroliths were removed by surgery. Appropriate antibiotic treatment with cephalexin caused improvement. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of P. dagmatis presence in dog urine. مشاهده
344 انگليسی Summary Linguatula serrata is a tongue-shaped parasite that infects carnivores or insectivorous rept... 1387 2008 Summary Linguatula serrata is a tongue-shaped parasite that infects carnivores or insectivorous reptile as final host and herbivores as intermediate ones. During necropsy of a 1.5-year-old female stray cat, a few white and fine nodules were observed on the diaphragmatic lobes of the lung. In histopathological examination, the nodules contained a turned spinosum parasite with cuticular spines and in parasitological examination of digested suspension, nymph of L. serrata with characteristic features was seen. This is the first confirmed infestation in a cat with nymph of L. serrata in Iran. مشاهده
345 انگليسی The effects of Lactobacillus plantarum and Propionibacterium acidipropionici on corn silage fermenta... 1387 2008 Summary The chemical composition, in situ ruminal degradability coefficients of dry matter (DM), and nutrient digestibility in sheep were evaluated for corn silage (CS) treated (fresh weight basis) with different levels of a commercial bacterial inoculant (I) as follows: (1) untreated CS (control); (2) CS + I at half of the recommended level; (3) CS + I at the recommended level (3  1010 colony forming units per g of fresh forage) and (4) CS + I at two-fold recommended level. The inoculants (Lallemand, France) consisted of Lactobacillus plantarum and Propionibacterium acidipropionici. Whole- plant corn was ensiled for 60 days in plastic polyethylene bags. Also, three laboratory silos (70 g capacity) for each treatment were sampled on days 2, 3, 4 and 60 to study the pH changes. The silages underwent rapid fermentation and were well-preserved. The pH value decreased to 4.0 on day 2 and was the lowest for treatment 2 on day 60 after ensiling compared with other treatments. Treatment 2 had higher (P0.05) contents of crude protein (CP), residual water soluble carbohydrates (WSC), lactic acid, acetic acid, propionic acid, and total acids, but lower (P0.05) butyric acid than treatment 3, and also higher acetic and lower butyric acid levels than other treatments. No traces of ethanol were detected in any of the silages. The acid detergent fiber (ADF) content of treatments 1 and 4 was lower (P0.05) than others. Only ether extract (EE) digestibility was affected by these treatments which was higher for treatments 1 and 4 (P0.05). The DM recovery for treatment 1 was lower than others. Effective DM degradability was slightly higher for treatment 4 and fraction “a” was significantly (P0.05) lower for treatments 1 and 3 compared with treatment 4. The results indicated that application of this inoculant at half of the recommended level was more effective to enhance the aerobic stability of silages due to higher acetic and propionic acid production which have antimycotyic properties. The decreased cost associated with this level of inoculant might be economical for farmers in warm climates as to encourage its use as an additive for silage making. مشاهده
346 انگليسی Zinc modulates heat-induced degenerative 1387 2008 Summary This study was designed to investigate whether administration of zinc sulphate could improve the response of mouse testis to degenerative effects of short term exposure heating. Fifty-four adult male Balb/C mice were anaesthetized and the scrotums of 36 of them were immersed for 15 min in a waterbath at 43°C. Immediately after the heating, half of the heated animals (n = 18) were injected with saline solution (HS) and the other half (n = 18) were given 10 mg/kg of zinc sulphate intraperitoneally (HZ), and this was continued every other day for 60 days. Control group of mice (n = 18) were treated identical to the HS group with the exception that the waterbath was held at 23°C. Mice were sacrificed at 15, 30 and 60 days after heating and the testes were gently excised. Seminiferous tubules diameter and percentage of spermatogenesis were measured in each testis. There was a significant reduction in the mean seminiferous tubules diameter and the percentage of spermatogenesis up to day 30 after heating in the HS group in comparison with the control group (172.5 ± 2.55 μm vs 208.2 ± 1.53 μm and 18.00 ± 0.77 vs 99.33 ± 0.33, respectively) but in the HZ group, only initial decline (up to day 15) was observed in the mean seminiferous tubules diameter (199.1 ± 1.90 μm vs 206.0 ± 2.51 μm, not significant) and the percentage of spermatogenesis (91.33 ± 0.95 vs 97.67 ± 0.66, P0.001); then, a progressive recovery was seen up to the end of the experiment. Histopathological observations showed progressive degeneration up to day 30 after heating and then normal structure was returned in the HS group. In the HZ group, normal structure was returned up to day 15. The results from this study indicated that administration of zinc sulphate may improve the spermatogenesis process after testicular damage caused by a short term exposure of the mouse testis to heat. مشاهده
347 انگليسی Relationships between chemical composition of meat 1387 2008 Summary To investigate the relationship between chemical composition of meat from the carcass cuts and the whole carcass, 48 nine-month-old randomly selected ram lambs of Ghezel and Mehraban (24 rams per breed) were used in a trial arranged as a 2 × 2 factorial experiment with two breeds and two feeding levels (high and low), in a completely randomized design. After 80 days, all animals were slaughtered and the right side of the carcass was cut into the leg, shoulder, back, neck, brisket and flap joints. Dry matter (DM), crude protein (CP), crude fat and ash were determined in meat from individual cuts and combined meat of all cuts (carcass meat). In general, average meat composition was not significantly affected by breed, feeding level and their interaction. Significant correlations were found between chemical composition of meat in most carcass cuts and carcass meat. Carcass DM in Ghezel sheep was highly correlated (P0.001) with shoulder (r = 0.81) and back (r = 0.74) meat DM. In Mehraban sheep, back meat DM showed the highest correlation with carcass meat DM (r = 0.84, P0.001). Back CP was significantly correlated with carcass meat CP in both breeds (r = 0.80, P0.001). Carcass meat fat was significantly (P0.001) correlated with back fat in both Ghezel (r = 0.76) and Mehraban (r = 0.84). In Ghezel, correlation coefficients of carcass meat ash and other parameters were generally small and non-significant. In Mehraban, carcass meat ash showed a small correlation with shoulder ash (r = 0.58, P0.01) followed by back (r = 0.49, P0.05) and brisket ash (r = 0.43, P0.05). As a whole, chemical composition of the meat in the back joint showed the highest correlation coefficients with the corresponding parameters in the carcass, and may be used as a good predictor of carcass composition in these breeds. Regression analysis of the data indicated that percentages of fat and protein in back meat accounted for about 65 of total variation in carcass meat fat and protein. مشاهده
348 انگليسی Kinetic disposition, urinary excretion and dosage 1387 2008 Summary The present study was conducted on five healthy male cross bred calves to study the kinetic disposition and urinary excretion of levofloxacin following its single subcutaneous administration at the dose of 4 mg.kg-1. The concentration of levofloxacin in plasma and urine samples was estimated by microbiological assay. Peak plasma level of levofloxacin (2.8 ± 0.3 μg.ml-1) was observed at 45 min and the drug level above MIC90 in plasma, was detected up to 12 hrs of administration. The bioavailability of levofloxacin was 41.9 ± 3.2. High value of AUC (9.88 ± 0.1 μg.ml-1.hr) reflected a vast area of body covered by drug concentration. Good distribution of the drug was reflected by the high value of Vdarea (0.73 ± 0.04 L.kg-1). The elimination half-life and MRT were 3.0 ± 0.2 hr and 4.79 ± 0.2 hr, respectively. A suitable subcutaneous dosage regimen for levofloxacin was calculated to be 1.25 mg.kg-1 repeated at 12-hr intervals in calves. مشاهده
349 انگليسی Prevalence of Escherichia coli O157:H7 on dairy farms 1386 2007 Summary To identify the reservoirs of shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli O157, sensitive detection and isolation methods are necessary. The sensitivity of traditional culture methods can be improved significantly by the inclusion of an immunoconcentration step, resulting in less false-negative results. In this study, enrichment procedure and immunomagnetic separation (IMS) were compared for use in conjunction with a multiplex polymerase chain reaction (M-PCR) method for detection of genes stx1, stx2, eaeA and hlyA. A total number of 975 faecal samples were collected from 26 dairy farms in Shiraz area, Shiraz, southern Iran. The samples were cultured at 37°C for 18–24 hrs in modified tryptic soy broth (m-TSB). Each of five enriched samples were pooled and examined in two ways—direct PCR and IMS. The detection limit of the M-PCR protocol for seeded E. coli O157:H7:ATCC:43895 in m-TSB without stool was 1.23 × 102 CFU/ml, whereas it was 1.23 × 106 CFU/ml with enriched faecal sample. In direct PCR of enriched samples, no positive sample was detected. However, in IMS of enriched samples one specimen was positive. The prevalence of E. coli O157:H7 in faeces of cows in examined farms was 0.51 and the herd prevalence was 3.86. Isolation of this serotype from faecal samples indicates that cattle are reservoirs of this pathogen and potentially a source of human infection. This finding is of considerable public health importance. مشاهده
350 انگليسی Serologic and bacteriologic diagnosis of bovine 1387 2007 Summary Leptospirosis is a worldwide zoonosis caused by Leptospira interrogans. This study was conducted to evaluate serologic and bacteriologic findings of leptospirosis in clinically-suspected cows. 380 sera and 33 urine samples were collected from 6 industrial dairy farms in Tehran suburb, from December 2004 to June 2005. The prevalence of disease was determined by microscopic agglutination test (MAT), enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), direct dark-field microscopic (DFM) examination, indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT), microbiologic cultural isolation technique and polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Antibodies were detected by MAT at least against one serovar of L. interrogans in 55 sera (14.5) among 380 samples at a dilution of ≥ 1:100. L. interrogans serovar icterohaemorrhagiae was the most prevalent serovar. Leptospiral antibodies were detected by ELISA in 85 sera (22.4) among 380 samples. Four (12.1) of 33 urine samples were suspected by DFM examination and no positive sample by IFAT was observed. Leptospires could be isolated from none of the 33 samples taken from industrial farms. In this study, positive controls were detected at a dilution of ≥ 2000 leptospires per each ml of urine sample by PCR. Therefore, no DNA from serum and urine samples were collected from 6 industrial dairy farms could be detected by this method. It seems that, to increase the accuracy in the diagnosis of the disease, using a range of reliable techniques and comparing the results is important in reaching final conclusion. مشاهده
351 انگليسی Serologic study on leptospiral infection in 1386 2007 Summary To investigate the seroprevalence of leptospiral infection in sheep in Ahvaz, southwestern Iran, blood samples were taken from 181 female sheep. Sera were stored at -20°C until use. They were initially screened at serum dilution of 1:100 against six live antigens of Leptospira interrogans serovars pomona, canicola, hardjo, ballum, icterohaemorrhagiae, grippotyphosa using the microscopic agglutination test (MAT). The samples were considered positive if ≥ 50 of agglutination of leptospire in a dilution test serum of ≥ l:100 were observed. Sera with positive results were titrated against reacting antigens in serial two-fold dilutions from l:100 to 1:1600. Antibodies against one or more serovars were detected in 27 (14.9) sera at dilution ≥1:100. Antibodies against more than one serovar were found in 5 (18.5) positive sera. Among the positive sera, antibodies were most frequent to serovar pomona (43.8) followed by canicola (21.9), icterohaemorrhagiae (12.5), grippotyphosa (9.4), ballum and hardjo (each of them 6.3). The results of this survey indicate that leptospiral infection is common in sheep in Ahvaz and that various serovars concur in the etiology. مشاهده
352 انگليسی Morphological and morphometrical study of 1386 2007 Summary The objective of this research was to evaluate the cause of fertility reduction after chemotherapy. Cyclophosphamide is a common chemotherapy and immunosuppressive agent used for the treatment of a wide range of neoplastic and some auto-immune diseases. In the present study, morphometrical changes in the ovary and uterus of 12 5–6-week-old female Syrian mice after intraperitoneal injection of 75 mg cyclophosphamide/kg BW were assessed. Control animals (n = 8) were injected with sterile distilled water using similar method. The results of this study revealed that cyclophosphamide eliminated almost more than 50 of the primordial follicles (PMF) reserve. The mean ± SE number of PMF in the control group was 1210 ± 135 compared to 464 ± 55 in the test group. The mean number of secondary, tertiary follicles and corpora lutea also showed significant (P0.05) reduction in the treatment group. The histomorphometric studies also showed that the mean ± SE diameter of the ovary in the control group was 1703 ± 78 μm as compared to 900.9 ± 86 μm in the test group (P0.01). The thickness of the uterine wall was also significantly different with a mean ± SE of 745.7 ± 13 μm in the control and 393.1 ± 23 μm in the test group. The mean ± SE thickness of endometrium in the control group was 392.1 ± 16 μm, whereas in the test group it was 194 ± 10 μm (P0.001). The results of this study revealed that chemotherapy with cyclophosphamide causes destruction of PMF as well as other growing follicles; accordingly, the reproductive potential was negatively affected. The method used in this study can be most likely used as a sensitive and inexpensive tool to predict the damage to fertility caused by new chemotherapy protocols. In conclusion, chemotherapy brings about a) reduction in ovarian follicular populations, especially PMF, b) it causes reduction in diameter and size of ovary and c) decreases thickness of uterine wall, especially endometrium. مشاهده
353 انگليسی The prevalence of rabies and animal bites during 1387 2007 1Department of Surgery, Faculty of Medicine, University of Medical Sciences and Health Services of Rafsanjan, Rafsanjan, Iran; 2Graduated from Faculty of Sciences, University of Tehran and MSc student in National Institute of Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology, Tehran, Iran; 3Department of Epidemiology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran; 4Kerman Veterinary Organization, Kerman, Iran; 5WHO Collaborating Center for Reference and Research on Rabies, Pasteur Institute of Iran, Tehran, Iran; 6Department of Social Medicine and Epidemiology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Medical Sciences of Kerman, Kerman, Iran; 7Graduated from Faculty of Civil Engineering, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran and academic member of Faculty of Engineering, Rafsanjan Vali-E-Asr University (RVU), Rafsanjan, Iran; 8Department of Clinical Sciences, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran مشاهده
354 انگليسی An outbreak of Chorioptes bovis mange on adairy farm in Tabriz, Iran 1386 2007 Summary This report is on infestation with Chorioptes bovis of Holstein cattle on a dairy farm included 900 cows in Tabriz. Ten heifers and 25 milking cows under the age of 5 years were infested. Clinical signs consisted of alopecia, crusts, ulcerations and superficial skin fissures. Pruritus and itching were severe in all cases. Lesions were present around the base of the tail, on the neck and below the knee. Skin scrapings were examined and eggs, larvae, nymphs and adult mites were recovered. The infested animals were separated from others and treated three times at weekly intervals with 0.05 solution of sebacil. Signs of improvement were observed after the final treatment. مشاهده
355 فارسی Isolation of Ornithobacterium rhinotracheale from the 1386 2007 Summary On June 2005, a respiratory disease was observed in the chickens of a large broiler farm in Kermanshah province, west of Iran. Relatively severe respiratory signs started with sneezing at 27 days of age. The disease lasted up to the end of fattening period and accompanied by increased mortality (13.6). At postmortem examination, tracheitis, airsacculitis and pneumonia were obvious. Serologic examinations were negative for Mycoplasma gallisepticum and Mycoplasma synoviae. On virologic examinations, virulent infectious bronchitis virus (IBV), avian influenza virus (AIV) and virulent Newcastle disease virus (NDV) could not be isolated. Histopathologic examinations showed no pathognomonic lesion typical for infectious laryngotracheitis. On bacteriologic examinations, Ornithobacterium rhinotracheale (ORT) was isolated from trachea, lungs and air sacs of the affected birds. Based on clinical, post-mortem and laboratory findings, ORT could be probably the primary cause of respiratory disease on this farm. مشاهده
356 انگليسی Histomorphologic study of the renal artery inpost-natal life of sheep (Ovis aries) 1386 2007 Summary The purpose of this study was to gain more information on the structure of different layers of renal artery and comparing these structures in post-natal male and female sheep. To do so, right and left renal arteries of 6 adult and 6 newborn animals were dissected; the middle parts of arteries were only collected. After tissue processing using paraffin embedding method, 5–6-μm sections were cut and stained with haematoxylin and eosin, green Masson’s trichrome and Verhoeff’s elastic fiber methods. Three layers were identified in the wall of artery in both sexes. In tunica media the number of rows of circular smooth muscle cells was 15–25 rows in newborn and 30–40 in adult sheep. External elastic membrane was visible in adult and was structurally thinner than the internal membrane. Tunica adventitia was visible in all samples and collagen fibers and smooth muscles bundle were distinguished. The existence of these muscle bundles in external layer of renal artery was not reported previously in domestic animals and regarded as a new finding in the present study. These muscle bundles were thicker in adult than in newborn animals and probably have a relationship with the function of kidney’s vascular system. It was concluded that these bundles may potentiate the tunica media muscle cells to prevent hypertension crisis. مشاهده
357 انگليسی Small colon faecalith impaction in a thoroughbred foal 1386 2007 Summary An 8-month-old female thoroughbred foal was presented showing signs of colic. The foal was anxious, exhibiting signs of abdominal pain and distention. The foal had tachycardia (120 beats/min), tachypnea (40 breaths/min). Blood samples obtained for haematologic and serum biochemistry analysis that showed a PCV of 30 and a TPP of 70 g/L. The peritoneal fluid analysis revealed a clear fluid with mild elevation of total protein. The early treatment involved intravenous administration of a balanced electrolyte solution and analgesics. The signs of abdominal pain were progressive and nonresponsive to treatments. Therefore, exploratory laparatomy was elected. During the exploratory laparatomy a faecalith impaction of small colon was detected. The mass was manipulated, macerated and milked toward the rectum and anus. It was finally removed via the anus without enterotomy incision. Midline incision and skin incision were sutured routinely. The foal made an uneventful recovery. مشاهده
358 انگليسی Hepatocellular carcinoma in a sheep 1386 2007 Summary At necropsy of a five-year-old sheep, a pear shaped, lobular yellow-brownish mass measuring about 12 × 15 × 20 cm was found to involve the right hepatic lobe. Microscopic examination revealed two trabecular and solid patterns of neoplastic hepatocytes. In solid pattern, there were numerous tumoral giant cells that contain one or more large hyperchromatic bizarre-shaped nuclei scattered among clusters of neoplastic hepatocytes. In addition, mitotic figures, dilated sinusoids and large vascular spaces filled with red blood cells were observed in some sections. Based on gross and histopathologic characteristics, the mass was diagnosed as hepatocellular carcinoma. مشاهده
359 انگليسی Pupillotonia in a Spitz dog: a case report 1386 2007 Summary An 8-year-old female Japanese Spitz dog was reffered to Shiraz University Veterinary Clinic, with sign of anisocoria. Clinical examinations revealed mydriasis in the right eye. Ocular examination revealed a dilated and unresponsive right pupil to focal illumination. By testing with topical 2 pilocarpine, the tentative diagnosis was parasympathetic denervation of the right iris sphincter muscle—pupillotonia. مشاهده
360 انگليسی Accidental self-inoculation in a veterinarian with 1387 2007 Summary Herein, we described the first case of self-inoculation in a veterinarian with bovine Johne’s disease (BJD) attenuated vaccine in Iran that required medical attention. A needle-stick injury to the right thumb of a young veterinarian during vaccination of cattle with BJD vaccine resulted in an inflammation that not only failed to resolve but also progressed to a lesion 2.5 cm in diameter. The usual conservative treatment of this wound was not effective. Surgical intervention for debridement of the inflammatory tissue was not performed. For diagnosis of lesion, needle biopsy was prepared from the inflamed tissue mass. Histopathologic examination revealed a tuberculoid granulomatous inflammation without any caseous necrosis. The wound healed by taking rifampin. مشاهده
361 انگليسی Nitrate intoxication due to ingestion of pigweed red-root(Amaranthus retroflexus) in cattle 1386 2007 Summary Nitrate toxicosis associated with consumption of pigweed red-root (Amaranthus retroflexus) was diagnosed in a small herd of cattle in the suburb of Mashhad, northeastern Iran. The clinical signs were ruminal tympany, incoordination, tachycardia, dyspnea, head pressing, aggressive movements and jugular distension. Seven animals including 3 young calves and 4 cows died of intoxication; other affected cattle were treated by intravenous administration of epinephrine and ascorbic acid. No further mortality was observed after the treatment. One of the treated cows aborted a 6-month-old fetus more than three days after intoxication. Two samples of suspected plants were analysed for nitrate. The nitrate content of those plants was 6.6 and 10.4 in dry matter. مشاهده
362 انگليسی Evaluation of PCR amplification from fixed caecal tissueto determine the infection of experimentally... 1386 2007 Summary Avian intestinal spirochaetosis (AIS) is a condition arising from colonization of the caeca and colon of birds with anaerobic spirochaetes of the genus Brchyspira. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate PCR amplification from formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue method for detecting infected laying hens with Brachyspira pilosicoli with the same primers that have been used for detecting the infection in live birds. Over a 4-week period following experimental infection, the faeces of three of the eight inoculated birds became culture-positive. At post-mortem examination, no specific pathological changes were found, and in histological examination of caeca, no forming a “false brush border” was observed, but the spirochaete-form bacteria were present between the intestinal villi. Faecal and swab cultures from caeca of three infected birds became positive and confirmed by PCR amplification of 16S rRNA gene of B. pilosicoli. But this gene was not detected by PCR amplification from fixed caecal tissues of infected birds. This result might be due to low number of bacteria in each section or damage and fragmentation of target DNA. مشاهده
363 انگليسی The effect of subclinical mastitis on milkcomposition in dairy cows 1386 2007 Summary Milk samples were collected from quarters of 35 cows with subclinical mastitis (California mastitis test [CMT] positive and somatic cell counts [SCC] 500,000 cells/ml in individual quarter foremilk), as well as from 37 healthy controls. Compared to the levels observed in milk from healthy quarters, milk from quarters with subclinical mastitis showed elevated sodium (91.97 vs 52.93 mg/dl), chloride (0.14 vs 0.14 g/dl), pH (6.69 vs 6.59), albumin (5.62 vs 2.65 g/dl), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity (1524.04 vs 485.94 IU/L) and immunoglobulins (26.86 vs 7.43). In contrast, decreased values were found for calcium (90.45 vs 126.29 mg/dl), inorganic phosphorous (24.40 vs 30.59 mg/dl), potassium (151.56 vs 167.74 mg/dl), α- lactalbumin (22.25 vs 28.72) and β-lactoglobulin (34.21 vs 57.08). No changes were seen in blood serum LDH activity. Furthermore, an increase in positive response to CMT was found to be accompanied by an almost proportionate increase in immunoglobulin values to 48.20 and decrease of α-lactalbumin levels in milk serum (P0.01). These changes in pH, mineral concentrations, LDH activity and protein fractions in milk of quarters show the presence of tissue damage provoked by SCM. Thus, these parameters can be used in the diagnosis of mastitis. مشاهده
364 انگليسی Pharmacokinetics of cefpirome in buffalo calvesBubalus bubalis) following single intramuscularadmini... 1386 2007 Summary The pharmacokinetics of cefpirome was investigated in buffalo calves following its single intramuscular (IM) administration (10 mg). The peak plasma concentration of cefpirome at 30 min was 9.0 ± 0.5 μg.ml-1, which declined to 0.2 ± 0.1 μg.ml-1 at 24 hrs. The absorption half-life (t1/2Ka) and elimination half-life (t1/2 β) were 0.19 ± 0.03 hr and 2.39 ± 0.05 hr, respectively. The area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC), area under the first moment curve (AUMC), apparent volume of distribution (Vdarea), total body clearance (ClB), mean residence time (MRT) and total duration of therapeutic effect (td) were 28.7 ± 1.9 μg.ml-1.hr, 107.7 ± 6.7 μg.ml-1.hr2, 0.42 ± 0.01 L.kg-1, 0.12 ± 0.003 L.kg-1.hr-1, 3.76 ± 0.04 hr and 12.7 ± 0.3 hr, respectively. The systemic bioavailability (F) after IM administration of cefpirome in calves was 35.3 ± 3.1. To maintain a minimum therapeutic concentration of 0.25 μg.ml-1, a satisfactory dosage regimen of cefpirome in buffalo calves was 3.46 mg.kg-1 followed by 3.36 mg.kg-1 at 12-hour intervals. Cefpirome was bound to the plasma proteins of buffalo calves in vitro to the extent of 30.7 ± 1.9. مشاهده
365 انگليسی Efficacy of CIDR, fluogestone acetate sponges andcloprostenol for estrous synchronization of Nadoosh... 1386 2006 Summary The objective of this study was to evaluate three methods of estrous synchronization, viz. controlled internal drug releasing device (CIDR), intravaginal sponges impregnated with fluogestone acetate (FGA), and cloprostenol (Estrumate; an analogue of prostaglandin F2α) in Nadooshani goats of Yazd province, Iran. The estrous synchronized does (n = 30 to 33 per treatment), after heat detection, were artificially inseminated (once) with diluted semen of fertile bucks. Pregnancy was determined by measuring blood serum progesterone levels on day 21 after insemination, followed by ultrasonography at mid-gestation. No significant difference was observed for the interval between the end of the synchronization protocol and the standing heat amongst treatments (range: 23 to 35 hrs). There was no significant difference in the interval between the time of standing heat and insemination among treatments (range: 15 to 27 hrs). Blood serum progesterone levels (overall mean: 4.80 ± 0.41 ng/ml; SEM), litter size (overall mean: 1.32 ± 0.05; SEM), non-return rate to estrus and the kidding rate were not significantly affected by the synchronization methods. Serum progesterone levels were significantly lower (P0.01) in does that returned to estrus after artificial insemination (AI). Prolificacy and fecundity were not significantly affected by the synchronization methods; however, cloprostenol method was found to be more convenient and economical under the conditions of this experiment. مشاهده
366 انگليسی Efficacy of CIDR, fluogestone acetate sponges and 1386 2007 Summary The objective of this study was to evaluate three methods of estrous synchronization, viz. controlled internal drug releasing device (CIDR), intravaginal sponges impregnated with fluogestone acetate (FGA), and cloprostenol (Estrumate; an analogue of prostaglandin F2α) in Nadooshani goats of Yazd province, Iran. The estrous synchronized does (n = 30 to 33 per treatment), after heat detection, were artificially inseminated (once) with diluted semen of fertile bucks. Pregnancy was determined by measuring blood serum progesterone levels on day 21 after insemination, followed by ultrasonography at mid-gestation. No significant difference was observed for the interval between the end of the synchronization protocol and the standing heat amongst treatments (range: 23 to 35 hrs). There was no significant difference in the interval between the time of standing heat and insemination among treatments (range: 15 to 27 hrs). Blood serum progesterone levels (overall mean: 4.80 ± 0.41 ng/ml; SEM), litter size (overall mean: 1.32 ± 0.05; SEM), non-return rate to estrus and the kidding rate were not significantly affected by the synchronization methods. Serum progesterone levels were significantly lower (P0.01) in does that returned to estrus after artificial insemination (AI). Prolificacy and fecundity were not significantly affected by the synchronization methods; however, cloprostenol method was found to be more convenient and economical under the conditions of this experiment. مشاهده
367 انگليسی Comparative studies on calpain activity of differentmuscles of cattle, camel, sheep and goat 1386 2007 Summary Tenderness is the single most important factor influencing consumer acceptance of meat. The calpain proteolytic system is known to be responsible for the post-mortem tenderization of meat. The purpose of this study was to determine and compare the tensile strength and total calpain activities in different muscles of camel, cattle, sheep and goat. In camels, the effect of age and sex of animal was also studied. Twenty-four animals (camel, cattle, sheep and goat) were sampled randomly after slaughtering. Samples from biceps femoris, longissimus dorsi and triceps brachii and heart were obtained from each animal. The tensile strength was calculated using an Instron Universal testing machine. After homogenization of samples in 0.1 M NaCl and centrifugation, total calpain activity was determined by fluorometric method. Despite significant differences in tensile strength, no significant difference (P0.05) was observed among calpain activities of different muscles in each species. Inter-species differences however, were significant (P0.05). In all muscles, the highest calpain activity was found in camel (3.08–5.36 RFU/mg protein) followed by cattle (3.65–4.43 RFU/mg protein), sheep (1.17–2.82 RFU/mg protein) and goat (1.24–2.23 RFU/mg protein). No significant differences were observed between camel and cattle and also between sheep and goat in tensile strength (P0.05). In camel, adult animals had higher calpain activity and tensile strength than youngs; sex had no significant effects. Correlation coefficients of calpain activity and tensile strength were negative and not significant in all species. In conclusion, meats from different species might show different degrees of tenderness, partly due to the difference in their calpain activity. مشاهده
368 انگليسی Vitamin E protection against gentamicin-inducednephrotoxicity in rats: a biochemicaland histopatholo... 1386 2006 Summary The specificity of gentamicin for vitamin E deficiency-associated oxidative stresses in the renal proximal convoluted tubules is apparently related to its ability to increasingly facilitate generation of radical species in mitochondria. To determine the ways in which vitamin E manage the currently processes, we conducted a prospective study aimed to investigate the tubular preserving effect of vitamin E, pre-treatment and cotreatment, in nephrotoxicity with gentamicin-treated Sprague-Dawley rats. 35 healthy rats were ascribed 1–5 trials to receive once daily intramuscular injections of either gentamicin (80 mg/kg/body Wt) (GN), normal saline (NS), vitamin E (250 mg/kg/body Wt) (VE), vitamin E (250 mg/kg/body Wt) plus gentamicin (80 mg/kg/body Wt) simultaneously (CGE), or vitamin E alone (250 mg/kg/body Wt) 3 days before coadministration with gentamicin (80 mg/kg/body Wt) (PGE), for 10 days. Gentamicin alone caused a decrease in glomerular filtration rate-associated coefficient of the creatinine clearance, increase in blood content of BUN as well as a decrease in tubular function evident by recognised depression of ATPase activity, increases in lipid peroxidation and subsequently MDA activity. The histopathologic studies revealed acute tubular necrosis with tubular cast formation triggered by gentamicin treatment over 10 days of experiment and change in size and pattern of tubules. Further biochemical studies showed tubular preserving effect of vitamin E pre-administration including slow down in rising enzyme activity (MDA) and mild to moderate BUN with recovery in creatinine clearance and holding ATPase activity up to 50 on comparison with the control and vitamin E alone-treated rats. Significant tubular resistance against gentamicin proximal tubular lesions on the suppressed activity of lipid oxidation induced by vitamin E pre-treatment with normal size during microscopic inspections lead us to conclude protective role of vitamin E is probably attributed to tubular prevention, whereas hyperemia prepared by vitamin is only a consequent. مشاهده
369 فارسی Study of β-tubulin gene polymorphisms in Haemonchuscontortus isolated from sheep populationsin Khouz... 1386 2007 Summary In this report, β-tubulin gene polymorphism was investigated in Haemonchus contortus populations isolated from sheep flocks in different regions of Khouzestan province, southwestern Iran. The samples were chosen on the basis of regional variation in benzimidazole treatment background of sheep flocks. Our objective was to study the relationship between treatment background and β-tubulin gene polymorphism of H. contortus isolated from the selected regions. H. contortus isolated from Shooshtar revealed reduction in β- tubulin gene polymorphism restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) in respect to other isolates indicating that benzimidazole-resistant isolates of H. contortus developed in some sheep flock of Shooshtar region مشاهده
370 انگليسی Variation in absorption and excretion of calcium ingrazing sheep in a semi-arid grazing ranch,Punjab... 1386 2007 Summary The calcium status of lactating, non-lactating, and male sheep on farm in southwestern Punjab, Pakistan was studied. Pasture and animal were sampled at the end of the first month of summer and winter. All samplings were carried out fortnightly. A mineral supplement was available to all animals throughout the year. Plasma calcium in all animals was not affected by the physiologic state and gender as it was severely deficient in all classes of animals. The calcium concentrations of forage and plasma in all classes of sheep, and milk in lactating sheep were affected by the season (P0.001). In the lactating sheep, the marginal deficient levels of calcium for requirement (1200-2600 mg/kg) in summer and moderate deficiency (1200- 2600 mg/kg) for sheep requirement during winter were found. In non-lactating sheep, plasma calcium was moderately deficient during winter and marginally deficient in summer. In male sheep, plasma calcium level in summer was marginally deficient while plasma calcium during winter was moderately deficient. Soil and forage calcium concentrations were found within the same range during both seasons and showed a positive association between them (P0.001). Based on these analyses, it was concluded that the calcium status of grazing sheep in this specific region needs supplementation with specifically tailored mixture to achieve the maximum potential of grazing sheep in this ranch. مشاهده
371 انگليسی Effect of high concentration of testosterone enanthateon histometrical structure of the adrenalcorte... 1386 2007 Summary Testosterone enanthate (TE) is used by many athletes as a muscle builder. Previous studies showed that high concentration of the drug in plasma may affect the natural function of endocrine glands, specially the secretion of the adrenocortical hormones. The objective of the present study was to examine the effects of high concentration of TE on histometrical structure of adrenal cortex in male rats. 120 Charles River rats were equally divided into 5 groups of gonadectomized rats receiving (G+TE), non-gonadectomized rats receiving TE (Sh+TE), gonadectomized rats receiving vehicle (G+S), non-gonadectomized rats receiving vehicle (Sh+S), and the control rats which were neither operated nor received vehicle or drug (CO). The animals were given either 0.5 ml normal saline as vehicle or 5 mg/100 g body weight TE in equal volume of normal saline. Nine weeks after receiving drug or vehicle, serum levels of testosterone were determined, and histometrical studies were performed on tissues from adrenal glands using haematoxylin and eosin staining. There was a significant increase in serum levels of testosterone in G+TE group compared to the CO one. Moreover, the diameters of the nuclei and cells from zona glomerulosa, zona fasciculate and zona reticularis showed a significant increase compared to the CO group. The results indicated that TE has an increasing effect on the nuclei and cell size of the adrenal cortex. مشاهده
372 انگليسی A polymerase chain reaction based study on thesubclinical mastitis caused by Streptococcus agalactia... 1386 2007 Summary Streptococcus agalactiae, S. dysgalactiae and S. uberis are Gram-positive bacterial pathogens that affect cows in dairy herds. These are considered as the major causes of economic losses of dairy producers without a control program. To reveal the role of these agents in inducing subclinical mastitis in dairy cattle in Ahvaz, 100 CMT-positive milk samples and 20 CMT-negative milk samples were collected and examined by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The results were compared with the conventional bacterial culture. Based on the PCR results, S. agalactiae, S. dysgalactiae and S. uberis were causative agents in 20, 12.5 and 0.83 of samples, respectively. There was not any culture-positive samples being negative in PCR, but there were 10 PCR positives being negative in culture method. Based on McNemar test, there was 91.6 agreement between PCR and culture methods for the diagnosis of streptococcal mastitis. There were 14 and 7 CMTnegative samples, being positive by PCR and culture methods, respectively. The results of this study showed that subclinical infections from these bacteria are prevalent in dairy cattle of Ahvaz and regular testing and control programs should be planned to control the infection. CMT has not sufficient sensitivity for detection of subclinical mastitis due to these agents. مشاهده
373 انگليسی Biochemical evaluation of amniotic fluid duringdifferent stages of gestation in the goat 1386 2007 Summary To study changes in concentrations of some biochemical factors of amniotic fluid, 115 normal goat uteri at different stages of pregnancy were collected from slaughterhouse. After expelling of each fetus accompanied by fetal membranes, 10 ml amniotic fluid was taken from amniotic sac for biochemical analysis. Then approximate ages of fetuses were calculated by using age estimation formula. At five stages of five months of pregnancy, the following results were obtained, respectively: sodium concentrations were 123.3, 125, 115.9, 122 and 120.8 mmol/L; potassium, 6.2, 5.2, 5.8, 4.9 and 5.6 mmol/L; chloride, 101.4, 115.1, 117.3, 106.6 and 94.9 mmol/L; glucose, 7.1, 11.5, 8.8, 4.9 and 3.6 mg/dl; urea, 43.7, 69.3, 84.8, 117 and 91.7 mg/dl; uric acid, 0.4, 0.1, 0.1, 0.3 and 0.7 mg/dl; creatinine, 1.5, 0.6, 0.6, 5 and 5.9 mg/dl and total protein with the highest value of 54.2 mg/dl at the first month of pregnancy and the lowest value of 26.6 mg/dl at the second month. مشاهده
374 انگليسی Prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibilities of coagulasenegativeStaphylococci isolated from mammar... 1386 2007 Summary Mammary secretions of 913 quarters from 229 pregnant Holstein heifers were obtained aseptically to determine the prevalence of coagulase-negative Staphylococci isolated during periparturient period. Quarter samples were collected 14 to 10 days before expected parturition. Analysis of culture data indicated that 78.5 (717/913) of samples were negative, 20.5 (187/913) contained coagulase-negative Staphylococci, 0.33 coagulase-positive Staphylococci, 0.33 E. coli, 0.22 Arcanobacterium pyogenes and 0.11 environmental Streptococci spp. A total of 187 isolates of coagulase-negative Staphylococci were tested in vitro for susceptibility to 8 antimicrobial agents. Susceptibility was detected in 180 (96.3), 187 (100), 163 (87.2), 168 (89.8), 183 (97.9), 187 (100), 174 (93) and 164 (87.7) isolates for oxytetracycline, gentamicin, streptomycin, tylosin, cloxacillin, enrofluxacin, trimethoprim+ sulphamethoxazole and penicillin G, respectively. More than 93.8 of the isolates were susceptible to all antimicrobial agents tested. In conclusion, results of this study suggest that coagulase-negative Staphylococci spp. is the most prevalent microorganism isolated from intramammary secretions in pregnant heifers which is susceptible to common antibiotics in vitro. مشاهده
375 انگليسی Isolation and identification of Salmonellae fromchicken carcasses in processing plantsin Yazd provin... 1386 2007 Summary This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of Salmonellae contamination of chicken carcasses in slaughterhouses in central Iran (Yazd province). 435 samples were obtained from liver, breast— before and after chilling—and bacteriological and serological examinations were done. The results showed that the rate of contamination of liver, breast meat—before and after chiller—were 8.1, 18.48 and 34.45, respectively. Serological tests showed that S. typhimurium was the main contaminant of the samples (52.2). Other isolated serotypes were S. newport (15.6), S. enteritidis (12.2), S. havana (8.9), S. dublin (5.6) and S. paratyphi-B (5.6). Bacteriological examinations on water of chiller indicated that 33.3 of chill water samples were contaminated with S. typhimurium, 8.3 with S. dublin and 8.3 with S. paratyphi-B. مشاهده
376 انگليسی Traumatic urinary diversion caused by gunshotinjury in a stallion 1386 2007 Summary A seven-year-old stallion with diversion of urinary pass to the thigh due to a urethral fistula caused by gunshot perineal injury was presented to the Urmia University, Veterinary Teaching Hospital. No signs of urinary obstruction or renal failure were observed. Because of inaccessible location of the injured urethra, through a perineal urethrotomy incision, a urinary catheter was effectively advanced to repel the obstruction into the bladder. Retrograde urethral catheterization was adopted for 5 days to assist mucosal healing. Healing was uneventful and no complications were observed during one month postoperative. مشاهده
377 انگليسی Peripheral ameloblastic fibro-odontoma in a cow 1386 2007 Summary Tumours of odontogenic origin have been reported in various domestic animals. Ameloblastic fibroodontoma is a rare tumour derived from odontogenic epithelium and pulpal mesenchyme. Plain and formalised sections from masses on the front of the cranial aspect of the jaw and the end of the tongue of a castrated beef cattle from an abattoir was submitted to Mt Pleasant laboratories, Launceston, Australia. Histologically long cords and discrete islands of odontogenic epithelium in a background of loose mesenchymal tissue reminiscent of dental pulp were observed. Based on microscopic and macroscopic features, the tumour was diagnosed as ameloblastic fibro-odontoma. مشاهده
378 انگليسی Evaluation of several drug combinations for intraperitonealanaesthesia in adult male rats 1386 2007 Summary The objective of this study was to evaluate several drug combinations for intraperitoneal anaesthesia in laboratory rats. Following dose determination of anaesthetics in a pilot study, 45 healthy adult male rats were randomly assigned in 9 treatment groups and received propofol (alone or in combination with xylazine, midazolam, or ketamine) or ketamine (in combination with xylazine, midazolam, acepromazine, acepromazine-xylazine, or midazolam-xylazine). Heart and respiratory rate, induction and total sleep times, duration of surgical anaesthesia and walking time were measured. Complete immobility and loss of righting reflex were observed within 12 min in all groups. Induction of anaesthesia was significantly longer following XP compared to other groups. Surgical anaesthesia was induced in all rats receiving XK, AXK and MXK, while propofol alone, MK and KP were associated with surgical anaesthesia in 2, 3 and 4 rats, respectively. Other combinations did not produce surgical anaesthesia. Duration of surgical anaesthesia was longest with MXK and shortest with MK. In conclusion, the most effective drug combinations, which result in longer duration of surgical anaesthesia, were AXK and MXK. Although the degree of analgesia produced by IP propofol is sufficient for restraint and non-painful procedures, the combination of ketamine-propofol can produce surgical anaesthesia in the rat. مشاهده
379 انگليسی Intrahepatic ramifications of the portal veinin the horse 1387 2007 Summary The ramifications of the portal vein in the liver of horses were studied by using corrosion casting and gross dissection. The portal vein in the horse supplies the hepatic lobes by six major branches. The right lobe is supplied by three main branches, namely the dorsal diaphragmatic, the right caudodorsal and the right intermediate branches. The left branch supplies the left lateral and medial lobes and parts of the quadrate lobe adjacent to the left medial lobe. The caudate branch supplies caudate process of the caudate lobe. The right common trunk supplies also a part of right lobe and quadrate lobe. Therefore, the pattern of blood distribution in portal vein of horse differs from that of other species. مشاهده
380 فارسی Effects of supplementary feeding on growth andcarcass characteristics of fat-tailed lambsgrazing cer... 1386 2007 Summary Despite a shortage of animal feed in Iran, cereal stubble is often underutilized due to agro-economic reasons. On the other hand, lambs fed with a conventional fattening ration deposit a considerable amount of fat; therefore, this experiment was conducted aimed at better utilization of cereal stubble and reducing the fat content of lamb carcasses. Fat-tailed Mehraban and Ghezel ram lambs were put on four feeding systems (FS) for 100 days. Animals in one group (FS1) were lot-fed with a conventional fattening ration (4 of the mean body weight) consisting of 50 ground barley and 50 chopped alfalfa hay. FS2, FS3 and FS4 animals grazed stubbles, and in the evening, received 2 of their body weights either ground barley (FS2), a mixture (50:50 DM basis) of ground barley and alfalfa hay (FS3), or ground alfalfa hay (FS4). Daily gain, slaughter weight, and tail weight were greatest (P0.05) for FS1, lowest for FS4, and intermediate for FS2 and FS3. Stubble-fed lambs had lower subcutaneous fat depth and cavity fat. The sum weight of lean in primal cuts was lower in FS4 as compared with other groups, but the lean weight as a percentage of carcass weight was lowest in SF1. Similar pattern was found for the dissected fat from the primal cuts. The weight of soft tissues was highest in SF1 and lowest in SF4, but its percentage in carcass showed a reverse pattern. Stubble feeding with some supplementary feed resulted in less fat deposition in fat-tailed lambs as compared with the conventional fattening ration, and was more economical in terms of unit live weight gain. Due to the feed shortage in Iran, stubble grazing should be encouraged in lieu of the current practice of burning the residues on the farm. مشاهده
381 انگليسی Accuracy of oestrus detection in cows and itseconomic impact on Shiraz dairy farms 1387 2007 Summary No report has been published on the economical losses associated with errors in oestrus detection in cows under Iranian intensive dairy management. The following study was carried out to determine the accuracy of oestrus detection by farmers using artificial insemination in Shiraz dairy farms. Milk samples were collected from 179 Holstein milking cows at the time of artificial insemination. Milk progesterone concentration was determined using a commercial radio-immunoassay kit. It was assumed that a milk progesterone concentration greater than or equal to 3 ng/ml indicated the presence of active luteal tissue and that all animals in oestrus had a concentration less than 1 ng/ml. Results of the present study showed that error in oestrus detection was higher in dairy herds with more than 85 milking cows compared to that of the smaller size herds (14.4 vs 7.3; χ2 = 2.59; P = 0.1). Five out of 11 herds (45) had an oestrus detection error higher than 10 percent while in the remaining six herds the oestrus detection error varied from 0 to 7.1. Based on the assumptions and calculations made in the present study, the net cost of one day delay in conception for a cow producing 25 litres milk in peak lactation was calculated at 40591.98 Rials (4.51 $US) when conception is delayed from 85 to 100 days post-calving, increasing to 60120.89 Rials (6.68 $US) per day if conception occurred at 146 to 175 days post-calving. مشاهده
382 انگليسی Pharmacokinetics of tetracycline hydrochloride 1387 2007 Summary Tetracycline may be used to treat several types of bacterial diseases in ruminants. In addition, tetracycline is added to food to promote the growth. There are few reports on the pharmacokinetics of tetracycline in sheep. Therefore, the objective of this study was to examine the pharmacokinetic characteristics of the drug in sheep. Ten apparently healthy mixed-breed sheep were administered 20 mg/kg tetracycline orally and intravenously with a time interval of two weeks. Blood samples were collected before and at various time intervals after the administration of the drug. Sera were separated, kept at -20°C, and analysed using fluorescence spectrophotometry. The volume of distribution (Vd), elimination rate constant (Kel), half-life (t1/2), and clearance (ClB) of tetracycline after intravenous injection were determined to be 0.21 L/kg, 0.21/hr, 3.3 hr, and 0.73 ml/kg/min, respectively. When the drug was given orally, these parameters were found to be 0.37 L/kg, 0.12/hr, 5.8 hr, and 0.73 ml/kg/min, respectively. Moreover, the bioavailability of tetracycline after oral administration was around 55. مشاهده
383 انگليسی The efficacy of various additives to reduce the toxicity ofaflatoxin B1 in broiler chicks 1387 2007 Summary Three-hundred and twenty 7-day-old Ross 308-strain broiler chickens were fed diets containing 0 or 125 ppb aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) from 7 to 28 days of age. Sodium bentonite (0.5), yeast (Saccharomyces cervisiae) 0.2, hydrated sodium calcium aluminosilicate (HSCAS) (0.5), ammonia (0.5), formycine (0.1), and toxiban (0.1) were added to the basal diet, as fed basis to determine the effects of these additives against aflatoxicosis. Diet free from aflatoxin, and diet containing aflatoxin (negative control group) were considered as comparison groups. Broiler chickens were divided into 32 groups of 10 with similar mean ± SD weight of 90 ± 0.64 g. Each experimental diet was replicated 4 times during 21 days. Body weight gain, daily weight gain, feed conversion ratio, daily and weekly feed intake, relative weight of organs (liver, intestines, heart, proventriculus and gizzard) and total serum protein were recorded. Relative weight of organs in chickens fed with diet containing AFB1 alone were significantly greater (P0.01) than that of those fed with other diets. Their body weight gain, daily weight gain, total serum protein concentration, however, were significantly lesser (P0.01) compared with those fed with other diets. Experimental diets decreased the relative weight of organs in chickens fed with diets containing aflatoxin along with any of the experimental diets as compared with the negative control group. The feed conversion ratios were higher in chickens fed with diets containing aflatoxin. On the other hand, chickens receiving various additives in their diets showed an increase in body weight gains, serum total protein concentration and an improvement in the feed conversion ratio when compared with the negative control group (P0.01). Generally, addition of the above compounds made an improvement against negative effects of AFB1 in broiler chickens. Formycine was recognized to be the best additive in this respect. مشاهده
384 انگليسی Pregnancy rates of frozen embryos recovered duringwinter and summer in Sistani cows 1387 2007 Summary During spring, summer and winter seasons, Sistani donor cows, with normal reproductive status, were superovulated and embryos were recovered non-surgically on day 7. Grade A blastocyst embryos were either transferred fresh (spring) or frozen (summer and winter). Recovered embryos during summer and winter were exposed to glycerol and frozen using conventional method. During spring season, recipient females (n = 70) were synchronized using two consecutive injections of prostaglandin F2α analogue, 14 days apart. On day 7 after the ensuing cycle, the females were assigned into three groups to receive single embryo, either fresh (n = 14; control; recovered embryos in spring) or frozen blastocyst recovered and frozen in summer (n = 27) or winter (n = 29). Pregnancies were diagnosed by ultrasound examination, 30 days after non-surgical embryo transfer. Pregnancy rates following transfer of fresh embryos (64.3) were higher than those that received frozen-thawed embryos (17.86; P0.05). There was not any significant difference between pregnancy rates of recipients receiving embryos frozen in summer (18.5) or winter (17.2; P0.05). مشاهده
385 انگليسی The effect of thyroid activity on adult ratspermatogenesis 1387 2008 Summary The influence of hypo- and hyper-thyroidism on spermatogenesis was studied in 60-day-old adult male Wistar rats. To confirm hypo- and hyper-thyroidism, the concentration of plasma thyroid hormones were assayed by radioimmunoassay. The hypothyroid state, induced by administration of 25 mg/kg/day methimazole for 5 successive days, resulted in significant decrease in the number of Sertoli cells, sperm count, Leydig cells and the diameter of seminiferous tubules. The hyperthyroid state, induced by administration of 1 mg/kg/day L-thyroxine for 10 successive days, increased the number of Sertoli cells, sperm count, Leydig cells and the diameter of seminiferous tubules. Serum levels of FSH and LH and testosterone were also evaluated. Hypo- and hyper-thyroidism had no effects on the concentrations of FSH and LH, while the concentration of testosterone was significantly increased in hyperthyroid state; it decreased in hypothyroid state in comparison with the control euthyroid rats. In conclusion, our data indicated that hypo- and hyper-thyroidism affect spermatogenesis through their effects on germinal, interstitial and Sertoli cells but not through the pituitary-gonadal axis. مشاهده
386 فارسی Protective effect of Johne’s disease attenuated vaccinein an intensive non-tuberculosis free dairy 1386 2007 Summary This study was carried out to control Johne’s disease (JD) without interfering with tuberculosis (TB) control programme. A dairy herd (n1500 heads) was used over a period of 6 years, from 1994 to 1999 for this investigation. The herd had a history of heavy infection with Mycobacterium avium paratuberculosis (MAP) with culling rates of 1.5 and 5, in 1991 and 1995, respectively. The mean annual losses due to the reduction in milk yield, pregnancy rate and carcass weight was about $32000. In addition, the farm has had positive tuberculin test. During this study, 2070 calves within 31 days of age, were inoculated once subcutaneously, with MERIAL JD attenuated vaccine, in the middle of brisket region. The vaccine protected the herd against JD effectively, so that from 1995 up to the end of 1999, the means of JD culling among 2- year-old vaccinated and unvaccinated cattle were 0.52 and 19.4, respectively. This vaccination had no sideeffects on TB control programme that was conducted by the comparative tuberculin test. In the site of inoculation, fibrocaseous inflammation, while increasing in size, was developed. During 2 years, in the majority of animals, this reaction disappeared; only in less than 1.5 of instances the lesion became tumoral and permanent. These animals had no clinical abnormality. While inoculating the vaccine, the insertion of vaccine germ contaminated needles in fingers of vaccinators usually caused temporary, hard and painful inflammation. In one occasion, a progressive granuloma caused by vaccine germ was diagnosed histopathologically and treated with suitable antibiotics. مشاهده
387 انگليسی Detection of midgut antigens ofHyalomma anatolicum anatolicum tick usingSDS-PAGE and Western blot 1386 2007 Summary Ticks are important ectoparasites which are a considerable threat to human beings and to animals all over the world. Enormous economic losses annually occur in livestock production around the world as a result of their existance. One of the ways to control ticks and tick-borne diseases is to introduce resistance to these ectoparasites through immunization. For identification of the putative protective antigens, screening of large number of parasite antigens and their fractions are necessary. In this study, midguts of fed adult female Hyalomma anatolicum anatolicum were used to prepare antigen and to identify the midgut profile. Polypeptide profile was analysed by SDS-PAGE with 12.5 concentration under denaturated conditions and discontinuous buffer system. Humoral immunity and antigenic pattern were evaluated by Western blot. A total of 4 fractions were observed in the polypeptide profile. The molecular weight of the fractions were 97, 84, 66 and 55 kDa. The band with molecular weight of 66 kDa was dominant. Positive reaction with 84, 66 and 55 kDa bands were observed in immuno-blot of the midgut antigens. مشاهده
388 انگليسی Chronology of blood pressure changes in renalhypertension induced by solid plexiglass clips in the r... 1386 2007 Summary The objective of this study was to determine the chronology of changes in blood pressure in renal hypertension induced by solid plexiglass clips in rats. Saw blades with the thickness of 0.21-0.22 mm were used to make clips sized 4 × 2 × 2 mm from a piece of 2-mm thick plexiglass. Rats were subjected to shamoperation or left renal arterial clipping, and 1, 2, 3 and 4 weeks later blood pressure, and heart and kidneys weights were determined. Relative to those of sham-operated rats, mean blood pressure of left renal arteryclipped rats were significantly higher at week 1 through 4 after clipping. Left renal artery clipping was also associated with significant increases in heart and right kidney weights and significant decrease in left kidney weight. The findings suggest that clipping of left renal artery using solid plexiglass clips resulted in changes in blood pressure, heart and left and right kidneys weights similar to reported changes in hypertension induced by silver clips. مشاهده
389 انگليسی First report of the Hadjelia truncata infestationin pigeons of Iran 1386 2007 Summary Three adult pigeons (Columbia livia) belonging to a pigeon farm in Mashhad area were submitted to Poultry Clinic of School of Veterinary Medicine for post-mortem inspection. The farm had 150 adult pigeons and a number of them suffered from a chronic disease with body weight loss, diarrhoea and weakness. At necropsy, slight to extreme enlargement with distortion were observed in gizzards of all carcases. There was a large number of nematodes in or beneath the lining of the affected gizzards. The worms were removed from the lining of the rostral parts of the gizzards and cleared in lactophenol. Also, tissue blocks from various parts of the gizzards were processed by conventional methods for preparation of paraffin wax sections. Based on parasitological and pathological findings the Hadjelia truncata infestation was identified for the first time from Iran and this species is a pathogenic agent for pigeons. مشاهده
390 انگليسی Radiographic findings of hypertrophicosteodystrophy in a mongrel puppy 1387 2007 Summary A three-month-old male native puppy with lameness, metaphyseal swelling, pain, depression, inappetence and variable pyrexia was diagnosed as having hypertrophic osteodystrophy (HOD) based on radiologic examination. The hemogram and biochemical profiles were within normal limits. Radiologic examination revealed a radiolucent zone in the metaphyses and a radiopaque band near the physes of the appendicular long bones. Periosteal new bone formation was seen around of the distal metaphyses of the radii, ulnae and tibiae. Currently, there is no specific treatment for HOD. The condition of puppy was improved following restriction of activity, confinement to small well-padded area, administration of highquality diet and anti-inflammatory drug (aspirin, 10 mg/kg PO q12h for two weeks). To the best of our knowledge, it is the first report of HOD in mongrel puppies in Iran. مشاهده
391 فارسی Zinc-responsive dermatosis in an Iraniancross-breed ram 1386 2007 Summary An adult (two years old) Iranian cross-breed ram with alopecia, rough hair coats, thick and wrinkled skin, especially on the face, brisket, scrotum, tail and legs, presented with severe pruritus, poor condition and generalized unthriftiness. The animal was referred to the Veterinary Clinic of Shahid Bahonar University of Kerman. The vital signs and haematologic indices of the animal were normal. According to the history and clinical signs, mineral deficiencies, infestations with external parasites or endocrinopathy were suspected. Laboratory examinations of skin scrapings ruled out external parasites. Skin biopsy confirmed parakeratosis, which could be attributed to zinc deficiency. Zinc sulphate (250 mg, daily) was administered orally for 4 weeks. The clinical signs subsided after 4 weeks of treatment. مشاهده
392 انگليسی A case report of notoedric mange infestationin a 3-month-old pointer 1387 2007 Summary A 3-month-old short haired pointer with crusty local alopecia around the eyes was presented to Small Animal Hospital of Tehran University. Scraping and biopsy were obtained from lesions of affected area. Notoedres sp. was diagnosed in skin scraping by parasitologic examination. Furthermore, histopathology of lesions demonstrated moderate hyperplastic epidermis, parakeratosis and acanthosis. مشاهده
393 انگليسی A case report of notoedric mange infestationin a 3-month-old pointer 1387 2007 Summary A 3-month-old short haired pointer with crusty local alopecia around the eyes was presented to Small Animal Hospital of Tehran University. Scraping and biopsy were obtained from lesions of affected area. Notoedres sp. was diagnosed in skin scraping by parasitologic examination. Furthermore, histopathology of lesions demonstrated moderate hyperplastic epidermis, parakeratosis and acanthosis. مشاهده
394 انگليسی Successful cryopreservation of in vitro derived bovineblastocysts in microcapillary pipette tips 1386 2006 Summary The open pulled straw has been used effectively to vitrify preimplantation embryos because of geometric features that allow rapid rates of temperature exchange. One possible inexpensive alternative to the open pulled straw are commercially-available microcapillary pipette tips commonly used for electrophoresis. The main purpose of this study was to compare the survival rates of in vitro produced blastocysts following vitrification in microcapillary pipette tips and open pulled straws. Two experiments were conducted to investigate the effect of type of carrier, age of expanded blastocyst, and addition of β-mercaptoethanol to post-warming culture medium on survival of vitrified in-vitro derived blastocysts. Expanded blastocysts (Day 7, 0900H and 1900H after insemination; insemination = Day 0 at 0900H) were vitrified while loaded randomly in groups of 4-10 into open pulled straws or pipette tips. Following warming, embryos were cultured in groups of up to 20 in 20 μl microdrops of modified KSOM or modified KSOM containing 100 μM β-mercaptoethanol at 38.5°C in 5 CO2 in air. Survival after warming was assessed as the percentage of vitrified embryos that re-expanded and the percent that hatched after 48 hrs culture. Post-warming survival rates were not affected by type of carrier or age of the expanded blastocyst (P0.05). The proportions of embryos that re-expanded (55.5) and hatched (25.7) were higher (P0.01) for those cultured with β- mercaptoethanol than for those cultured without (re-expansion: 42.4; hatching: 12.6). In conclusion, the microcapillary pipette tip represents an inexpensive alternative to the open pulled straw for cryopreservation. مشاهده
395 انگليسی Effect of a static magnetic field on bone healing in thedog: radiographic and histopathological stud... 1387 2007 Summary Although the promotional effects on bone healing of pulsed electromagnetic fields (PEMF) have been well demonstrated, the effects of static magnetic fields (SMF) remained unclear. In this study, effects of a custom-made magnetic wrap on radiographic and histopathological aspects of bone healing using a canine unstable osteotomy gap model were investigated. After an osteotomy of the midshaft radius, bone healing was evaluated over an 8-week-period in the control dogs (n = 5) and dogs exposed to SMF (1000 gauss) (n = 5). Bone healing was evaluated by qualitative and quantitative evaluation of serial radiographs every 2 weeks. Histopathological study was also performed on osteotomized radii upon completion of the experimental period. Dogs exposed to SMF had more advanced radiographic healing of osteotomy sites. Cellular morphology scores of the SMF group was significantly greater as compared with the control group (P0.05). These results suggested that using the osteotomy gap model, SMF enhanced the radiographic and histopathological aspects of bone healing in dogs. Dogs at risk for delayed healing of fractures may benefit from treatment with SMF. مشاهده
396 انگليسی Study on the genomic diversity of Hymenolepis nanabetween rat and mouse isolates by RAPD-PCR 1386 2007 Summary Hymenolepis nana is a common parasite of rodents as well as human intestine. This parasite has been reported from all over the world, including Iran. The infection rate has been reported up to 40 in some areas. The infection has various clinical manifestations. The parasite could establish severe hyperinfection in patients with immune deficiency. Regarding the rodents as hosts of the parasite, the infection may disseminate through these hosts to the nature. As H. nana is a zoonoses, phylogenic study of this parasite is of particular importance. Considering these criteria, the genomic diversity of 16 H. nana with the origin of Shiraz and Tehran were studied among the worms of mice and rats by RAPD-PCR. Genomic DNA extracted from individual worms by proteinase K method and three oligonucleotides primer (AB1-17, UBC-358, UBC- 387) were used for RAPD-PCR. Similarity index were calculated by Nei and Li method. Data were analysed using UPGMA analysis and dendrograms were obtained by group average method with 100 bootstrapping analysis. The range of genomic similarity determined among specimens by AB1-17 primer was 48.3-90, by UBC-358 primer 55-87 and by UBC-387 primer 53-97. Regarding our data and genomic similarity indexes, various isolates were found in both specimens of rats and mice. However no differences were obtained between H. nana from rat or mouse isolates by these primers. The results showed that it is not possible to divide the isolates into two distinct groups based on their origin as Tehran and Shiraz. مشاهده
397 انگليسی Elastic cartilage grafting in canine radial fracture 1385 2006 Summary Bone has a capability to repair itself when it is fractured. Repair involves the generation of intermediate tissues, such as fibrous connective tissue, cartilage and woven bone, before final bone healing can occur. The process of cartilage-to-bone transition (CBT) is a key for the achievement of rigid bone healing during fracture repair. We tested this potential for elastic cartilage using a long bone defect model in dog. Eight sexually intact female mongrel dogs, 4.57 ± 0.53 years old and weighing 11.48 ± 0.63 kg, were studied. After an ostectomy of the midshaft radius, bone healing was evaluated over an 8-week period in control dogs (n = 4) and dogs in which autologous grafts of auricular cartilage were inserted into the bone defects (n = 4). Quantitative radiographic assessment was conducted every 2 weeks. Eight weeks post-operative, qualitative histopathologic analysis was performed on the operated radii. Furthermore, histological grading was done using the Ulutas et al., scoring system. Experiment dogs had more advanced radiographic healing of ostectomy sites. The defects with elastic cartilage implants were bridged completely with new bony spicules originated from the implants. Transformation of elastic cartilage clusters to mesenchymal connective tissue and bony spicules was obvious in the experiment group. Significant differences were observed for cellular morphology [3 ± 0.82 (experiment) vs. 1.75 ± 0.5 (control)] and cartilage integration [2 (experiment) vs. 1 (control)] at ostectomy sites between the studied groups. This study demonstrated that by using the ostectomy gap model, autologous auricular cartilage enhanced the radiographic and histopathologic aspects of bone healing in dogs. مشاهده
398 انگليسی Histopathological study of gills in experimentallyamoebic gill disease (AGD) infectedAtlantic salmon... 1385 2004 Summary Amoebic gill disease (AGD) is the most important parasitic disease of Atlantic salmon industry in Australia. Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) experimentally infected with Neoparamoeba sp. apparently showed AGD gross signs on the gill and an amoebic-associated gill pathology. Physico-chemical factors of water during the experiment were monitored regularly and were approximately constant (temperature: 17oC, salinity: 35 g/l, total ammonia: 0.25 mg/l, pH = 7.9). In this study significant gill pathology was observed histologically, and in all of the sections a multifocal hyperplasia and fusion of adjacent secondary lamellae was seen. The severity of pathological changes observed in the sections did not always correspond with the number of amoebae and even occurred in the absence of amoebae. Some histopathological changes that were seen in the secondary lamellae are: thickening of the secondary lamellae due to hyperplasia, reduction in chloride cell density and an increase in mucous cell numbers of the epithelium. Some of neighboring secondary lamellae was seen attached to one another, but entire fusion of the primary lamellae was not observed. Amoebae were seen in all sections in significant densities mostly in the outer part of hyperplasic tissues. مشاهده
399 انگليسی Effect of lactose extender with different levels ofosmolality and pH on the viability of Bactrian ca... 1385 2006 Summary The effect of different levels of osmolality and pH of lactose extender on the viability of Bactrian camel spermatozoa was investigated. Semen was collected from 10 Bactrian camel bulls using modified bovine artificial vagina. In experiment I, the extenders consisted of 9, 10, 11, 12 and 13 lactose with respective osmolalities of 290, 333, 350, 376 and 419 mOsm/kg and the pH of 6.9. In experiment II, 10 lactose extender with different levels of pH = 5.9, 6.9, 7.5, 7.9 and 8.9 were compared. All extenders contained 20 egg yolk and antibiotics. There were three replicates (ejaculates) for each trial. After dilution, semen was evaluated for progressive forward motility (PFM), plasma membrane integrity (PMI) and live percentage of sperm, at time 0, 4, 12 and 24 hrs after incubation at 4°C. Viability of sperm was similar among 9-11 lactose concentrations at time 0 and 4. PFM was compromised (8) at 10 and 11 lactose extenders at time 12. Although, PFM was greatest at time 0 (P0.05) for the pH of 6.9, it reduced to 15 at time 4 (P0.05). At the pH of 5.9-7.9, PMI and live percentage of sperm reduced at time 12 and 24, respectively (P0.05). In conclusion, 9-11 lactose with the pH of 6.9 may consider as a suitable extender for the shortterm preservation (up to 4 hrs) of Bactrian camel semen maintained at chilled condition (4°C). مشاهده
400 انگليسی Effect of ewe breed on the reaction time andsemen characteristics in the ram 1385 2006 Summary The aim of this study was to determine the effect of ewe breed on the reaction time and semen characteristics in the ram. For this purpose, from the native sheep breeds in Iran, seven Lory rams and four ewes (two Lory and two Ghezel breeds) were selected. Seven rams were individually subjected to 4 weekly trials in which one of the following two treatments was applied alternately. All of rams were scheduled twice weekly to introduce with the same (Lory) and different (Ghezel) ewe breed individually. In each session, the reaction time and number of mounts before ejaculation were recorded. At two another sessions per week, sperm evaluation was performed in each group after collection of semen by artificial vagina. When the both breeds of the ram and ewe were the same, the mean of reaction time, number of mounts, ejaculation volume, sperm concentration and sperm viability were 44.6 sec, 2.7, 0.97 ml, 4.49 × 109 sperm/ml and 88.9, respectively and when the breeds were different, the means were 61.5 sec, 2.9, 1.0 ml, 4.52 × 109 sperm/ml and 88.4, respectively. The reaction time was significantly lower in the first group (P0.01). However, there was no significant difference in the other parameters between the two groups. It was concluded that during semen collection, when the both breeds of the ram and ewe are the same, the reaction time becomes significantly lower, but the number of mounts and semen characteristics (volume, sperm concentration and viability) did not differ. مشاهده
401 انگليسی The effect of ovalbumin and mannose-conjugatedovalbumin on the prevention of Salmonellaadherence to ... 1385 2006 Summary This investigation was designed to determine the effect of intact ovalbumin and mannose-conjugated ovalbumin on the prevention of Salmonella typhimurium adherence to the epithelium of small intestine of chickens. Mannose-conjugated ovalbumin was produced by Maillard-type reaction between chicken ovalbumin and D-mannose at 60°C. The results revealed that incubation up to 96 hrs caused the highest amount of covalent attachment of mannose to the ovalbumin. In order to determine the effect of native ovalbumin and mannose-conjugated ovalbumin on the prevention of S. typhimurium adherence to chicken small intestine, 60 one-day-old chicks were randomly assigned to 3 groups, with two replicates and ten birds per pen. Groups 1, 2 and 3 received normal diet, diet containing 0.5 native ovalbumin and diet containing 0.5 mannose-conjugated ovalbumin, respectively, for 12 days. On day 3, all groups received 1.3 × 106 CFU of S. typhimurium orally. On days 4, 7 and 10, two chicks from each group were killed and mean log 10 of CFU (colony forming unit) of Salmonella per 1 g tissues of cecum, liver and spleen was determined. Four chickens from each group were killed on day 12 and were examined as described above. The results showed that in group 3, number of viable Salmonella in cecum, liver and spleen was lower than groups 1 and 2. However, the difference was significant only in cecum on days 4 and 7 (P0.05). These preliminary results suggest that mannose-conjugated ovalbumin might be effective in prevention of Salmonella colonization in the epithelium of small intestine if incorporated in the diet of chicks. مشاهده
402 فارسی Iranian Journal of Veterinary Research, University of Shiraz, Vol. 7, No. 4, Ser. No. 17, 2006 1385 2006 Summary The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of α2-adrenergic agonist (xylazine) and antagonist (yohimbine) on phasic pain during estrous cycle in female rats. Adult female rats weighing 180- 220 g were kept under controlled temperature (21-24°C) and light/dark conditions (light on at 6:00 a.m. and light off at 6:00 p.m.). Animals were divided into four groups: 1) control group which received 0.3 ml of normal saline by intraperitoneal (IP) route; 2) IP experimental group which received 0.3 ml xylazine 3, 4.5 and 6 mg/kg and yohimbine 1, 2 and 4 mg/kg by IP route; 3) sham group which received 2 μl of artificial cerebrospinal fluid by intra cerebral ventricle (ICV) route and 4) ICV experimental which received 2 μl xylazine 10 and 20 μg/rat and yohimbine 5 and 10 μg/rat by ICV route. Cannulae were implanted into the left lateral ventricle using stereotaxic method. Pain sensitivity was measured by tail flick test, which was performed before injection, 15 and 30 min after injection in all groups. Xylazine decreased pain sensitivity significantly (P0.05) during the estrous cycle; while higher analgesia was observed in the proestrus phase for IP and ICV routes. Yohimbine increased pain sensitivity significantly (P0.05) during the estrous cycle; while higher hyperalgesia was observed in the metestrus phase for IP and ICV route groups. There was interaction (P0.05) between endogenous steroids and the α2-adrenergic system in the modulation of phasic pain sensitivity. مشاهده
403 فارسی Comparative evaluation of the effect of antioxidantson the chilled-stored ram semen 1385 2006 Summary The aim of this investigation was to assess the effect of different antioxidants on the motility and membrane integrity of the ram semen during storage at 5ºC for 0, 12, 24, 48 and 72 hrs after collection and dilution. A total of 57 ejaculates from 12 Bakhtiary rams was collected by artificial vagina and were extended 1 : 3 with egg yolk-citrate buffer, which was containing one of the following antioxidants: BSA 1 (w/v), BSA 3, BSA 1 + sucrose 10, BSA 3 + sucrose 10, vitamin E (1 mg), vitamin E (2 mg), ascorbic acid (0.9 mg/ml) and control group without any antioxidant. Percent of motile sperm (PMS), rate of forward movement (RFM) and membrane integrity in extenders contained vitamin E groups were significantly higher up to 48 hrs than other groups (P0.05). Although, addition of 2 mg vitamin E was more effective than 1 mg vitamin E in sperm protection, however, the difference was not statistically significant. Likewise, addition of BSA alone or in combination with sucrose was superior to ascorbic acid in maintenance of sperm motility and membrane integrity. It seems that sucrose has not positive effect on these 3 parameters in combination with BSA. In conclusion, adding vitamin E to the extender of ram semen during dilution is superior in maintenance of sperm kinematic parameters up to 48 hrs during storage at 5ºC. مشاهده
404 انگليسی Determination of copper status of grazing sheep:seasonal influence 1385 2006 Summary A study was conducted to determine the copper status of different classes of grazing sheep during two different seasons on a farm located in southern Punjab, Pakistan. A complete free-choice supplement was available to all animals throughout the year. Soil, forage and blood plasma from animals were taken eight times during the year (2005) (four times in both summer and winter seasons). Soil Cu2+ was affected by the seasonal changes (P0.001), higher in summer than that in winter and was significantly higher than the need of plants during both seasons. While forage Cu2+ level showed non-significant seasonal (P0.05) fluctuation in winter. It was adequate for ruminants’ requirements during both seasons. plasma Cu2+ concentrations of all classes of sheep were significantly higher in winter than that in summer showing the seasonal changes (P0.001). Higher plasma Cu2+ was found in male sheep than lactating and non-lactating sheep during both seasons. The low Cu2+ in plasma in lactating sheep may have been due to its secretion in milk. In winter forage Cu2+ contributed in enhancing the plasma Cu2+ levels, but in summer the forage Cu2+ level, although very high, was ineffective in elevating plasma Cu2+ levels in all classes of sheep. Based primarily on plasma analyses it was concluded that although, the adequate level of plasma Cu2+ was found, it was on borderline deficient levels. Thus supplementation is needed with mixture containing Cu2+. The plus copper should be continuously supplemented to grazing animals in this semiarid region of Pakistan. مشاهده
405 انگليسی The prevalence of Aeromonas hydrophila-induceddiarrhoea in the pig, buffalo and humanin Pune area, I... 1385 2006 Summary Aeromonas hydrophila is pathogen for several vertebrates. The bacteriological, clinical and epidemiological evidences for the role of A. hydrophila have been described in human infections. The presence of this pathogen in contaminated water is well-established and ingestion of such water may cause infection. There are many reports of acute diarrhoea associated with A. hydrophila transmitted by animals. In this study, 100 faecal samples of patients suffering from diarrhea and 33 faecal specimen from healthy individuals who served as control, were examined for presence of A. hydrophila. The faeces of pigs and buffaloes and the drinking water in this area were also examined for isolation and characterization of the bacteria. The results showed that in this area, the role of A. hydophila in development of acute human diarrhoea (1) was less significant. The organism was sensitive to erythromycin, chloramphenicol, kanamycin, and gentamycin, but resistant to penicillin and ampicillin. A. hydrophila was present in faeces of buffaloes. Five samples of contaminated water were found toxigenic, too. مشاهده
406 انگليسی Evaluation of topical application of honey in preventionof post-operative peritoneal adhesion format... 1385 2006 Summary The objective of this study was to determine the effectiveness of topical administration of honey in prevention of or reduction in post-surgical peritoneal adhesions in dog. The study was conducted on 18 adult female mixed-breed dogs with a mean ± SD weight of 20 ± 4.25 kg. A standardized surgical trauma (serosal trauma model) was made in the dogs’ descending colon to induce adhesion formation. The control group (n = 9) received saline treatment. In the experiment group (n = 9), the lesions were covered with honey. Three weeks after laparotomy, the dogs were sacrificed and the adhesions were graded according to the Evans’s scoring system. Overall, 67 (n = 6) of the control and 22 (n = 2) of the experiment animals presented with moderate (grade-2) and severe (grade-3) adhesions. In the control group, there were 3 (33) dogs with grade-0 or grade-1 adhesions, while in the experiment group there were 7 (78) dogs with the same grades of adhesions. The difference between the two groups was significant (P0.05). It was concluded that honey is a useful covering for damaged peritoneal surfaces and has high effectiveness in reducing post-operative adhesions. مشاهده
407 انگليسی The immediate enzymatic cocktail effect on theabsorptive function of neobladder madeby ileocystoplas... 1385 2006 Summary The effectiveness of an enzymatic cocktail, collagenase and trypsin, on the absorptive function of ileal segment was studied to evaluate the changes within groups after performing ileocystoplasty in an animal model. Twenty-one female mixed-bred Persian dogs were randomized into 7 groups. The groups included: 1) negative control group (NCG) in which no ileocystoplasty was performed (n = 3); 2) positive control group (PCG) in which routine ileocystoplasty was performed (n = 3) and groups 3 to 7) those underwent ileocystoplasty with the ileal segment being treated with collagenase and trypsin for 5, 10, 15, 20 or 25 min (groups, 5 minutes enzymatic treatment group (5METG), 10METG, 15METG, 20METG and 25METG; each containing three dogs). To perform the glucose absorption test, 50 dextrose was instilled into the bladder five weeks after surgery. The blood glucose level (BGL) was measured in each group before the study (T1), two weeks after the surgery in PCG and other treatment groups (T2), before anaesthesia (T3), after anaesthesia at 5-minute intervals up to 25 min (T4 to T9, respectively). There was no significant difference in BGL in T1 to T3 and T4 to T9 in 25METG and NCG, however, BGL was found significantly higher in T1 to T3 and T4 to T9 in PCG, 5METG, 10METG, 15METG and 20METG. It can be concluded that collagenase and trypsin can affect absorptive function of the neobladder and are able to reduce the absorptive function, particularly in early days after the surgery. Moreover, these results also confirm that 50 dextrose instilled into the neobladder and native urinary bladder will not increase BGL in 25METG and NCG even with increasing the time of exposure of neo- or native urinary bladder to enzymatic cocktail till 25 min. مشاهده
408 انگليسی Histochemical study of estradiol valerate-inducedpolycystic ovary syndrome in the rat 1385 2000 Summary For the present study, and follow-up of histochemical changes in estradiol valerate-induced polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), 48 virgin 90-day-old female rats were used. The rats were divided into the treatment and control groups. For each rat of the treatment group, 4 mg estradiol valerate was injected through intramuscular route for the induction of PCOS. The control group was taken the same amount of sterile sesame oil. After 63 days of hormone administration, all rats were sacrificed and their ovaries were collected immediately and processed for histochemical studies. These studies were consisted of localization of carbohydrate using PAS method, saturated and unsaturated lipids using Oil-Red-O and Sudan Black B, lipase and alkaline phosphatase. The PAS reaction was seen in some structures of the atretic and cystic follicles such as on zona pellucida (ZP), basement membrane of granulosa cells, connective tissue fibers of ovarian stroma, follicular fluid and granulose cells. This reaction was enhanced in basement membrane of granulose cells of cystic follicles. The lipid droplets were seen in follicular structures of both the atretic and cystic follicles. The presence of macrophages was confirmed in cystic ovaries by this study. The lipase reactions were seen in granulose and theca cells of atretic and cystic follicles. The lipase reaction in the theca layer of cystic follicles was stronger than in the granulose cell layer of such follicles. The alkaline phosphatase reaction was seen in the theca and granulose cells of atretic and cystic follicles and by the progression of these processes and cystic follicle formation, the reaction was increased accordingly. We concluded that, during follicular atresia and cystic follicle formation, histochemical alterations are occurred in follicular structures. مشاهده
409 فارسی A study on Leishmania infection rate amongPhlebotomus spp. collected fromAbardejh district, Iran 1385 2006 Summary Cutaneous leishmaniasis is a prevalent tropical parasitic disease in the Old World. The causative agents are Leishmanial parasites, which cause various forms of cutaneous leishmaniasis. The infection is commonly limited in immuno-competent individuals, but it can progress to a chronic and ulcerative disease in immunocompromised patients. The reservoirs are dogs and rodents and the vectors are different species of sandflies. In the present study, we investigated the prevalence rate of Leishmania infection among Phlebotomus mosquitoes collected from Abardejh district, Iran. Abardejh is located next to Varamin city in southeast of Tehran having a tropical ecosystem at its eastern border. Tamarisk trees and rodents have provided a suitable condition for sandfly activity. The sandflies were collected by funnel trap from rodent burrows and transferred to the Department of Parasitology, Pasteur Institute of Iran. The sampling was carried out during spring and summer (2002) with ten-day intervals. The collected sandflies were identified using discriminative morphologic features before parasitological culture on NNN medium. Analyses of the data revealed a high prevalence rate of infection among the sandflies in this region (P0.01). The maximum activities of Phlebotomus were in the months of June and July. Three species of sanflies were found in rodent burrow: P. papatasi, P. sergenti, and P. caucasicus. The results of blood-fed Phlebotomus culture showed that 22.07 of blood-fed females of P. papatasi and 8 of blood-fed females of P. sergenti were infected with leptomonads (P0.05). This could be an important issue because human and agricultural environments are located closely to this district. Therefore, use of insecticides and environmental sanitation seems to be required to prevent the transmission of infection from sandflies to human. مشاهده
410 فارسی Mesenteric lymph nodes infection withLinguatula serrata nymphs in cattle 1385 2006 Summary 871 mesenteric lymph nodes taken from 110 native cattle from Urmia slaughter-house with different ages were examined for Linguatula serrata infection. The lymph nodes were studied based on their colour and consistency. 44 of the cattle were found positive for L. serrata infection. The number of parasites isolated from each infected lymph node varied from 1 to 69 with a mean of 5.48. There were no significant differences in the number of parasites in different age groups. The study underlined the need for a more thorough investigation of mesenteric lymph nodes inspection in the cattle of this region. مشاهده
411 انگليسی Evaluation of the effect of tamoxifen citrate on modelof osteoporosis in dog: biomechanicaland histo... 1385 2006 Summary The effect of tamoxifen citrate on bone mass in immobilization osteoporosis was studied in 10 dogs. Osteoporosis was induced by fiberglass cast immobilization of the right hind-limb for 28 days, while the left hind-limb served as a non-immobilized control. Five dogs received tamoxifen citrate (1.5 mg/kg per os) once daily for 28 days; five dogs received no treatment. All dogs were euthanized on day 28 and tibiae were harvested. Bone biomechanical properties and microscopic structures of tibiae from casted and uncasted limbs were studied. Significant differences in the percent of decreased values of examined mechanical properties were found between untreated and tamoxifen-treated dogs. No remarkable histopathological changes indicative of osteoporosis were detected in the tibiae of casted limb of tamoxifen-treated dogs. These findings indicated that short term tamoxifen therapy may have promising effects on prevention of osteoporosis in dog. مشاهده
412 انگليسی Vitellogenin assay by enzyme-linked immunosorbentassay (ELISA) as a biomarker of endocrine disruptor... 1385 2006 Summary There are increasing evidences that show many xenobiotic chemicals (called as endocrine disruptor chemicals EDCs) through interfering with endocrine system, have the capability to induce developmental and reproductive abnormalities in humans and animals. The yolk protein precursor vitellogenin (VTG) has proved to be a simple and sensitive biomarker for assessing exposure of fish to EDCs especially the estrogenic compounds. Work is ongoing to develop screening and testing programmes for endocrine disrupting effects of new chemicals, and in the focus of this development are the fish test species common carp (Cyprinous carpio). In this study we have developed quantitative enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) for VTG in common carp. The working range of the ELISA was 11.25 to 2,000 ng/ml (25- 75 specific binding/maximum antibody binding [B/B0]) with a 50 B/B0 intra- and interassay variation of 3.9 (n = 10) and 12.5 (n = 30), respectively. This ELISA is capable of detecting VTG as low as 6 ng/ml, and can accurately detect VTG in even 10 μl of plasma. The ELISA was applied to measurement of VTG production by male carp (Cyprinous carpio, Cyprinidae) fish exposed to ethynylestradiol. The results showed that the amount of VTG produced in plasma of exposed fish increased in logarithmic order comparing to the control group and the ELISA described here could be used as an indicator of water pollution to estrogenic pollutants. مشاهده
413 فارسی Identification of excretory-secretory products fromlarval stages of Ostertagia circumcincta cultured... 1385 2006 Summary Exsheathing fluid (EF) and excretory-secretory products (ES) of infective third-stage cultured larvae of Ostertagia circumcincta were analysed by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDSPAGE). Five and seven predominant proteins were found in the EF and ES products, respectively. Immunoblotting by sheep pre-infection serum did not react with any of the EF and ES proteins, but the postinfection serum recognized four proteins of 44.5, 41.5, 38 and 24 kDa of the ES products. None of the EF products was recognized by the post-infection serum. Protectivity of the four proteins remains to be determined. مشاهده
414 فارسی Preliminary studies on reproductive activities of localAbadeh does, Fars province, southern Iran 1385 2006 Summary No published information are available on the reproductive indices of local Abadeh does reared in northern Fars province, southern Iran. This study was conducted to determine the duration of the breeding season, and the length and duration of the oestrous cycle. Twenty single parity 2-year-old does from Abadeh (weighing 19–26 kg) were purchased and transferred to the School of Veterinary Medicine of University of Shiraz. They had access to alfalfa hay, water ad libitum and natural light. Vasectomised teaser buck was turned with the flock and observation was made every 12 hrs during the day for standing heat detection, from late-August (2003) to late-August (2004). To determine the onset of reproductive activity as well as occurrence of silent oestrus, blood samples were collected from jugular vein every 10 days. Following the onset of breeding season and observation of standing heat, 10 does were randomly selected in their 2nd oestrous cycle for twice weekly blood sampling. Serum progesterone concentration was determined using a commercial radioimmunoassay kit. It was found that silent oestrus occurs mostly in early breeding season. The first standing heat was observed in mid-September which was considered as the onset of breeding season. Occurrence of standing oestrus increased through October, November and December. The peak of standing oestrus was recorded during late-October to early, mid-November. The mean ± SD duration of the oestrous cycle was 19.7 ± 1.1 days and the mean ± SD length of oestrus was 23.8 ± 12.3 hrs. The mean (±SD) concentrations of serum progesterone in days 0 (day of standing heat) to 4, varied between 0.1 and 0.8 ng/ml. Concentrations of progesterone during the luteal phase varied between 2.7 and 3.9 ng/ml. The results of progesterone assay during oestrous cycle indicate that the follicular and luteal phases last about 4–5 days and 14 days, respectively. In conclusion, oestrus activity in local Abadeh does is highly seasonal with a peak of activity being observed during the late-October to the end of November. مشاهده
415 انگليسی A comparison between the effects of a probiotic (Bioplus 2B)and an antibiotic (virginiamycin) on the... 1385 2006 Summary An experiment was conducted on 400 broilers to evaluate the effects of dietary supplementation of antibiotic and probiotic on performance of birds under heat stress condition. The first group of chickens, the control group, received a diet without any antibiotic and probiotic. The second group received diet with 0.02 virginiamycin antibiotic; the two other groups were fed diets with 0.05 and 0.1 Bioplus 2B probiotic, respectively. The addition of antibiotic to the diet significantly improved body weight gain during 0–3 and 4–6 weeks (heat stress) periods as compared to the control and 0.05 probiotic-supplemented groups (P0.05). Feed intake of different groups did not differ significantly (P0.05). Addition of antibiotic or various levels of probiotic to the diet significantly improved feed conversion ratio during 4–6 weeks (heat stress) period as compared to the control group (P0.05). Supplementation of diet with antibiotic had no significant effect on antibody production against sheep red blood cells (SRBC), Newcastle disease virus (NDV) vaccine, white blood cell (WBC) count, heterophil to lymphocyte ratio (H/L), serum cholesterol and haemoglobin content (P0.05). Supplementation of diet with various levels of probiotic had no significant effect on antibody titer against SRBC, NDV vaccine and haemoglobin content (P0.05). However, supplementation of diet with 0.1 probiotic significantly increased WBC count and decreased H/L as compared to the control group (P0.05) which is important in reduction of stress effects on birds. مشاهده
416 انگليسی Cadmium as an etiology of sperm dysfunctionin Holstein bulls 1385 2006 Summary Oxidative stress has been identified as a crucial factor leading to male infertility largely due to peroxidative damage to the sperm cell membrane. Cadmium (Cd) is a widespread environmental pollutant and one of the well-known reproductive toxicants. Because of its long biological half-life (10–30 years), Cd accumulates in the biological systems. The present study was designed to assess the concentration-dependent in vitro effect of 20 to 700 μM of Cd on the membrane integrity, motility, and acrosomal status of Holstein bull spermatozoa. We recorded a significant elevation in the malondialdehyde (MDA) level, increased lipid peroxidation (LPO) rate and a drastic decrease in the spermatocrit values, especially at the 700 μM concentration of Cd, indicating deleterious effects of Cd on the intactness of the sperm membrane. There was also a negative correlation between the LPO rate and both the percentage of motile spermatozoa (r = -0.89) and sperm viability (r = -0.86). Performing the gelatin test indicated that Cd altered the integrity of acrosomal membranes and showed an abnormal acrosome reaction. In this regard, a reverse correlation was found between the LPO rate and the percentage of halos (r = -0.96). In conclusion, Cd was proved to be a potential toxicant in the category of environmental factors that induced membrane impairments, lowered motility and viability, and decreased rate of acrosome reactions leading to bull sperm dysfunction. مشاهده
417 انگليسی Pathogenicity and haemagglutinin gene sequenceanalysis of Iranian avian influenza H9N2 virusesisolat... 1385 2006 Summary Sixteen avian influenza (AI) H9N2 viruses were isolated from disease outbreaks in different parts of Iran during (1998–2001). These AI isolates were used for pathogenicity, haemagglutinin (HA) gene variation and phylogenetic analysis. Results in both pathogenicity tests and HA gene cleavage site sequence detection represented a non-highly pathogenic feature for all Iranian AI isolates studied. The cleavage site motif (R-SS- R) of all AI isolates however, indicated that they had capability of becoming highly pathogenic viruses following 2 nucleotide substitutions at this region. Based on 450 nucleotides region obtained for local isolates and those for referenced viruses available in Gene Bank database used in phylogenetic analysis, all viruses placed on 3 distinct groups, 2 for Iranian and 1 for reference viruses. Among the reference AI viruses, isolates from Pakistan, Saudi Arabia and 1 from Germany showed less differences with Iranian AI isolates. Results also revealed that the circulating viruses in neighbouring provinces have been remained with less mutation for about 2 years. مشاهده
418 فارسی Seasonal changes of pronephros lymphoid tissue in grasscarp (Ctenopharingodon idella): a histometric... 1385 2006 Summary The major lymphoid tissues in teleost fish are the kidneys, thymus, spleen and mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue including the skin, gills and intestine. The head of kidney (pronephros) is an important haematopoietic organ and has morphological similarities with the bone marrow in higher vertebrates. In this study, during 12 months from August 2002 to July 2003, 120 grass carp (10 fish/month) were harvested from 3 fish culture ponds in Ahvaz. The water, weather temperatures and light duration of days (photoperiod) were recorded. After biometrical examination of age, weight and the length of the fishes, the whole kidneys were removed from abdominal cavity and samples were fixed in bouin’s solution for light microscopy and in glutaraldehyde for electron microscopy. The results showed that the lymphoid tissue distribution has significant changes during different seasons so that, the mean ± SEM of lymphoid tissue distribution in hot seasons (33.53 ± 0.59 mm2/cm2) was more than cold seasons (19.20 ± 0.65 mm2/cm2). Also the statistical results showed that water temperature has more significant (P0.05) effect on lymphoid tissue. Degenerated lymphoid cells with pale and vacuolated cytoplasm were observed. A reversed correlation was found between the number of normal and degenerated lymphocytes. Electron microscopy revealed that degenerated lymphocytes were devoid of membranous organelles, their cytoplasms were vacuolated and the nuclear envelope had some alterations. مشاهده
419 انگليسی Polymerase chain reaction typing of Pasteurellamultocida capsules isolated in Iran 1385 2006 Summary Capsules from a range of pathogenic bacteria are the key determinants of virulency. The capsule has been implicated in virulence of Pasteurella multocida. In this study a type-specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay was used for capsular typing of 39 avian P. multocida isolates from Iran. The PCR amplified a fragment of 1044 bp from all of tested isolates. It was found that all avian P. multocida isolates belonged to capsular type A. The sequence alignment of the fragment showed a high similarity (96) with the published sequences of P. multocida hya gene in the Gene Bank. It was recognised that P. multocida capsular group A is the dominant cause of fowl cholera in Iran. مشاهده
420 انگليسی Immunization of lambs with whole bodyEchinococcus granulosus 1385 2006 Summary We conducted this study to determine the level of immunity after vaccination of lambs with whole body Echinococcus granulosus. To do so, 200 mature E. granulosus parasites, which were kept in 10 formaline for 8 months, were obtained from the Department of Parasitology, School of Veterinary Medicine, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad. The soluble protein of the parasite was prepared. The sample was homogenized in a blender, sonicated on ice and then centrifugated for 15 min at 10,000 g. Final yield was kept at -20ºC until used. Eight 4–6-month-old lambs of mixed sex, were divided into 2 equal groups; each lamb in the test group was vaccinated subcutaneously in the neck with 2 ml of the vaccine (1 mg of whole body of E. granulosus protein dissolved in 1 ml of PBS plus 1 ml of Freund’s complete adjuvant (FCA)). The control lambs were vaccinated only with adjuvant in PBS. Lambs were re-vaccinated four weeks after the first vaccination with the same preparation except that FCA was replaced by Freund’s incomplete adjuvant (FIA). Three weeks later, each lamb was administered a challenge infection dose of 2000 protoscolices intraperitoneally and 10 adult E. granulosus. After 7 months, all lambs were killed and examined for hydatid cysts. We found two cysts in the liver and and one in the lung of only one of the vaccinated lambs. The number of cysts in vaccinated lambs were significantly lower than that in the control group (P0.001). This means that the protective immunity in lambs with whole body of E. granulosus was approximately 90. مشاهده
421 انگليسی Veterinarians and dairy nutrition management: basicconcepts and design-it-yourself—a veterinary-orie... 1385 2007 Summary Veterinarians increasingly play a major contributory role in dairy practice and management. With increasing importance of economical pressures, bioenvironmental limits and increasing demand for higher quality products, veterinarians are more involved in nutrition management and advice, both from an economical view of productivity and preventive aspects of veterinary medicine. The concept of food animal production medicine is the hallmark of such a change from purely diagnosis and treating sick cows to design strategies for disease prevention and economical profitability. One of the essential parts of the new role is to have a good command of nutritional concepts and acquaintance with ration formulation procedures and also softwares. It appears that the available ration formulation softwares are insufficient in view of estimating necessary criteria for dairy practitioners. Moreover, the release of new edition of NRC and subsequent modification of software programs for ration formulation always lag behind the generation of new knowledge in dairy nutrition. This article describes the basic nutritional concepts, as well as a practical approach to design a ration evaluation program based on Microsoft® Excel. The program can be designed in a profession-oriented approach. مشاهده
422 انگليسی Epidemiology of Paramphistomiasis in buffaloes underdifferent managemental conditions at four distri... 1385 2006 Summary Epidemiological studies were undertaken at slaughter-houses, livestock farms, veterinary hospitals and on household buffaloes under climatic conditions of four different districts of Punjab province. Infection rate was 22.29, 28.33, 17.08 and 12.75, respectively in slaughter-house buffaloes, livestock farm buffaloes, veterinary hospital buffaloes and household buffaloes. Overall the season wise the highest prevalence (28.33) was recorded in buffaloes at livestock farms followed by slaughtered (22.29) and veterinary hospital buffaloes (17.08). While the lowest (12.75) prevalence was recorded in household buffaloes during spring. It was also observed that the higher infection rate was recorded in younger buffaloes (below two years of age) than older (above two years of age) where as sex wise the prevalence indicated that male buffaloes were more commonly affected than females. Snails belonging to genera Bulinus, Lymnaea and Planorbis were also observed which are responsible for the transmission of paramphistomiasis. مشاهده
423 انگليسی Comparison of Dot-ELISA with microbial culture fordetection of Brucella spp. in clinical specimens 1350-1359 2000 Summary Definitive diagnosis of brucellosis is made by isolation of the causative agents, which is a timeconsuming procedure. To evaluate the efficacy of Dot-ELISA for detecting brucellae in clinical samples, 94 different specimens taken from animal origin were cultured on brucella selective culture media and colonies were identified biochemically. The specimens were also examined after centrifugation by Dot-ELISA using a specific anti-brucella antibody, a suitable peroxidase conjugate and substrate. Of the 94 samples, 5 (5.31) were positive in Dot-ELISA and 4 (4.25) had positive cultures. In comparison with culture, the sensitivity and specificity of Dot-ELISA for detection of brucellae in the samples was 80 and 100, respectively. There was 98.9 agreement between the two tests. The results indicated that Dot-ELISA is a good and rapid test with acceptable sensitivity and specificity for detection of Brucella spp. in aborted fetal stomach contents. مشاهده
424 انگليسی Prevalence of bacterial mastitis in cattle 1385 2006 Summary To determine the prevalence of bacterial mastitis in cattle, milk samples positive for California mastitis test (CMT) were cultured during a period of almost 4 years. The bacterial species isolated from 2904 milk samples studied were coagulase negative Staphylococcus sp. in 879 (30.27) samples, Streptococcus agalactiae in 642 (22.11), S. dysgalactiae in 332 (11.43), E. coli in 295 (10.16), Staphylococcus aureus in 84 (2.89), Bacillus cereus in 51 (1.76), Arcanobacterium pyogenes in 31 (1.07), Pseudomonas aeruginosa in 6 (0.21), Klebsiella pneumoniae in 4 (0.14), Pasteurella multocida in 1 (0.03) and Mycoplasma sp. in another (0.03) sample. No growth was found in 578 samples (19.90). Thirty-one (37) of 84 animals which were infected with S. aureus, had acute infection. We found that contamination of milk with coagulase negative staphylococci are the most frequent bacterial infection in dairy cattle around Tehran; it mostly causes subacute form of the disease. S. agalactiae, S. dysgalactiae and E. coli are the second, third and the fourth causative agents. مشاهده
425 فارسی Seroepidemiology of Newcastle disease in domesticvillage chickens of plain areas of Isfahan province... 1385 2006 Summary Newcastle disease is one of the most important diseases of poultry. It usually causes a great loss in poultry industry and domestic village chickens. Since domestic chickens in villages are free ranging for food, the chance of their contact with wild birds that may act as reservoirs is high. To determine the role of domestic chickens in the epizootiology of Newcastle disease virus in villages of Isfahan province, 400 serum samples from chickens with no history of vaccination from four regions (Khomeinishahr, Zarinshahr, Falavarjan and Mobarekeh) were collected in summers of (1998) and (1999). Haemagglutination inhibition (HI) test was used for titration of antibodies against Newcastle disease virus. Chi-square and binomial tests were used for statistical analyses. 69.5 and 68.5 of the sera were positive in the two consecutive seasons (P0.05). About 25 of 3–4 month- and 1–2-year-old chickens were negative for HI antibodies and thus were sensitive to the disease in each season. Significant correlation was observed between the HI antibody titers and the age of the chickens (P0.01). A specific pattern of seroconversion was observed which was independent to the prevalence of the disease in industrial poultry flocks in each region and all regions studied. It was concluded that about 35 of the domestic village chickens are protected against virulent strains of Newcastle disease in summer. For protection of the remaining chickens, routine vaccination, especially in spring and summer is suggested. مشاهده
426 انگليسی Serologic evidence of bluetongue infection in onehumpedKerman province, Iran 1385 2006 Summary Herein, we presented the first report on bluetongue (BT) disease in 10 pregnant camels in a herd from Kerman province, Iran. All sera samples were tested serologically (AGID, C-ELISA). We also used the Razi- BK cell line, performed primary culture of ovine kidney and inoculated intravenously the embryonated chicken eggs (ECE) to culture and isolate the BT virus. Efforts to culture and isolation of BT virus have met with very limited success. Following precipitation test (AGID) and C-ELISA, 5 of 10 sera in AGID test, and all in C-ELISA became positive. Further studies are needed on the ecology of camels and vector midges to clarify the reason for infection of the camels in Iran. مشاهده
427 فارسی Biochemical properties and biological functions of theenzyme rhodanese in domestic animals 1385 2006 Summary The enzyme rhodanese (thiosulfate: cyanide sulfurtransferase) is a ubiquitous enzyme and its activity is present in all living organisms. Many functions including cyanide detoxification, formation of iron-sulfur centers and participation in energy metabolism have been attributed to this enzyme. The enzyme catalyzes the transfer of a sulfur atom from sulfane containing compounds (such as thiosulfate) to thiophilic anions (such as cyanide). The sulfhydryl group of cysteine-247 in the molecule of rhodanese participates in a double displacement of sulfur transfer mechanism. In this review attempt will be made to summarize the latest information available on the molecular properties and the pattern of distribution of rhodanese in different tissues of domestic animals and to combine these different lines of research to arrive at a plausible explanation regarding the biological function of this important enzyme in living organisms. مشاهده
428 انگليسی Histomorphometrical study of pancreasin Mehraban female sheep 1385 2006 Summary In the present study, pancreas glands in Mehraban breed of female sheep were histomorphometrically studied in four different age groups included: fetus, newborn, sexually mature and old ages. The results of histomorphometrical analysis with regard to frequency and percentage of parenchymal and stromal structures such as, exocrine secretory units, secretory ducts, blood vessels, islets of Langerhans and stromal connective tissue showed that minimum and maximum percentages of structures within the whole gland belonged in fetal stage, to blood vessels and stromal connective tissue; newborn stage, to blood vessels and exocrine secretory units; in sexually mature, to islets of Langerhans and exocrine secretory units and in old stage, also to islets of Langerhans and exocrine secretory units, respectively. The diameter changes of islets of Langerhans in different age groups from minimum to maximum were included: fetus, old, sexually mature and newborn stages. In comparison between different age groups, the frequency of exocrine secretory units showed a significant increase from fetal stage to newborn, sexually mature and old stages (P0.05). On the other hand, there was a significant decrease in frequency of secretory ducts from fetal stage to newborn, sexually mature and old stages and there was also a significant decrease in frequency of blood vessels from fetal to newborn stage (P0.05). Significant decrease was also observed in frequency of islets of Langerhans from fetal and newborn stages to sexually mature and old stages. In comparison between groups, there was a significant increase in diameter of islets of Langerhans from fetal to newborn and sexually mature stages and decrease from newborn to sexually mature and old stages. Our study revealed that, there was no significant difference in parenchymal and stromal structures and diameter of islets of Langerhans between different parts of the gland in each age group. However, the above mentioned parameters often showed significant differences between different age groups. These differences were more prominent between fetal stage compared to the other age groups. Therefore, it can be concluded that structural changes of parenchyma and stroma of pancreas gland begin from pre-natal period and will proportionally continue during the period of post-natal development. مشاهده
429 انگليسی Aerobic bacteria isolated from eggs and day-oldchicks and their antibacterial resistancein Shiraz, I... 1385 2006 Summary To study the putative transfer of antibiotic resistance from broiler breeders to human, hen’s eggs and their day-old chicks were examined for the presence of bacteria. The most frequently isolated organisms in decreasing order were: Streptococcus spp., Bacillus spp., Staphylococcus spp., Klebsiella spp., Enterobacter spp. and Escherichia coli followed by Citrobacter spp., Proteus spp. and Pseudomonas spp. from the eggs and E. coli, Enterobacter spp. and Citrobacter spp. followed by Klebsiella spp. and Bacillus spp. from the chicks. Different detection methods were evaluated which use various enrichment and plating media for bacteria in eggs and day-old chicks. Sensitivity tests showed the presence of antibacterial resistant strains of bacteria. In comparison, resistance to all antibiotics in chicks’ isolated bacteria were more frequent than eggs’ isolates, but statistically no significant differences between patterns of antibacterial resistance were seen (P ≤ 0.05). Twenty-three, 54, 55, 60, 24 and 10 of chicks’ isolates were resistant to chloramphenicol, enrofloxacin, erythromycin, furazolidone, trimethoprim and tylosin, respectively. Whereas these data about eggs’ isolates were as follows: 1, 12, 18, 18, 10 and 6, respectively. This study revealed that eggs are often contaminated with different bacteria and could be potential vehicles for transmitting of these bacteria through their broilers. Our findings stress the need for increased implementation of hazard analysis of critical control points (HACCP) and consumer food safety education efforts. مشاهده
430 فارسی Changes of milk fat, crude protein, true protein, NPN andprotein:fat ratio in Holstein cows fed a hi... 1385 2006 Summary Percentages and yields of fat, crude protein (CP), true protein (TP) and non-protein nitrogen (NPN) were assessed in milk of four groups of Holstein cows, at early, mid and late lactation (days in milk 20-70, 71-110, 111-150 and 151-210), on a diet rich in concentrates during a hot summer. Four milk samples were taken from individual cows at 10-day intervals. Milk fat percentages were close to breed average and increased toward the end of lactation with a tendency (P = 0.055) for significant difference between the early and late lactation. Percentages of CP (P = 0.14) and TP (P = 0.478), however, were low similarly among all groups and did not follow the normal pattern of the breed. Percentage of NPN was significantly higher in groups III and IV (P = 0.005). Yields of fat (P = 0.035), CP (P = 0.002) and TP (P = 0.001), but not NPN (P = 0.589), decreased toward the end of lactation. There was a negative correlation (r = -0.354, P0.001) between the percentages of NPN and TP. However, no correlation was observed between the percentages of NPN and CP. Despite a very strong correlation between yields of CP and TP (r = 0.983, P0.001), the correlation between the yield of CP and that of NPN was much weaker (r = 0.473, P0.001). It is concluded that percents and yields of milk fat, close to breed average are attainable at any stage of lactation on high concentrate diets in hot weather. However, regarding milk protein, cows may not perform well. TP may be more affected than CP. مشاهده
431 انگليسی Comparison of growth performance of sixcommercial broiler hybrids in Iran 1385 2006 Summary An investigation was carried out to evaluate the growth performance of six commercial broiler hybrids available in Iran (Arbor Acres, Arian, Cobb 500, Hubbard, Lohmann and Ross 508). Two hundred and fifty fertile eggs of each hybrid were taken from different breeder farms, all over the country. The similarity of flocks ages and their health conditions were considered. After hatching, the sexed chicks were randomly assigned to six replicates of floor pens of 17 chicks, except the male Cobb hybrid which had five replications. All groups were managed in a similar way throughout the 56 days of study. Daily feed intake (FI) and daily body weight gain (BWG) were measured on weekly basis and the European production index (EPI) were calculated at 49 and 56 days of age. There were no significant differences among hybrids in FI during starter and grower periods (P0.05), although significant differences were observed in finisher period (P0.01). Differences in daily FI were significant between male and female chicks in grower and finisher periods (P0.05), but not in starter period. Differences in daily BWG were significant among hybrids throughout the experiment (P0.01). Sex significantly affected the daily BWG in all periods (P0.01). The calculated EPI showed significant differences for both 49 and 56 days of age among hybrids and between two sexes (P0.01). There were no significant differences among hybrids in carcass yield, percentage of breast and abdominal fat to carcass weight at 42 and 56 days of age. On day 42, males had more percentage of carcass and breast yield compared with females (P0.01). Percent of abdominal fat in females on day 56 was more than that of the males (P0.01), while on day 42 no significant differences were found in this respect. مشاهده
432 انگليسی Computed tomographic anatomy of theabdominal region of cat 1385 2006 Summary The purpose of this study was to identify the anatomic structures of the abdominal region of cat through computed tomography (CT) to be used by veterinary radiologists, clinicians and surgeons. The abdominal region of four cats were scanned twice, with and without using contrast medium in a same position, using high-resolution imaging protocol. Slice intervals were 11 mm and were adjusted so that each vertebra was sectioned at least once. CT cuts taken with and without contrast were compared for accurate identification of specific anatomic structures. Two animals were fixed by routine anatomical method and dissected for use as reference models. Finally, important structures and landmarks were identified and labeled on the CT images. مشاهده
433 فارسی Development of an ELISA technique for the detection ofBabesia ovis and serological survey of the par... 1385 2006 Summary To develop an ELISA technique for the detection of antibodies against Babesia ovis, the infected erythrocytes were lysed and the supernatant soluble antigen, after sonication and ultracentrifugation of the lysate was used as antigen. Optimal dilution of the antigen was determined by checkerboard titrations, using positive and negative control sera. A correlation of 85 was observed between the results of the developed ELISA and IFA techniques. To study the seroprevalence of Babesia ovis in Khouzestan province, south of Iran, a total of 1000 sheep sera were collected from different areas of the province and tested against Babesia ovis using the ELISA technique developed. The results showed an average seroprevalence of 47.5 in the province. Our results indicated a significant increase of the seroprevalence by advancement of age of the animals. There was no significant difference between the seroprevalence of female and male sheep. مشاهده
434 فارسی Detection of hydatid fluid and protoscolices antigensin sheep with hydatidosis 1385 2006 Summary Hydatidosis is a disease caused by infection with the metacestode stage of the dog tapeworm, Echinococcus granulosus. This is recognised as one of the world’s most important zoonoses, affecting both humans and their domestic animals. In the current study, 20 sheep cystic livers or lungs were collected. Hydatid fluid and protoscolices were isolated and the soluble protein was prepared. Polypeptide profile of hydatid fluid and protoscolices was analysed by SDS-PAGE with 12.5 acrylamide concentration. Humoral immunity and antigenic pattern were evaluated by Western blotting. In electrophoresis of hydatid fluid, five bands with molecular weight of 84, 68–70, 55, 27–28 and 16–17 kDa were observed; the 68–70 and 55 kDa bands were noticeably dominant. In Western blot of hydatid fluid protein, only 68–70 and 55 kDa bands had conciderable positive reaction. A total of 12 bands were also observed in protoscolices polypeptide profile. The molecular weight of the bands were 120, 88–89, 84, 66, 55–56, 49–50, 43–44, 36, 30–31, 24, 20 and 15– 16 kDa. Seven bands with molecular weight of 66, 55–56, 49–50, 43–44, 36, 30–31 and 24 kDa had positive reaction in Western blot. We concluded that the determination of specific antigenic bands for sheep hydatid fluid and protoscolices was successfully achieved in this study. مشاهده
435 انگليسی Sex differentiation in goat fetus 1385 2006 Summary Reproduction in domestic animals, as a major source of food and other products for human, has great importance and study of related subjects including sex differentiation and gonadogenesis during fetal life can solve many questions on normal development and various disorders of urogenital system. Since studies on sex differentiation in goat fetus are scarce, this study was performed. Twenty-five goat fetuses with 5–40 mm crown-rump lengths (CRL) were obtained from slaughter-house and fixed in 10 formalin solution immediately. The development and features of external genitalia of these fetuses as well as their sex differentiation were then examined. In externally indifferentiated fetuses, the cranial half of the body was cut away at the diaphragmatic level and serial sections, 6-micron thick, were prepared and the ovarian and testicular differentiation was studied. Results showed that considering the development of the external genitalia, external sex differentiation occurs at 31 mm CRL in male fetuses and at 33 mm CRL in female fetuses. Microscopic studies suggested that testicular tissue differentiation occurs at 23 mm CRL with formation of tunica albuginea and medullary cords. Ovarian tissue differentiation occurs at 38 mm CRL with establishment of cortical and medullary regions. مشاهده
436 انگليسی The prevalence of Mycobacterium paratuberculosisinfection in ileocecal valve of cattle slaughteredin... 1385 2006 Summary To investigate the prevalence of Mycobacterium paratuberculosis (M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis) infection among cattle slaughtered in Ahvaz abattoir, samples were taken from 250 cattle. Before slaughter, sex and age were assessed. Thereafter, samples were taken from ileocecal valve, rectum mucosa, ileocecal lymph node and stool. All smears which taken from these samples were stained by Ziehl-Neelsen method and examined by light microscopy. At first, ileocecal samples were examined; other samples were examined when ileocecal sample was positive. Out of the 250 cattle, 5 (2) were positive. With the exception of one sample in which the organism was observed in both ileocecal valve and ileocecal lymph node, in other positive samples the bacteria was observed in only ileocecal valve smear. مشاهده
437 انگليسی Prevalence of Cryptosporidium spp. oocysts in dairycalves in Kerman, southeastern Iran 1385 2006 Summary Faecal samples from 291 dairy calves from 10 dairy herds in Kerman were examined to investigate the prevalence of Cryptosporidium infection. Cryptosporidium spp. oocysts were identified by using the modified Ziehl-Neelsen staining technique in 63 (21.65) calves. Calves were grouped according to their age as follows: 3 months, 3–6 months and 6–9 months. Cryptosporidium infection was detected in 28.2, 20.6 and 15.09, of the calves in the respective age groups. A significant age-associated decrease in the detection rate of Cryptosporidium infection (P0.05) was found. Cryptosporidium infection was detected in 11 of the 30 (36.66) diarrhoeic and 52 of the 261 (19.92) non-diarrhoeic calves. There was a significantly (P0.05) higher prevalence of Cryptosporidium infection in diarrhoeic than in non-diarrhoeic calves. مشاهده
438 انگليسی The efficacy of inactivated oil-emulsion H9N2avian influenza vaccine 1385 2006 Summary An experimental inactivated oil-emulsion H9N2 avian influenza vaccine was formulated with 3 parts of inactivated avian influenza antigen A/Chicken/Iran/101/1998(H9N2) emulsified in 7 parts of oil adjuvant. Twelve week-old specific pathogen-free (SPF) chickens were divided into seven groups of 10 birds. Six groups were vaccinated with 1, 1/10th, 1/50th, 1/100th, 1/200th and 1/400th field dose of the experimental avian influenza vaccine (EAIV). The last group, was injected with saline and served as the control group. The mean titer in haemagglutination inhibition (HI) test (log 2) on the vaccinated groups, 21 days postvaccination were 6.0, 4.4, 3.83, 3.3, 3.0 and 2, respectively. Prevention of virus shedding through cloaca was used as the potency test which revealed that the protective doses 50 (PD50) of full, 1/10th and 1/50th of the field dose of the experimental vaccine were 100, 100 and 96.25, respectively. Those groups that received 1/50th dose could not prevent virus shedding. So it can be concluded that EAI vaccine could even be entirely protective and efficient in 1/10th dose and got a desirable immunity in experimental SPF chickens. مشاهده
439 انگليسی A serological survey for detection of avian infectiousbronchitis virus antibodies in domestic villag... 1385 2006 Summary Infectious bronchitis (IB) is a very contagious disease caused by a coronavirus (IBV). In chickens, the virus affects the respiratory, reproductive, and urinary systems. This study was carried out to determine the seroprevalence of anti-IBV antibodies in domestic village chickens. Serum samples of 300 domestic village chickens from Esfahan (centeral Iran) were collected and examined for the presence of anti-IBV antibodies by commercial ELISA kits. The results showed that 85.3 of the domestic village chickens had high titers of anti-IBV antibody without any clinical signs. It was concluded that the rate of IBV infection in these chickens is very high that could be a potential hazard for commercial poultry. مشاهده
440 انگليسی Rupture of the peroneous tertius in a horse 1385 2006 ummary Rupture of the peroneous tertius was diagnosed in a 7-year-old stallion, based on clinical examinations. The stifle joint flexed as the limb was advanced forward without flexing the hock. When the limb was pulled backward, the hock joint extended but the stifle was in the normal position. The recommended treatment included complete stall rest for 6 weeks followed by limited exercise for 2 months. The animal, ultimately, returned back to its normal exercise. مشاهده
441 انگليسی Comparison of optic lens proteins among animals atdifferent stages of development 1385 2006 Summery The purpose of this investigation was to study and compare the electrophoretic patterns of optic lens proteins of different species of domestic animals at pre- and post-natal ages. Optic lenses were removed from the embryo or adult sheep, cattle, goat, camel and chicken at the slaughter-house then homogenized and subjected to sodium dodecylsulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). In all animals, except chicken, majority of proteins had molecular weights of less than 33 kDa and their concentrations were not affected by the age of animals at pre- or post-natal stages. A 9 kDa protein which was present in adult sheep optic lens was absent in sheep fetal lenses at different age groups. Prominent differences were observed in camel and chicken. In camel, proteins with molecular weights of 30 and 38 kDa were present, the concentration of which was much lower in other animals. A protein of 57 kDa which constituted the major protein of chicken optic lens was absent in other species of animals. The concentration of proteins in the range of 25-30 kDa increased with the age of chicken embryos. These proteins were remarkably different from those of adult chicken lens proteins except the 57 kDa protein which was also the predominant protein in the embryo. The 38 kDa protein disappeared and a 20 kDa protein appeared in the chicken embryo lens as compared with adult chicken lens. These data indicate extensive differences in the lens proteins of animals and suggest different physiological functions of lens proteins in different animals at different stages of development. مشاهده
442 انگليسی In vitro survival rate of bovine oocytes followingvitrification in glass capillary micropipette (GCM... 1385 2006 Summary The purpose of this study was to evaluate the use of glass capillary micropipette (GCM) as a vessel for vitrification of bovine oocytes. Cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs) were obtained from slaughter-house and washed 5 to 6 times in the washing medium (TCM-199 + 20 FBS) and randomly assigned to treatment and control group. In the first step of vitrification, COCs were exposed to first vitrification solution (VS1) (10 ethylene glycol (EG), 10 DMSO in holding medium (TCM-199 + 10 FBS: HM)) for 1 min at room temperature and then placed in VS2 solution (20 EG, 20 DMSO in HM) for 25 sec and immediately were loaded into the GCM vessel. The filled portion of GCM vessels were placed in liquid nitrogen (LN2) for 3 to 5 sec and then completely immersed and stored there. The oocytes were thawed by immersing the capillary end of the straw in 1 ml of 0.25 M sucrose in HM and gently expelling the contents. After 1 min the oocytes were transferred into 100 μl of 0.15 M sucrose in HM for another 5 min and then washed with HM twice. For examining the in vitro developmental potential of vitrified-warmed oocytes, the oocytes were placed in 50 μl droplet of maturation medium (TCM-199 + 10 FBS + 10 IU/ml PMSG + 5 IU/ml HCG) covered with paraffin oil in a CO2 incubator at 38.5ºC for 24 hrs. A high proportion of morphologically normal oocytes (90) was recovered after vitrification-warming. The percentage of live oocytes after 24 hrs when tested with trypan blue in GCM group was 85.18, significantly did not differ from control group (90). The proportion of oocytes which were found to have undergone nuclear maturation did not show statistical difference between the control and GCM group (61.29 vs 40, respectively). The results of present study demonstrated that vitrification of immature bovine oocytes in the GCM vessels and EG + DMSO solution have high survival rate. مشاهده
443 انگليسی Morphological studies on Meckel’s diverticulum inthe duck (Ansa ansa domesticus) 1385 2006 Summary This research was carried out to define the morphological features of Meckel’s diverticulum (MD) in duck and to investigate whether the MD resides in a constant position along the intestinal tract. For this purpose, a total of 30 adult healthy ducks of both sexes, 50-52 weeks of age were used. After dissecting, some morphological factors such as: total intestine length as well as the lengths of the intestine from the gizzard to MD (GMD), from gizzard to cloaca (GC) and from MD to the caecal opening (MDC) were measured. The weight, thickness and length of MD were then recorded. By using t-test and analysing factors between two sexes we concluded that, the location of MD in total specimens was 91.52 ± 8.09 cm far away from the gizzard. There was no significant difference between morphological factors of MD (weight, thickness and length) in both sexes (P0.05). There was significant difference (P0.05) between GMD, GC in both sexes. In histological studies of MD, aggregated lymphatic follicles and thin muscularis mucosa were observed in tunica mucosa. مشاهده
444 انگليسی Polymerase chain reaction for the detection anddifferentiation of Marek’s disease virus strainsMDV-1... 1385 2006 Summery Marek’s disease (MD) is a lymphoproliferative disease of chickens characterized by lymphocytic infiltration of various organs. The present study was an attempt to use polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to optimize a rapid and reliable assay for detection of MDV genome. Detection of serotype 1 of MDV (MDV-1) was confirmed by presence of a 200 bp DNA fragment as a PCR product. Differentiation of MDV-1 and herpesvirus of turkeys (HVT) was also conducted using specific primers from the glycoprotein A (gA) gene and a 388 bp DNA fragment was amplified from HVT genome. The specificity of the test was confirmed by sequencing of PCR products. Results indicate that MDV-1 can be diagnosed in clinical samples and inoculated cell cultures which is used for virus isolation. In addition, differentiation between MDV-1 and HVT viruses was confirmed based on the size of PCR products. The test proved to be rapid and reliable and can be performed as a robust diagnostic test in veterinary diagnostic laboratories. مشاهده
445 فارسی Morphological and stereotaxic studies ofIranian native goat’s brain 1385 2006 Summary This study was conducted to find out the best outside points of skull to reach different areas of brain that are essential for neuroendocrinological studies. In this research 30 heads of Iranian native male goats aged between 2-3-year-old were collected from Shahrekord abattoir. After collecting whole heads, they were fixed in 10 formalin and then many holes were made on the dorsal surface of skull followed by median and transverse sectioning of the heads. Morphological characteristics of brain and distances from the bones of skull to different structures of brain were measured using caliper device and needle and the best points were determined. By this method the best points to reach the hypophysis and lateral ventricle with 90° angle are in distances of 45.2 ± 2.23 mm and 20.92 ± 1.02 mm at bregma point. مشاهده
446 فارسی An experimental study on surgical woundcontamination from distant infectivesource in rabbits 1385 2006 Summary Surgical wound infections are usually encountered due to the endogenous rather than the exogenous infective sources. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of a distant inoculated infective source on the contamination of surgical wounds. Thirty White New Zealand rabbits divided randomly into three control and three treatment equal groups. In treatment groups 24 hrs before surgical intervention Staphylococcus aureus was injected subcutaneously in right thigh. In model animals, skin and muscles were incised 1 cm to the right of the vertebral column and sutured, immediately. The relative frequency of staphylococcal contamination of tissue specimens at 24 and 48 hrs after surgery in treatment groups were 20 and 60, respectively. Statistical analysis did not show any significant differences in the rate of contamination between control and treatment groups at aforementioned times (P0.05). However, comparison at 72 hrs after surgery, showed that the rate of contamination in treatment group is significantly more than control ones (P = 0.004). The presence of S. aureus in wounds of treatment animals at 72 hrs after surgery, suggested that microorganisms lodged in any part of body other than wound region could contaminate it, which could be important in wound healing. مشاهده
447 انگليسی Effects of oral iron supplementation on haematocritlive weight gain and health inneonatal dairy calv... 1385 2006 Summary Forty neonate calves were used in this study. The animals were divided into two treatment (n = 20) and control (n = 20) groups. In the treatment group, oral iron as ferrous sulphate was supplemented to each calf at the dose of 150 mg/day for 28 days, from the birthday. Blood sampling was taken from jugular vein immediately after birth and on days 7, 14, 21 and 28 after birth. Significant differences in haematocrit (PCV) levels were found between two groups on days 14, 21 and 28 (P0.05). Total gain, mean daily gain and weight gain during 4th week of life was significantly higher in the treatment group than control group (P ≤ 0.05). Chi-square test proved no significant difference between the two groups regarding the incidence of diseases. مشاهده
448 انگليسی The effect of different levels of sodium chlorideon round heart disease in the turkey 1385 2006 Summery Round heart disease is a disease of unknown etiology in turkey. The objective of this study was to examine the effect of different amounts of sodium chloride in inducing cardiomyopathy in turkey poults. There are some reports that hypoxia and furazolidone can induce cardiomyopathy in turkey. Two hundred 2-day-old turkey poults were wing-banded and placed randomly into 6 groups and 24 replicates (4 replicates for each group). The 6 groups received commercial turkey starter diet contain 0.12, 0.17, 0.22, 0.27, 0.32 and 0.37 of sodium, respectively. They had access to food and water ad libitum. Suffering and dead birds were weighed and examined for post-mortem study. Live body weight of turkey poults measured individually on days 1, 2, 5 and 19. To study the hearts for presence of cardiomyopathy, on the day 19, all the poults were weighed and killed by cervical dislocation. The pieces of the hearts were placed into numbered tubes, flash frozen by liquid nitrogen and stored at -70ºC for myoglobin and hemoglobin microassay. The assay was based on spectrophotometry and separated myoglobin and hemoglobin by ammonium sulphate extraction. For determination of cardiomyopathy the ratio of the inner cavity of left ventricle to the total diameter of the left ventricle (IClv/TDlv) was calculated. Myopathic ratio for groups 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6 were 0.1, 0.29, 0.3, 0.34, 0.35 and 0.36, respectively. Turkey poults which received excessive salts drank more water which produced volume overload, more cardial muscle activity, needed more oxygen and were more likely to develop myopathy. Cardiac muscle myoglobin and hemoglobin microassay showed that there was no significant relationship between the amount of myoglobin and hemoglobin with the amount of diet sodium. مشاهده
449 انگليسی Acquired reproductive tract abnormalities of ewes innorthwest of Iran: an abattoir survey 1385 2006 Summary Reproductive abnormalities cause major losses of sheep production. Abattoir materials were used to determine the extent of reproductive wastage. Reproductive tracts were collected from 524 ewes slaughtered at Urmia slaughter-house in Urmia, northwest of Iran, during a period of 12 months. Overall, 30.10 of the ewes examined were pregnant. A total of 149 (28.44) tracts developed acquired reproductive tract abnormalities. Based on the observation of the tracts, abnormalities of the ovaries, ovarian bursa and uterine tubes and uterine lesions accounted for 11.41, 21.48 and 67.11 of the lesions, respectively. The most common ovarian lesion was ovario-bursal adhesions (47.06). Uterine tube obstruction was the most common uterine tube abnormality (8.07). Pyometra (8.07), uterine hemorrhage (6.73) and endometritis (4.04) were the most common abnormalities observed in the uterus. Two tracts (0.9) contained macerated fetal remnants. A large number of tracts (16) had melanin pigment in the uterine wall. It is concluded that, firstly, the large number of pregnant ewes slaughtered highlights significant economic losses. Secondly, lesions such as hydrosalpinx, pyometra and metritis were likely to affect female sheep reproduction. The acquired abnormalities were therefore more significant in terms of individual animal infertility than as a major cause of infertility in flocks. مشاهده
450 انگليسی Seasonal variation in the characteristics of theAzarbaijani buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) semen 1385 2006 Summary To study the seasonal variation in the characteristics of the Azarbaijani buffalo semen, three 2-4-year-old bulls of Azarbaijani water buffaloes, kept in the Buffalo Breeding Center, in Urmia, northwest of Iran, were selected. Semen samples were collected once a week for a period of one year using artificial vagina and a buffalo cow as a dummy. Semen volume, colour, pH and motility and spermatozoa motility, viability, morphology and concentration were examined. During one calendar year, 129 semen samples were examined. The mean values were plotted and a curve was drawn for the annual variations in each parameter. The comparison of the mean values in each sampling and in different seasons and the correlation between these variations and ecological factors, such as temperature, rainfall and day length were also studied. Semen was characterized by a mean (±SEM) ejaculation volume of 4 ± 0.14 ml, semen colour density score of 3.75 ± 0.07, pH of 6.97 ± 0.03 and motility score of 2.89 ± 0.05. The sperm motility of 75.85 ± 1.59 and sperm viability of 73.2 ± 1.56 were observed; 11.55 ± 0.42 of spermatozoa had abnoraml morphology. The mean (±SEM) sperm concentration was 1239.9 ± 34.11×106 cells/ml. All of the studied parameters showed fluctuations throughout the year but these variations were statistically significant only in some occasions and were mostly correlated with length of the day. Semen of better quality was collected in summer and autumn. مشاهده
451 انگليسی Study on the frequency of pregnant ewes slaughteredin Khorram Abad abattoir, Iran 1385 2006 Summary The aim of this survey was to evaluate the frequency of pregnant ewes slaughtered in Khorram Abad abattoir and estimation of their gestational age. Over a period of five months in fall and winter, a total number of 3046 uterine tracts were collected. Pregnancy was detected in 56.50 of ewes, 52.36 and 4.13 of which carried singleton and twins, respectively. The highest frequency of pregnancy was detected in January (65.63) and the lowest frequency was detected in March (35.02). Among a total number of 1721 pregnant ewes, the most frequency of gestational age (34.68) was recorded to be between 2 and 3 months of gestation, while 5.05 was detected to be above 121 days. Overall, the number of pregnant ewes with a gestational age over two months was considerable (59.83). It was concluded that reproductive waste resulting from slaughtering of pregnant animals is important in ewes in Khorram Abad and could be prevented by an improved antemortem examination. مشاهده
452 فارسی Abattoir survey of bovine pyelonephritis 1385 2006 Summary In order to investigate the prevalence and detection of etiological agents of pyelonephritis in Shahrekord abattoir, 404 kidneys of slaughtered cattle (207 female and 197 male) were inspected. Kidney samples, which had gross changes were obtained for histological examination. Urine and renal tissue samples were also collected aseptically for microbiological examination. In histological examination pyelonephritis were observed in 3 cases (0.74), one of which occurred in a 7-year-old cow and the others in bulls less than 2- year-old. In microbiological examination E. coli was isolated from urine and renal tissues in 2 cases and Staphylococcus aureus isolated only from renal tissue in the other case. مشاهده
453 انگليسی The biological effect of Sepedon (Diptera: Sciomyzidae)fly larvae living on Lymnea snails 1385 2006 Summary The present work was carried out to investigate first, the ecology of the Sepedon flies as well as species of Lymnea snails and secondly, the biological effects of Sepedon fly larvae living on Lymnea. In this regard, the life cycle, death rate and compatibility of Lymnea species, as well as the life cycle of Sepedon flies in breeding cage and the activity of the new larvae in the same ecological condition were investigated. The results showed that Lymnea truncatula needs more sophisticated ecological and feeding conditions than other species of the snails. Lymnea stagnalis was found sensitive to temperature variation and this may lead to gradual or sudden death. Lymnea pregra and Lymnea palustris could well adapt with laboratory conditions. The killing effect (P0.001) of the third-stage larvae on snails (3 to 4 weeks) was more than the effect of first- and second-stages larvae. This effect was more in a container with 2 cm water depth than a container with 5 cm depth. مشاهده
454 انگليسی The status of cobalt in soil, plants and sheepin Shahrekord district, Iran 1385 2006 Summary Cobalt (Co) deficiency occurs in many parts of world especially in tropical and subtropical countries. Primary Co deficiency occurs only in places where the soil is deficient in Co. The type of soil and the presence of other substances like manganese and lime influence the absorption of Co (secondary Co deficiency). To determine the Co status in Shahrekord district, Iran, several important farms were selected and the Co concentration of 80 different soils (before cultivation) under cultivation of alfalfa, clover, barley and wheat and their cultivated plants (after full vegetative growing) were measured by atomic absorption spectroscopy. Moreover, blood samples were taken from 100 sheep fed the grown plants on those areas. The mean ± SD Co concentration in the soil of alfalfa, clover, barley and wheat farms were 0.14 ± 0.04, 0.16 ± 0.06, 0.10 ± 0.03 and 0.11 ± 0.05 mg/kg, respectively and the corresponding concentrations in plants were 1.32 ± 1.01, 2.2 ± 0.08, 1.2 ± 0.76 and 1.37 ± 0.88 mg/kg dry matter (DM), respectively. The mean ± SD Co concentration in sheep serum was 1.45 ± 0.41 μg/dl at various physiological conditions. Results indicated that in all studied areas, Co concentration in soil was lower than the normal range and primary Co deficiency was noticeable. On the other hand, Co concentration in different plants and ration was higher than animal demands, but serum Co was at marginal level and probably interfered with animal health. This study showed that the soils of lands under cultivation of clover and alfalfa and its related plants contained more Co than that of determined for barley (P0.05). Furthermore, clover soil had higher amount of Co than wheat soil (P0.05). There was a negative correlation between the amount of lead in soil of lands under cultivation of alfalfa and the concentration of Co in plants. Such a negative correlation was also detected between the amount of molybdenum and lead in soil and the concentration of Co in plants (P0.05). Presence of some interfering factors in ration such as nitrogen (1.24 ± 0.3), phosphorus (0.47 ± 0.18), lead (2.87 ± 1.58 mg/kg DM) and molybdenum (0.1 ± 0.14 mg/kg DM) were negatively affected the uptake of Co and decreased serum Co concentration via secondary Co deficiency. مشاهده
455 فارسی The frequency of photosensitization in a dairy cattleherd infected by Leptospires 1385 2006 Summary Leptospirosis is a bacterial zoonotic disease, which can induce hepatic lesions. Photosensitization (PS) maybe is the result of accumulation of photodynamic agents in unpigmented area of the skin exposed to sunlight which occurred due to hepatic lesions. An outbreak of leptospirosis was occurred in a dairy cattle herd complex with 760 dairy milking cows in March (1990). Totally, 412 cows (54.21) showed clinical signs including fever, systemic mastitis, haemoglobinuria, jaundice, lameness, abortion and stillbirth. The microscopic agglutination test (MAT) was used for diagnosis of leptospirosis. The herd was infected with Leptospira interrogans grippotyphosa, L. interrogans icterohaemorrhagiae, L. interrogans pomona, L. interrogans canicola and L. interrogans hardjo. Only one (0.13) cow showed PS in the unpigmented skin dorsum. MAT showed that she was infected with L. interrogans pomona, L. interrogans hardjo and L. interrogans icterohaemorrhagiae with titre of 1 : 3200 of antibody. In spite of the high incidence of leptospirosis, the frequency of PS was too low. مشاهده
456 فارسی بررسی هیستوپاتولوژیک جراحات ریه شتر یک کوهانه در ایران 1394 2015 چکیده عفونت های ریوی از جمله بیماری های با اهمیت در شتر بوده که نه تنها سبب تهدید سلامت حیوان بلکه باعث کاهش تولید نیز می گردند. از آنجا که مقابله با مشکلات تنفسی و درمان آنها نیازمند شناخت کافی نسبت به مشکلات تنفسی موجود بوده و با توجه به اطلاعات محدود در این مورد در گونه شتر، مطالعه حاضر با هدف شناخت ضایعات ریوی شترهای کشتار شده در چند کشتارگاه مهم شتر با استفاده از روش هیستوپاتولوژی به انجام رسید. دستگاه تنفسی شترها (تعداد= 447 ) پس از کشتار به طور کامل مورد معاینه قرار گرفت و نمونه های بافتی در فرمالین 10 قرار داده شدند. سپس از نمونه ها مقاطع بافتی تهیه و مقاطع با استفاده از رنگ هماتوکسیلین و ائوزین رنگ آمیزی شده و مورد ارزیابی قرار 236 از 447 نمونه) از نمونه ها حداقل یک ) 79/ گرفتند. در مطالعه حاضر در 6 ضایعه ریوی مشاهده گردید. نرخ پنومونی بینابینی حاد، پنومونی بینابینی مزمن، 52/ برونکوپنومونی، برونشیولیت، التهاب پرده جنب و آتلکتازی به ترتیب 8 6/ 35 از 447 نمونه)، 7 ) 7/ 24 از 447 نمونه)، 8 ) 5/ 236 از 447 نمونه) 4 ) 68 از 447 نمونه) بود. ) 15/ 15 از 447 نمونه) و 2 ) 3/ 30 از 447 نمونه)، 4 ) میزان ضایعات ریوی، پنومونی بینابینی حاد و برونکوپنومونی در فصول پاییز و در نتیجه، مطالعه حاضر نشان دهنده .(P0/ زمستان بیشتر از بهار و تابستان بود ( 05 نرخ بالای ضایعات ریوی در جمعیت شترها بود. نتایج بالاتر بودن ضایعات در فصول سرد (پاییز و زمستان) را نشان میدهد. واژگان کلیدی: شتر یک کوهانه، جراحات ریوی، هیستوپاتولوی مشاهده
457 فارسی بررسی اثرعصاره هیدرومتانولی پوست انار بر رشد قارچ کاندیدا آلبیکنس در موشهای صحرایی دیابتی شده توسط آ... 1394 2015 چکیده امروزه قارچهای فرصتطلب بویژه کاندیدا آلبیکنس از جمله شایع ترین عوامل مخاطرهآمیز در بیماران با ضعف سیستم ایمنی هستند. عفونتهای قارچی ناشی از گونههای کاندیدا و افزایش روزافزون سویههای مقاوم به داروهای آزولی در بیماران دارای نقص ایمنی از اهمیت بالایی برخوردار است. سمیت داروهای مورد استفاده، ایجاد مقاومت در این قارچها و مشکلات ناشی از تداخل دارویی، ضرورت استفاده از داروهایی با تأثیر بیشتر و سمیت کمتر را موجب میشود. مصرف انار غیر از جنبه خوراکی آن از دیدگاه دارویی و اثرات درمانی نیز قابل ملاحظه است . هدف از ،50 ، پژوهش حاضر، بررسی اثر عصاره هیدرومتانولی پوست انار با غلظت های 25 در ( ATCC 100 و 200 میلیگرم بر کیلوگرم بر رشد قارچ کاندیدا آلبیکنس ( 10231 موشهای صحرایی مدل دیابتی شده توسط آلوکسان میباشد. موش های صحرایی توسط تزریق درونصفاقی آلوکسان ( 150 میلیگرم بر کیلوگرم) دیابتی شدند. سپس حیوانات با خوراندن دوز عفونی کاندیدا آلبیکنس به موشهای صحرایی آلوده شدند. انجام تیمار برای مدت 7 روز و بصورت متوالی از تمام گروه های مورد بررسی انجام گردید و نمونه ها را روی محیط کشت قارچی، کشت داده شد و در نهایت توسط کلنی کانت شمارش صورت گرفت. نتایج حاصل نشان داد که تیمار خوراکی عصاره هیدرومتانولی پوست میوه انار موجب بهبود موثر عفونت قارچی حاصل از کاندیدا آلبیکنس در موش های صحرایی دیابتی شده و قدرت اثر آن مشابه داروی ایتراکونازول می باشد. کاهش موثر تعداد کلنی های شمارش شده در روز دوم تیمار عصاره انار نتایج نشان دهنده فعالیت موثر ضدقارچی عصاره .(p0/ مشاهده شد ( 001 علیه گونه کاندیدا آلبیکنسدر ( Punica granatum L.) هیدرومتانولی پوست میوه انار حیوانات دیابتی است. مشاهده
458 فارسی بهینه سازی خواص آنتی اکسیدانی ژلاتین آبکافت پوست گربه ماهی دریای یاستفاده از روش سطح پاسخ (Arius tha... 1394 2015 چکیده رادیکالهای آزاد در ایجاد بیماریهای مختلف نقش مهمی دارد، بعلاوه اکسیداسیون باعث کاهش کیفیت غذایی و مصرف آن سبب بیماری میشود. آنتی اکسیدانهای مصنوعی خطرات بالقوه سلامتی را به دنبال دارند، بنابراین شناسایی آنتیاکسیدان طبیعی ضروری است. هدف این پژوهش، بررسی و بهینه سازی شرایط تولید ژلاتین آبکافت با خواص آنتیاکسیدانی است. ژلاتین از پوست گربه ماهی با کاربرد هیدروکسیدسدیم، اسید سولفوریک و اسید سیتریک و شستشو بعد از هر تیمار و در نهایت در 3 حجم آب مقطر در دمای 45 به مدت 12 ساعت در شیکر انکوباتور استخراج و تحت شرایط مختلف oC دمایی، غلظت آنزیم و زمان با کاربرد آنزیم فلاوورزیم مورد آبکافت آنزیمی قرار و فروزین FeCl گرفت. محصولات جهت سنجش کلاته کردن یون آهن فرو با 2 مخلوط و بعد از ده دقیقه نگهداری در دمای اتاق جذب آن در 562 نانومتر اندازه گیری شد. روش سطح پاسخ جهت بهینه سازی تولید ژلاتین آبکافت استفاده شد. و نسبت آنزیم به (OC) عوامل متغیر این آزمایش عبارت بودند از زمان (دقیقه)، دما سوبسترا (درصد)؛ درصد کلاته کردن یون آهن فرو نیز به عنوان پاسخ در نظر گرفته شد. نتایج تجزیه واریانس معنیداری مدل، دما و نسبت آنزیم به سوبسترا را نشان داد. (p0/ و عدم معنی داری زمان ( 05 (p0/05) ژلاتین آبکافت پوست گربه ماهی درصد کلاته کردن یون آهن فرو خوبی در رنج 20-81 درصد را نشان میدهد. نتایج پیشنهاد میدهند که پپتیدهای آنتیاکسیدانی حاصل از آبکافت ژلاتین پوست گربه ماهی میتواند به عنوان کاندید بلقوه در صنعت دارویی و نیز برای توسعه غذاهای کاربردی باشد. مشاهده
459 فارسی مطالعه تجربی فرآوری قرنیه بدون سلول شترمرغ به عنوان زنوگرافت... 1395 2015 چکیده قرنیه سالم مهمترین عامل در مسیر اپتیکی چشم محسوب میشود. کوری قرنیه به علل و شدتهای متفاوتی رخ میدهد و در اغلب موارد مناسبترین درمان پیوند آلوگرافت است. محدودیتهای نگهداری و کمبود بافت آلوگرافت، استفاده از بافت زنوگرافت را در کنار بیومتریالهای سنتتیک و قرنیه مصنوعی، به عنوان جایگزین مطرح ساخته است. تحقیق حاضر با توجه به نیاز دسترسی به منابع دهنده بافتی، با استفاده از قرنیه شترمرغ و بهرهگیری از فناوری بدون سلول کردن بافت، به تهیه ماتریکس خارج سلولی از قرنیه میپردازد. ده عدد سر شترمرغ از کشتارگاه تهیه شد. پس از آماده سازی و جداسازی قرنیه، با ترکیب دو روش شیمیایی مکانیکی و دترجنت یونی، دیسک آسلولار تهیه گردید. بهمنظور تأیید حذف سلولها و حفظ ساختار قرنیه، مقاطع بافتی با میکروسکوپ نوری و الکترونی، مورد مطالعه ریزبینی و فوق ریزبینی قرار گرفتند. ارزیابی شفافیت و ضخامت قرنیه به صورت ماکروسکوپی صورت گرفت. مطالعه ریز بینی نمونههای فرآوری شده نشان دهنده حذف سلولهای قرنیه و حفظ یکپارچه غشاء پایه بود. بررسی بافت همبندی در مطالعه فراساختاری حاکی از عدم بهم ریختگی در ساختار کلاژنی به همراه افزایش فاصله بین دستجات کلاژنی بود. دیسک آسلولار با درجاتی از کدورت، پس از غوطه ور سازی در گلیسرول 100 درصد شفاف گردید. مطالعه حاضر نشان داد با روش کار اشاره شده، دستیابی به بافت بدون سلول از قرنیه شترمرغ امکان پذیر میباشد و پس از انجام سایر آزمایشها نظیر کشت سلول، ایمنی و بیومکانیک، قابلیت کاربرد در مطالعات بالینی تجربی را خواهد داشت. مشاهده
460 فارسی بررسی هیستوپاتولوژیک جراحات ریه شتر یک کوهانه در ایران Histopathologic evaluation of pulmonary lesions in camel in Iran (Camelus dromedarius) 1394 2015 چکیده عفونت های ریوی از جمله بیماری های با اهمیت در شتر بوده که نه تنها سبب تهدید سلامت حیوان بلکه باعث کاهش تولید نیز می گردند. از آنجا که مقابله با مشکلات تنفسی و درمان آنها نیازمند شناخت کافی نسبت به مشکلات تنفسی موجود بوده و با توجه به اطلاعات محدود در این مورد در گونه شتر، مطالعه حاضر با هدف شناخت ضایعات ریوی شترهای کشتار شده در چند کشتارگاه مهم شتر با استفاده از روش هیستوپاتولوژی به انجام رسید. دستگاه تنفسی شترها (تعداد= 447 ) پس از کشتار به طور کامل مورد معاینه قرار گرفت و نمونه های بافتی در فرمالین 10 قرار داده شدند. سپس از نمونه ها مقاطع بافتی تهیه و مقاطع با استفاده از رنگ هماتوکسیلین و ائوزین رنگ آمیزی شده و مورد ارزیابی قرار 236 از 447 نمونه) از نمونه ها حداقل یک ) 79/ گرفتند. در مطالعه حاضر در 6 ضایعه ریوی مشاهده گردید. نرخ پنومونی بینابینی حاد، پنومونی بینابینی مزمن، 52/ برونکوپنومونی، برونشیولیت، التهاب پرده جنب و آتلکتازی به ترتیب 8 6/ 35 از 447 نمونه)، 7 ) 7/ 24 از 447 نمونه)، 8 ) 5/ 236 از 447 نمونه) 4 ) 68 از 447 نمونه) بود. ) 15/ 15 از 447 نمونه) و 2 ) 3/ 30 از 447 نمونه)، 4 ) میزان ضایعات ریوی، پنومونی بینابینی حاد و برونکوپنومونی در فصول پاییز و در نتیجه، مطالعه حاضر نشان دهنده .(P0/ زمستان بیشتر از بهار و تابستان بود ( 05 نرخ بالای ضایعات ریوی در جمعیت شترها بود. نتایج بالاتر بودن ضایعات در فصول سرد (پاییز و زمستان) را نشان میدهد. Pulmonary infections are of important diseases in camel that jeopardize the health of the animal and decrease its production efficiency. Considering that prevention and treatment of pulmonary infections necessitate the knowledge of respiratory diseases and the fact that little information is available in this regard in camel, the present study was conducted to investigate the pulmonary lesions using histopathological methods in camels slaughtered. The respiratory tracts of the camels were thoroughly inspected for lesions. Specimens were fixed in 10 formalin. Next, the samples were stained using Hematoxilin and eosin stain (H&E) and were evaluated. The occurrence of pulmonary lesions was 79.6 (236/447). The occurrence acute interstitial pneumonia, chronic interstitial pneumonia, bronchopneumonia, bronchiolitis, pleuritis and atelectasis were 52.8 (236/447), 5.4 (24/447), 7.8 (35/447), 6.7 (30/447), 3.4 (15/447) and 15.2 (68/447), respectively. The occurrence of pulmonary lesions, acute interstitial pneumonia and bronchopneumonia was higher in fall and winter than spring and summer (P 0.05). In conclusion, the present study showed high occurrence of pulmonary lesions in camels. Moreover, the results revealed higher occurrence of pulmonary lesions in cold seasons. مشاهده
461 فارسی ی اثرعصاره هیدرومتانولی پوست انار بر رشد قارچ کاندیدا آلبیکنس در موشهای صحرایی دیابتی شده توسط آلوکس... Effect of hydro-alcoholic extract of peel of Punica granatum L. on growth of Candida albicans in all... 1394 2015 چکیده امروزه قارچهای فرصتطلب بویژه کاندیدا آلبیکنس از جمله شایع ترین عوامل مخاطرهآمیز در بیماران با ضعف سیستم ایمنی هستند. عفونتهای قارچی ناشی از گونههای کاندیدا و افزایش روزافزون سویههای مقاوم به داروهای آزولی در بیماران دارای نقص ایمنی از اهمیت بالایی برخوردار است. سمیت داروهای مورد استفاده، ایجاد مقاومت در این قارچها و مشکلات ناشی از تداخل دارویی، ضرورت استفاده از داروهایی با تأثیر بیشتر و سمیت کمتر را موجب میشود. مصرف انار غیر از جنبه خوراکی آن از دیدگاه دارویی و اثرات درمانی نیز قابل ملاحظه است . هدف از ،50 ، پژوهش حاضر، بررسی اثر عصاره هیدرومتانولی پوست انار با غلظت های 25 در ( ATCC 100 و 200 میلیگرم بر کیلوگرم بر رشد قارچ کاندیدا آلبیکنس ( 10231 موشهای صحرایی مدل دیابتی شده توسط آلوکسان میباشد. موش های صحرایی توسط تزریق درونصفاقی آلوکسان ( 150 میلیگرم بر کیلوگرم) دیابتی شدند. سپس حیوانات با خوراندن دوز عفونی کاندیدا آلبیکنس به موشهای صحرایی آلوده شدند. انجام تیمار برای مدت 7 روز و بصورت متوالی از تمام گروه های مورد بررسی انجام گردید و نمونه ها را روی محیط کشت قارچی، کشت داده شد و در نهایت توسط کلنی کانت شمارش صورت گرفت. نتایج حاصل نشان داد که تیمار خوراکی عصاره هیدرومتانولی پوست میوه انار موجب بهبود موثر عفونت قارچی حاصل از کاندیدا آلبیکنس در موش های صحرایی دیابتی شده و قدرت اثر آن مشابه داروی ایتراکونازول می باشد. کاهش موثر تعداد کلنی های شمارش شده در روز دوم تیمار عصاره انار نتایج نشان دهنده فعالیت موثر ضدقارچی عصاره .(p0/ مشاهده شد ( 001 علیه گونه کاندیدا آلبیکنسدر ( Punica granatum L.) هیدرومتانولی پوست میوه انار حیوانات دیابتی است. Nowadays, especially opportunistic fungi such as Candida albicans are the most common risk factors in patients who are immunocompromised. Fungal infections caused by Candida species and increasing strains resistant to azole drugs in Immunosuppression patients are important to enjoy. The toxicity of drugs used, the resistance of the fungus and problems from drug interactions, necessitates the use of more effective and less toxic drugs cause the screw. Pomegranate consumption except for nutrition is impressive for medicinal and therapeutic effects. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of pomegranate peel extract at doses concentrations of 25, 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg on growth of C. albicans (ATCC 10231) in alloxan-induced diabetic rat. The animals were made diabetic by intraperitoneal injection of alloxan (150 mg/kg). After diabetes induction, they were infected by Candida albicans, orally. Then, treatments of extract and Itraconazole were done orally. Sampling of fungus from month, culturing and colony counting were done daily for evaluating effects of extract and Itraconazole on fungal growth. The results showed that oral treatment of hydro-alcoholic peel extract improved Candida albicans infections in diabetic rats. Its potency is similar to Itraconazole, as synthetic drug. On the second day of treatment, significant effect of extract on growth C. albicans was shown (P0.001). Comparison between effects of pomegranate extract and Itraconazole on C. albicans was significant. The results suggest antifungal effect extract of pomegranate compared with the antifungal medication. As a result, consumption of pomegranate extract inhibited the growth of Candida albicans in the diabetic rats. مشاهده
462 فارسی بهینه سازی خواص آنتی اکسیدانی ژلاتین آبکافت پوست گربه ماهی(Arius thalassinus) دریایی با استفاده از ر... Optimization the antioxidative properties of catfish (Arius thalassinus) skin gelatin hydrolysate us... 1394 2015 یده رادیکالهای آزاد در ایجاد بیماریهای مختلف نقش مهمی دارد، بعلاوه اکسیداسیون باعث کاهش کیفیت غذایی و مصرف آن سبب بیماری میشود. آنتی اکسیدانهای مصنوعی خطرات بالقوه سلامتی را به دنبال دارند، بنابراین شناسایی آنتیاکسیدان طبیعی ضروری است. هدف این پژوهش، بررسی و بهینه سازی شرایط تولید ژلاتین آبکافت با خواص آنتیاکسیدانی است. ژلاتین از پوست گربه ماهی با کاربرد هیدروکسیدسدیم، اسید سولفوریک و اسید سیتریک و شستشو بعد از هر تیمار و در نهایت در 3 حجم آب مقطر در دمای 45 به مدت 12 ساعت در شیکر انکوباتور استخراج و تحت شرایط مختلف oC دمایی، غلظت آنزیم و زمان با کاربرد آنزیم فلاوورزیم مورد آبکافت آنزیمی قرار و فروزین FeCl گرفت. محصولات جهت سنجش کلاته کردن یون آهن فرو با 2 مخلوط و بعد از ده دقیقه نگهداری در دمای اتاق جذب آن در 562 نانومتر اندازه گیری شد. روش سطح پاسخ جهت بهینه سازی تولید ژلاتین آبکافت استفاده شد. و نسبت آنزیم به (OC) عوامل متغیر این آزمایش عبارت بودند از زمان (دقیقه)، دما سوبسترا (درصد)؛ درصد کلاته کردن یون آهن فرو نیز به عنوان پاسخ در نظر گرفته شد. نتایج تجزیه واریانس معنیداری مدل، دما و نسبت آنزیم به سوبسترا را نشان داد. (p0/ و عدم معنی داری زمان ( 05 (p0/05) ژلاتین آبکافت پوست گربه ماهی درصد کلاته کردن یون آهن فرو خوبی در رنج 20-81 درصد را نشان میدهد. نتایج پیشنهاد میدهند که پپتیدهای آنتیاکسیدانی حاصل از آبکافت ژلاتین پوست گربه ماهی میتواند به عنوان کاندید بلقوه در صنعت دارویی و نیز برای توسعه غذاهای کاربردی باشد. Free radicals are cause of the various diseases. Oxidation also reduces the quality of the food and causes the disease. Synthetic antioxidants have human health risks, so it is necessary to identify the natural antioxidant agents. The objective of this study was to optimize the production of gelatin hydrolysissate with antioxidant properties. The catfish skin gelatin was extracted using sodium hydroxide, sulfuric acid and citric acid by the washing after each treatment, finally 3 volumes of distilled water added at 45° C for 12 h in a shaker incubator and hydrolyzed under various conditions of temperature, enzyme concentration and time using the Flavourzyme. Gelatin for measuring the ion chelating of ferrous iron, mixed with FeCl2 and Frosin and after ten minutes of stay at room temperature, absorbance at 562 nm was measured. Response surface methodology was used to optimize the production of gelatin hydrolysis. The test variables included the time (min), temperature (oC) and enzyme-substrate ratio (), percent the chelated Fe (II) was considered as a response. Analysis of variance showed significance of the models, temperature and enzyme to substrate (P0.05) and not significance for the time (P0.05). This indicates a good fitness to the model. Catfish skin gelatin hydrolysate show a good percent Fe (II) ion chelating in the range of 20-81. The results suggest antioxidant peptides from catfish skin gelatin hydrolysis can be a potential candidate for the pharmaceutical industry and for the development of functional foods. مشاهده
463 فارسی مطالعه تجربی فرآوری قرنیه بدون سلول شترمرغ به عنوان زنوگرافت... The experimental study of bio-engineered free-cell ostrich cornea as xenograft 1394 2015 چکیده قرنیه سالم مهمترین عامل در مسیر اپتیکی چشم محسوب میشود. کوری قرنیه به علل و شدتهای متفاوتی رخ میدهد و در اغلب موارد مناسبترین درمان پیوند آلوگرافت است. محدودیتهای نگهداری و کمبود بافت آلوگرافت، استفاده از بافت زنوگرافت را در کنار بیومتریالهای سنتتیک و قرنیه مصنوعی، به عنوان جایگزین مطرح ساخته است. تحقیق حاضر با توجه به نیاز دسترسی به منابع دهنده بافتی، با استفاده از قرنیه شترمرغ و بهرهگیری از فناوری بدون سلول کردن بافت، به تهیه ماتریکس خارج سلولی از قرنیه میپردازد. ده عدد سر شترمرغ از کشتارگاه تهیه شد. پس از آماده سازی و جداسازی قرنیه، با ترکیب دو روش شیمیایی مکانیکی و دترجنت یونی، دیسک آسلولار تهیه گردید. بهمنظور تأیید حذف سلولها و حفظ ساختار قرنیه، مقاطع بافتی با میکروسکوپ نوری و الکترونی، مورد مطالعه ریزبینی و فوق ریزبینی قرار گرفتند. ارزیابی شفافیت و ضخامت قرنیه به صورت ماکروسکوپی صورت گرفت. مطالعه ریز بینی نمونههای فرآوری شده نشان دهنده حذف سلولهای قرنیه و حفظ یکپارچه غشاء پایه بود. بررسی بافت همبندی در مطالعه فراساختاری حاکی از عدم بهم ریختگی در ساختار کلاژنی به همراه افزایش فاصله بین دستجات کلاژنی بود. دیسک آسلولار با درجاتی از کدورت، پس از غوطه ور سازی در گلیسرول 100 درصد شفاف گردید. مطالعه حاضر نشان داد با روش کار اشاره شده، دستیابی به بافت بدون سلول از قرنیه شترمرغ امکان پذیر میباشد و پس از انجام سایر آزمایشها نظیر کشت سلول، ایمنی و بیومکانیک، قابلیت کاربرد در مطالعات بالینی تجربی را خواهد داشت. Healthy cornea is a major element in optical pathway. Corneal blindness can occur due to various causes and different severities, and almost the best effective treatment is corneal allotransplantation. The limitation of allograft propounds the usage of other alternatives such as xenograft besides synthetic biomaterials and keratoprostheses. The aim of the study is to produce Extra Cellular Matrix (ECM) with decellularization method in ostrichs cornea. The Ostrichs heads were obtained from a local slaughter house. All corneas were excised. Then ECM was prepared by the combination of chemomechanical and ionic detergent methods. Cellular components elimination and stromal structure were assessed by three types of histological staining and ultra-structural studies. Corneal transparency and thickness evaluated in macroscopic observation. Histological staining of the decellularized cornea confirmed the complete removal of corneal cells as well as preserving the integrity of basement membrane. The ultra-structural studies revealed that decellularization process preserved the native structure of the stromal cornea although the collagen bundle space increased slightly. However, after immersing the acellular cornea in 100 glycerol, their optical properties regained to those native corneas. The authors believe that tissue processing method of ostrich cornea which applied in present study can be used as an alternative tissue after completing other examinations such as cell culture, immunological and biomechanical properties. مشاهده
464 فارسی اثر تزریق داخل تخم مرغ گرلین بر فعالیت آنزیم سوکراز مخاط روده کوچک جوجه های گوشتی... The effect of in ovo injection of Gherlin on Sucrase enzyme activity of small intestine mucosa in br... 1394 2015 چکیده این مطالعه با هدف بررسی اثرات تزریق داخل تخم مرغ گرلین بر فعالیت آنزیم سوکراز مخاط روده کوچک جوجه های گوشتی انجام پذیرفت. تعداد 900 تخم مرغ نطفهدار به صورت تصادفی انتخاب و به پنج گروه آزمایشی در سه تکرار 60 تایی شامل گروه 0 سی سی محلول / شاهد یا (بدون هیچ نوع تزریق)، گروه دوم (تزریق داخل تخمی 5 پایه)، گروه سوم (تزریق داخل تخمی 50 میکروگرم گرلین)، گروه چهارم ( 100 میکروگرم گرلین) و گروه پنجم (تزریق داخل تخمی 150 میکروگرم گرلین) تقسیم شدند. در روز هفتم تزریقات داخل تخم مرغی انجام گردید. در روزهای 21 و 42 70 و 90 ،50 ،30 ،10 ، دوره پرورش 2 جوجه از هر گروه انتخاب، کشته شد و 1 روده باریک نمونه برداری و فعالیت آنزیم سوکراز مخاط روده کوچک اندازه گیری گردید. نتایج نشان داد که سطح 100 میکروگرم گرلین موجب بهبود فعالیت آنزیم ولی اثری در 42 (P سوکراز در قسمت های مختلف روده در روز 21 شد ( 0.05 نتایج بدست آمده پیشنهاد کننده سودمند بودن تزریق داخل .(P روزگی نداشت ( 0.05 تخم مرغی 100 میکروگرم گرلین بود. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of in ovo administration of ghrelin on subsequent small intestine Sucrase activity in broilers. In this experiment 900 fertilized eggs were collected from commercial breeder flock. The eggs were divided into five experimental groups; control (without injection), group 2 (in ovo injected with basal solution), group 3 (in ovo injected with 50 μg/egg ghrelin), group 4 (in ovo injected with 100 μg /egg ghrelin) and group 5 (in ovo injected with 150 μg /egg ghrelin). In ovo injection was done at day 7 of incubation. Two broilers from each group have been choose and slaughtered on days 21 and 42 of rearing period and 1, 10, 30, 50, 70 and 90 percent of small intestine sampled for evaluate Sucrase enzyme activity. According to the results, in ovo injection of 100 μg /egg ghrelin increased intestine Sucrase enzyme activity in different parts of small intestine on day 21 post hatch (P0.05) but had no effect on day 42 (P0.05). These results suggest that in ovo injection of 100 μg ghrelin had beneficial effect. مشاهده
465 فارسی بررسی اثر اسید فولیک در فیبروز کبد کلستاتیک القاء شده توسط مدل انسداد مجرای صفراوی در رت... Effect of folic acid in cholestatic hepatic fibrosis induced by bile duct ligation Model 1394 2015 چکیده کولستاز بیماری کبدی است که در صورت عدم درمان و پیشگیری مناسب موجب فیبروز و سیروز کبدی و در نهایت مرگ می شود. به دنبال انسداد مجرای اسیدهای صفراوی در کبد تجمع می یابند. تجمع این مواد ،(BDL) صفراوی سمی و رخدادهای متوالی نظیر استرس اکسیداتیو و پاسخ التهابی موجب مرگ سلولی و فیبروز می گردد. کبد اندام اصلی ذخیره و متابولیسم فولات است و کمبود فولات رخداد معمول در بسیاری از بیماری های کبدی می باشد. مطالعه حاضر اثر حفاظتی اسید فولیک در فیبروز کبدی تجربی را مورد بررسی قرار داده است. 81 سر موش صحرایی نر نژاد ویستار در 9 گروه؛ کنترل سالم، کنترل اسید فولیک تقسیم شدند. +BDL و BDL جراحی، تیمار اسید فولیک، کنترل 5 و 10 میلی گرم بر ، گروه های تیمار، اسید فولیک خوراکی را در دوزهای 1 کیلوگرم وزن بدن به مدت 28 روز دریافت کردند. شدت آسیب کبدی با اندازه غلظت بیلی روبین ،ALP ،ALT ،AST گیری نشانگرهای بیوشیمیایی نظیر فعالیت و آلبومین در نمونه سرم و فعالیت آنزیم سوپراکسید دسموتاز در بافت کبد تعیین شد. برای بررسی ساختارهای هیستوپاتولوژیک کولستاز (هایپرپلازی مجاری صفراوی، فیبروز، نکروز و نفوذ سلول های التهابی) از رنگ آمیزی تری کروم تیمار شده با اسید فولیک، فیبروز کبدی BDL ماسون استفاده شد. در گروه های BDL به طور معنی داری بهبود پیدا کرد و تغییرات بیوشیمیایی ایجاد شده به دنبال در نمونه های سرم و کبد تعدیل شد. نتایج تحقیق حاضر نشان می دهد که اسید فولیک دارای اثر حفاظت کبدی است و با کاهش استرس اکسیداتیو و واکنش التهابی از تغییرات فیبروتیک بافت کبد کولستاتیک پیشگیری می کند. Cholestasis is a liver disease that, if untreated and not prevented, will cause hepatic fibrosis and cirrhosis, and eventually death. As a result of bile duct ligation (BDL), toxic bile acids accumulate in liver. Accumulation of these toxins and subsequent events, such as oxidative stress and inflammatory response leads to cell death and hepatic fibrosis. The liver is the main organ for folate storage and metabolism and folate deficiency is a common occurrence in many liver diseases. The present study investigated the protective effect of folic acid in experimental hepatic fibrosis. 81 male Wistar rats were classified into the nine groups؛ Control, Shamoperated control, Folic acid, Bile duct-ligated (BDL) control, and BDL+ folic acid groups. Folic acid treated groups were given oral folic acid (1, 5 and 10 mg/kg b.w) for 28 days. The severity of hepatic injury was determined by measures biochemical indicators like’s activities of AST, ALT, ALP, concentrations of bilirubin and albumin in the serum and activities of superoxide dismutase in the hepatic samples. To assess histopathological features of cholestasis (bile duct hyperplasia, fibrosis, necrosis and inflammatory cell infiltration), Masson’s trichrome staining was performed. In BDL rats treated with folic acid, hepatic fibrosis was significantly ameliorated and the serum and hepatic biochemical variation induced by BDL were moderated. This study suggests that folic acid has a protective effect in liver. Folic acid reduced oxidative stress and inflammatory response and thus prevented liver fibrotic changes. مشاهده
466 فارسی مطالعه اثرات محافظتی کوئرستین بر آسیب روده باریک، ناشی از متوترکسات در موش صحرایی... Study on the protective effects of Quercetin on Methotrexate-induced small 1394 2015 چکیده آسیب روده یکی از مهمترین اثرات سمی متوترکسات میباشد. هدف این مطالعه ارزیابی تاثیر محافظتی کوئرستین بر آسیب روده باریک ناشی از متوترکسات در موش صحرایی میباشد. تعداد 36 سر موش صحرایی نر ویستار بهطور تصادفی به چهار گروه برابر تقسیم شدند. گروه اول شاهد سالم بود. به گروه دوم فقط 15 ) بهطور داخل صفاقی بهمدت 15 روز متمادی تزریق شد. mg/kg) کوئرستین 20 ) در روز پانزدهم بهطور داخل mg/kg) به گروه سوم تک دوز متوترکسات صفاقی تزریق شد. به گروه چهارم علاوه بر متوترکسات، کوئرستین نیز تا زمان معدومسازی موشها تزریق شد. همه موشها 4 روز پس از تزریق متوترکسات جهت آسیبشناسی بافتی و ارزیابی فعالیت تام آنتیاکسیدانی سرم و مقادیر بافتی گلوتاتیون احیاء، مالوندیآلدئید، سوپراکسید دیسموتاز، کاتالاز، گلوتاتیون پراکسیداز و گلوتاتیون ردوکتاز آسانکُشی شدند. در مشاهدات ریزبینی، ژوژنوم گروه تیمار با متوترکسات، کوتاه و کُندشدگی شدید پرزها، ارتشاح سلولهای آماسی، خونریزی زیر غشاء پایه و نکروز سلولهای پوششی را نشان داد، در حالیکه کوئرستین آسیب ژوژنوم را کاهش داد. فعالیت تام آنتیاکسیدانی سرم و مقادیر گلوتاتیون احیاء، سوپراکسید دیسموتاز، کاتالاز، گلوتاتیون پراکسیداز و گلوتاتیون ردوکتاز در گروه تیمار با متوترکسات کاهش یافت ولی بهطور در گروه تیمار با کوئرستین و متوترکسات افزایش یافت. (p=0/ معنی داری ( 000 کوئرستین مقدار مالوندیآلدئید را که در اثر تیمار با متوترکسات افزایش یافته کاهش داد. نتایج نشان داد کوئرستین با خواص (p=0/ بود بهطور معنیداری ( 000 آنتیاکسیدانی خود روده باریک موشهای صحرایی را از آسیب ناشی از متوترکسات محافظت کند. Intestinal damage is one of the major toxic effects of methotrexate (MTX). The aim of this study was to evaluate the protective effects of quercetin on MTX-induced small intestine damage in rats. Thirty-six male Wistar rats were randomly allocated into four equal groups. The first group was the control. The second group, only quercetin (15 mg/kg) was administered intraperitoneally for 15 consecutive days. The third group, MTX was applied as a single dose (20 mg/kg) intraperitoneally at fifteenth day. The fourth group, quercetin was given intraperitoneally in addition to MTX application until the rats were killed. All animals were sacrificed 4 days after the MTX injection for histopathological examination and the assay for serum total antioxidant activity (TAA), tissue reduced glutathione (GSH), malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and glutathione reductase (GR) levels. Microscopically, jejunal tissues of the MTX treated group showed severe villus shortening and blunting, inflammatory cell infiltration and hemorrhage in lamina propria, as well as epithelial cell necrosis, however, administration of quercetin alleviated the jejunal damage. Levels of TAA, GSH, SOD, CAT, GPx and GR decreased in the MTX received group, but increased significantly (P=0.00) in the quercetin+MTX groups. Quercetin significantly (P=0.00) decreased MDA levels which was increased by MTX treatment. The results showed that quercetin due to its antioxidant properties may protect the small intestine of rats from MTX-induced damage. مشاهده
467 فارسی اثر ضد انقباضی عصاره گیاه افدرا ماژور برگیرندههای آدرنرژیک و کانال کلسیمی تهیروده موش صحرایی... Antispasmodic effect of Ephedra major extract on adrenergic and calcium channels receptors in the ra... 1394 2015 چکیده تمایل به استفاده از محصولات حاوی گیاه افدرا به دلیل خواص مطلوب کاهش وزن، ضد باکتری و ضد حساسیت افزایش یافته است. حضور ترکیبات آگونیستی آلفا و بتا آدرنرژیک در این گیاه میتواند اثرات متفاوتی بر دستگاه گوارش بگذارد و فقدان تحقیقات علمی در این زمینه ما را بر آن داشت که به منظور تعیین اثرات عصاره آبی الکلی گیاه افدرا ماژورب ر تهیروده این پژوهش صورت گیرد. جهت انجام آزمایش موش صحرایی نر نژاد ویستار مورد استفاده قرار گرفت. در حالت بیهوشی با قطع سر موشها کشته و تهیروده جدا گردید و در محلول کربس به 1 تا 2 سانتیمتر بریده شد و به ترانس دیوسر ایزو متریک در حمام بافتی / قطعات 5 متصل گردید. نتایج نشان دادند که عصاره آبی الکلی گیاه افدرا ماژورا ثر انبساطی بر 3 میلیگرم بر میلیلیتر) - 0/ تهیروده داشت. غلظتهای تجمعی عصاره ( 0625 0 میلیمولار) را به / انقباض ناشی از کلرید پتاسیم ( 80 میلیمولار) و استیلکولین ( 1 صورت وابسته به غلظت کاهش داد. اثرمهاری عصاره بر انقباض ناشی از کلرید- 0 میلیمولار) کاهش نیافت که به لحاظ آماری / پتاسیم توسط فنوکسیبنزامین ( 001 اما وراپامیل و پروپرانولول مانع از اثر مهاری عصاره .(P≥0/ معنیدار نیست ( 05 اثرمهاری عصاره بر انقباض ناشی از .(P≤ 0/ شدند که این اختلاف معنیدار بود ( 05 استیلکولین در حضور هر یک از سه داروی وراپامیل، فنوکسیبنزامین و پروپرانولول اثر سینرژیستی بر تهیروده را نشان دادند که از لحاظ آماری معنیدار نتایج نشان دادند که مکانیسم اصلی اتساع عضله صاف تهیروده .(P≤ 0/ بودند ( 05 از طریق مکانیسمهای آگونیستی بتا آدرنرژیکی همراه با مکانیسمهای احتمالی دیگر از جمله کانالهای کلسیمی میباشد. این نتایج میتواند موید مصرف سنتی این گیاه باشد. Tendency to utilize Ephedra containing products is increasing due to their favorable properties such as weight loos, antibacterial, antisensetive etc. Due to the presence of gastro-intestinal system agonism α and β adrenergic compound and lack of systematic research on this issue, we conducted to determine effects of the hydroethanolic extract of Ephedra major (E. Major) host on jejunum. Isolated jejunum from male Wistar rat were tested in the organ bath. Rats were anesthetized and the jejunum was isolated and placed in Krebs solution. Then, it was cut into segment of 1.5-2 cm and mounted in 25 ml chambers of organ bath. E. Major extract had a relaxation effect on rat jejunum. According to the results, the cumulative concentration of E. Major (0.00625 - 3 mg/ml) relaxed the KCl (80 Mm) - and acetylcholine (0.1 Mm) - induced contraction dose-dependently (P≤0.05). The inhibitory effect of extract on contraction induced by KCl was unaffected by phenoxybenzamine (0.001 Mm). But verapamil (0.001 Mm) and propranolol (0.001 Mm) inhibited the relaxant effect (P≤0.05). The inhibitory effect of extract on contraction induced by acetylcholine had synergism effect by verapamil, phenoxybenzamine and propranolol (P≤0.05). These findings revealed that β-adrenergic receptors and presumably other channels such as Ca2+ channels involves in inhibitory effect of E. Major extract. The results support the possible beneficiary effects of this plant in traditional medicine. مشاهده
468 فارسی ارزیابی اثر مولیبدات سدیم بر فیبروز کبدی در مدل انسداد مجرای صفراوی موش صحرایی... The evaluation of sodium molybdate effect on liver fibrosis in a rat model of bile duct ligation 1393 2014 چکیده تجمع اسیدهای صفراوی آبگریز در مدل حیوانی انسداد مجرای صفراوی، نقشی اساسی در القاء فیبروز کبدی ایفا می کند. فیبروز کبد کلستاتیک که مشخصه آن تجمع بیش از حد پروتئین های ماتریکس خارج سلولی است، با استرس اکسیداتیو و پراکسیداسیون لیپید ناشی از اسیدهای صفراوی، در ارتباط است. مولیبدن یک عنصر کمیاب ضروری است که بعنوان یک کوفاکتور در ساختمان بسیاری از آنزیم های سیستم سمزدایی عمل می کند. بر اساس نتایج حاصل از مطالعه قبلی ما، مولیبدات سدیم می تواند بعنوان یک ماده محافظت کننده کبدی در مسمومیت ناشی از تتراکلریدکربن در موش های صحرایی بکار رود. هدف از مطالعه حاضر بررسی اثرات درمانی یا ضد فیبروزی مولیبدات سدیم، در مدل فیبروز القاء شده با انسداد مجرای صفراوی در موش های صحرایی می باشد. پس از انسداد مجرای صفراوی، موش های 0 گرم/کیلوگرم) یا یورسودی اکسی / 0 یا 2 / 0 یا 1 / صحرایی مولیبدات سدیم ( 05 کولیک اسید ( 25 میلی گرم/کیلوگرم) را بصورت خوراکی و به مدت 45 روز متوالی (یک بار در روز) دریافت کردند. انسداد مجرای صفراوی بطور قابل توجهی تجمع کلاژن، همچنین نفوذ سلول های التهابی، نکروز کبدی و هیپرپلازی مجاری صفراوی را القاء نمود که با رنگ آمیزی تریکروم ماسون تعیین گردید. این اختلالات بطور معنی 0 گرم/کیلوگرم) بهبود یافت. مصرف / 0 و 2 / داری توسط تیمار با مولیبدات سدیم ( 1 همزمان مولیبدات سدیم می تواند فیبروز کبدی را در موش های صحرایی کلستاتیک مدل انسداد مجرای صفراوی مهار کند. نتایج حاصل از این تحقیق پیشنهاد می کند که مولیبدات سدیم احتمالا با مهار تولید پروتئین های ماتریکس خارج سلولی، اثرات ضد فیبروزی خود را اعمال می کند. The accumulation of hydrophobic bile acids in bile duct ligation (BDL) animal model, plays a pivotal role in the induction of hepatic fibrosis. Cholestatic liver fibrosis, characterized by excessive accumulation of extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins, is associated with bile acidinduced oxidative stress and lipid peroxidation. Molybdenum is an essential trace element which acts as a cofactor in many detoxification system enzymes. The results of our previous study suggested that sodium molybdate could be used as a hepatoprotective agent against toxicity caused by carbon tetrachloride in rats .The aim of the present study was to evaluate the therapeutic or the anti-hepatofibrotic effects of sodium molybdate in a bile duct ligation (BDL)- induced cholestatic fibrosis model in rats .After BDL, rats were given sodium molybdate (0.05 or 0.1 or 0.2 g/kg) or urosodeoxycholic acid (UDCA, 25 mg/kg) orally for 45 consecutive days (once per day). BDL markedly induced the accumulation of collagen, as well as infiltration of inflammatory cells, hepatocyte necrosis and bile duct hyperplasia, as determined by Masson’s trichrome staining. These alterations were significantly attenuated by sodium molybsdate administration (0.1 and 0.2 g/kg). Simultaneously treatment of sodium molybdate may inhibit the liver fibrosis in a BDL model of cholestatic rats. Our data suggest that sodium molybdate may exert its antifibrotic effects via inhibition of ECM proteins. مشاهده
469 فارسی (Hordeum vulgare L.) تاثیردانه گیاهبرتکوین بافت ریه در جنینموش های صحرایی دیابتی... The Effect of hordeum vulgare L. on the development of lung tissues in the embryo of diabetic albino... 1393 2014 چکیده هدف از این تحقیق تاثیردانه گیاه جو برتکوین بافت ریه در جنین موش ها ی صحرایی دیابتی می باشد. مطالعه تجربی روی 60 سر موش صحرایی در 4 گروه به شرح زیر انجام گرفت: 1. کنترل، 2. غیر دیابتی + مصرف جو (روزانه 300 گرم بصورت مصرف خوراکی)، 3. دیابتی + غذای معمولی، 4. دیابتی + مصرف جو (روزانه 300 گرم بصورت مصرف خوراکی). القاء دیابت با تزریق داخل صفاقی استرپتوزوتوسین ایجاد شد. در روز 21 بارداری جنین ها از شاخ رحمی خارج شدند؛ طول سری دمی و وزن جنین ها اندازه گیری شد؛ پس از آماده سازی بافتی، رنگ آمیزی هماتوکسین- ائوزین انجام شد و بافت ریه جنین ها با میکروسکوپ نوری مورد بررسی قرارگرفت. در گروه دیابتی + غذای معمولی برونشیول ها، آلوئل ها و نوموسیت ها تکوین کمتری نسبت به گروه کنترل داشت و بیشترین عروق پرخون و التهاب دیواره های بینابینی در این گروه دیده شد. گروه دیابتی + مصرف جو برونشیول ها، آلوئل ها و نوموسیت ها تکوین بیشتری نسبت به گروه دیابتی + غذای معمولی داشت، در این گروه عروق پرخ ون و التهاب دیواره های بینابینی کمتر از گروه دیابتی + غذای معمولی دیده شد. وزن جنین ها در گروه دیابتی + غذای معمولی افزایش یافته بود در حالی که در گروه دیابتی + مصرف جو این مقدار تا حدودی کاهش داشت ولی معنادار نبود. طول سری دمی در جنین های گروه دیابتی + غذای معمولی نسبت به گروه کنترل کاهش داشت که مصرف جو درگروه دیابتی + مصرف جو نیز تاثیری بر رفع آن نداشت. به نظر می رسد که مصرف دانه جو در تکوین بافت ریه جنین موش های دیابتی مفید باشد. مصرف جو میتواند تا حدودی افزایش وزن ناشی از دیابت را تعدیل بخشد ولی دررفع کاهش طول سری دمی ناشی ازافزایش قند بی تاثیر است. The goal of this research is to see how barley grains affect the development of lung tissues in the embryo of diabetic albino rats. An empirical study was done on 60 albino rats in four groups: 1. Control, 2. Healthy + barely diet, 3. Diabetic + normal food, 4. Diabetic + barely diet. A peritoneal injection of streptozotocin was used to develop diabetes in the rats. In the 21st day of pregnancy the embryos were removed from the uterine horns, weighed and measured from head to tail. After tissue processing, H&E staining was done and the embryos’ lung tissues were analyzed using an optical microscope. The diabetic + normal food group showed less development in bronchioles, alveoli and pneumocyte compared to the control group and had hyperemic vessels and the most inflamed alveolar interstitial tissue. The diabetic + barely group had more developed bronchioles, alveoli and pneumocyte compared to the diabetic + normal food group. This group has fewer hyperemic vessels and inflamed alveolar interstitial tissue compared to the diabetic + normal food group. The embryos in the diabetic + normal food increased in weight while the diabetic + barely group had a slight decrease in weight. However, the decrease in weight was not significant. The head to tail length of the embryos in the diabetic + normal food decreased compared to the control group and barely had no effect on the head to tail length in the diabetic + barely group. It seems that barely is beneficial on the development of lung tissues in the embryo of diabetic albino rats. Barely can regulate the excess weight caused by diabetes to some extent; however, it has no effect on the reduction of head to tail length caused by high glucose. مشاهده
470 فارسی بررسی نماتودهای انگلی خانواده آنیزاکیده در شانک ماهیان زردباله وحشی و پرورشی سواحل شمالی خلیج فارس، ... dy of Anisakidae family nematodes in wild and cultured yellow-fin seabream (Acanthopagrus latus) in ... 1393 2014 چکیده هدف از این مطالعه بررسی نماتودهای انگلی خانواده آنیزاکیده در شانک ماهیان وحشی و پرورشی سواحل شمالی خلیج فارس می- (Acanthopagrus latus) زردباله باشد. طی یک دوره یکساله تعداد 276 قطعه ماهی شانک زردباله ( 169 وحشی و 107 پرورشی) در سواحل شمالی خلیج فارس از لحاظ بیماری ها و ضایعات انگلی مورد بررسی قرار گرفت. در مجموع چهار گونه نماتود مختلف از خانواده آنیزاکیده شامل لارو آنیزاکیس( از روده، حفره صفاقی، کبد و مزانتر) لارو کنتراسکوم (از روده و محوطه بطنی) رافید آسکاریس (از روده) و هیستروتیلاسیوم (از روده) جداسازی و شناسایی شدند. بیشترین درصد آلودگی به کنتراسکوم در زمستان و کمترین آن در پاییز بود. در خصوص هیستروتیلاسیوم بیشترین و کمترین درصد آلودگی به ترتیب مربوط به زمستان و تابستان و در خصوص آنیزاکیس ب ه ترتیب مربوط به تابستان و پاییز بود. کلیه تفاوتهای فصلی در میزان آلودگی به انگل از لحاظ آماری معنی دار بود. یک ارتباط معنی دار و مثبت بین وزن ماهی و بار انگلی دیده شد. انگل جنس هیستروتیلاسیوم برای اولین بار از ماهی شانک زردباله گزارش می گردد. In one year period, 276 wild (n=169) and cultured (n=107) yellow-fin seabream fish were studied for parasitic diseases and associated intestinal lesions in north coasts of Persian Gulf. Overall, 4 different nematode species of Anisakidae family isolated including Anisakis larvae (from intestine, abdominal cavity, liver and intestine surface), Contracaecum larvae (from intestines and abdominal cavity), Raphidascaris spp. (from intestines) and Hysterothylacium spp. (from intestines). The highest and lowest rate of infection with Contracaecum spp. was seen in winter and autumn, respectively; and that of Hysterothylacium spp. occurred in winter and summer, respectively; and with Anisakis spp. such rates were seen in summer and autumn, respectively. All of seasonal variations in infection rates were significant. A significant positive correlation was found between weight of fish and parasite burden. This is the first report of Hysterothylacium spp. in the yellow-fin seabream. مشاهده
471 فارسی بررسی اثرات تسکینی، پیش بیهوشی فراکسیون های قطبی، نیمه قطبی و غیرقطبی عصاره گیاه پیچ تلگرافی در مقای... Comparative study of sedation and pre-anesthetic effects of polar, semi polar and non-polar fraction... 1393 2014 چکیده گیاهی است که در فارسی به پیچ تلگرافی معروف است . در ای ن گی اه Vinca minor تانن، پکتین، کاروتین، آلکالوئی دهای وینکام ی (Vincine) ماده ای تلخ به نام وین سین نین، وینکامین، وین سینین، کاتار ین، و اس یدهای فرمی ک، اس تیک، اسکور بیک و و پوبس ین Vinine گلوکوزید و نوعی ساپونین و مقادیر زیادی از آلکالوئیدهای وینین وجود دارد. تمام قسمت های این گیاه قابل مصرف اند بخصوص برگ هایش. Pubcine هدف از این تحقیق بررسی اثرات تسکینی، پیش بیهوشی فراکسیون های قطبی، نیمه قطبی و غیر قطبی گیاه پیچ تلگرافی در مقایسه با میدازولام در موش صحرایی می باشد. در این روش از 60 سر موش رت نر نژاد ویستار در گروه های مختلف برای آزمون ها استفاده شد. نیم ساعت قبل از آزمون سه فراکسیون قطبی، نیمه قطبی، غیر به عنوان (DMSO) 0/04 ) و دی متیل سولفوکساید mg/kg) قطبی و میدازولام با دوز دارونما با حجم برابر به صورت داخل صفاقی تزریق شد. در آزمون بررسی اثرات بر حسب ثانیه با Sleeping time و Induction time تسکینی و پیش بیهوشی م دت کورنومتر ثبت شد. نتایج به دست آمده بیانگر معنی دار خواب القاء شده با کتامین در با توجه به اثرات آرام بخشی .(p0/ گروههای تیمار با فراکسیون قطبی عصاره بود ( 05 100 دارای mg/kg این گیاه نتایج نشان داد که فراکسیون قطبی پ یچ تلگراف ی در دوز اثرات تسکینی، بیش بیهوشی است . Periwinkle is a plant known as a Vinca minor in Persian. This plant contain bitter substance called Vincine, Tannin, Pectin, Carotene, vincamine Alkaloids, Vinci nine, Catarin, and a kind of Saponin and large amount of Vinine Alkaloids and Pubcine. All parts of this plant can be used; especially the leaves that can be picked in any season and seared by heat. The purpose of this study is evaluating sedation and pre-anesthetic effects of polar fractions, semi polar and non-polar of Vinca minor plant in comparison with midazolam found in rats. 60 Wistar rat head in different groups is applied in these tests. Three polar, semi-polar, and non-polar fractions and 0.04 mg/kg dose of midazolam and dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) with equal volume are transfused into peritoneum as a drug, half an hour before experiment. In a test the sedation and pre-anesthetic induction time and sleeping time effects are surveyed by seconds and recorded by chronometer. Findings show that in medical team the mentioned doses of extract meaningful both in infused dream by ketamine and increase in life time (p0.01). According to sedation and pre-anesthetic effects of this plant, studies indicate that polar fraction of Vinca minor with 100 mg/kg dose has sedation, pre-anesthetic effects. مشاهده
472 فارسی زیابی هیستوپاتولوژیکی اثر اسانس گیاه نعناع فلفلی بر التیام زخم جلدی عفونی شده با مخمر کاندیدا آلبیکن... Histopathological evaluation of the effect of Mentha piperita essential oil on cutaneous wound heali... 1393 2014 چکیده در سالهای اخیر رشد (Candida albicans) عفونتهای زخم ناشی از کاندیدا آلبیکنس چشمگیری داشته است. گران بودن داروها، عوارض جانبی ناشی از آنها و به ویژه توسعه مقاومت دارویی، سبب شد تا استفاده از مواد بیولوژیک به عنوان راه حل های جایگزین مطرح گردد. بررسیها نشان میدهند که اسانس برگ گیاه نعناع فلفلی به دلیل داشتن فلاونوئید و منتول اثرات ضدباکتریایی از خود نشان (Mentha piperita) میدهد. در این مطالعه که بر روی 100 موش صحرایی نر نژاد ویستار با میانگین وزنی 195 گرم انجام گرفت، پس از ایجاد بیهوشی عمومی، یک زخم مربع شکل با -205 0 میلیلیتر / 1 سانتیمتر در محل بین دو کتف ایجاد شده و بلافاصله با 1 / 1 در 5 / ابعاد 5 1/5 واحد تشکیل دهنده پرگنه مخمر کاندیدا آلبیکنس عفونی × از محلول حاوی 107 گردیدند. سپس موشهای صحرایی آزمایش در چهار گروه 25 تایی (شاهد، کنترل و 1 و 3)، و هرگروه خود به 5 زیرگروه 5 تایی / گروههای تحت درمان با پمادهای 5 (گروههای نمونه برداری در روزهای مختلف) به طور تصادفی تقسیم شدند. در طول 16 و 20 از زخم های گروه های مختلف، به ،12 ،8 ، اجرای طرح، در پایان روزهای 4 منظور بررسی های هیستوپاتولوژیک، توسط پانچ مخصوص بیوپسی، نمونه اخذ گردید. بر اساس یافتههای آسیب شناختی، اسانس نعناع فلفلی در شکل موضعی موجب کاهش معنیدار میزان آماس، مهاجرت لکوسیتها، و همچنین افزایش معنیدار نوزایش عروقی، بافت پوششی، مهاجرت فیبروبلاستها در مقایسه با گروه شاهد گردید. اسانس نعناع بخصوص در دوز بالاتر ( 3)، موجب افزایش فاکتورهای آسیب شناختی موثر بر روند ترمیم زخم عفونی با کاندیدا آلبیکنس در موش صحرایی گردید. Wound infections caused by Candida albicans has grown substantially in recent years. Expensive medications, side effects, and particularly, the development of drug resistance, led to the use of biological materials may be considered as an alternative solution. Studies show that Mentha piperita essential oil contains flavonoids and menthol and hence it has antibacterial properties. We used 100 male Wistar rats (weight 195-205 g). One square surgical wound with dimensions of 1.5×1.5 cm were performed on the back of each animal and immediately became infected whit 0.1 ml of 1.5×107 CFU Candida albicans suspension. Then the rats were divided into 4 groups (control, placebo, treatments 1.5 and 3) each with 25 rats and randomly distributed into 5 subgroups each whit 5 rats (sample groups on different days). Wound healing activity was performed by histological studies and yeast counts at the end of 4th, 8th, 12th, 16th and 20th days after surgery. According to the pathological findings, Mentha piperita essential oil topically, significantly reduces inflammation and migration of leukocytes, and also significantly increase in vascular regeneration, epithelialization and migration of fibroblasts, compared control group. Mentha piperita essential oil, especially in higher doses (3), increased pathological factors affecting wound healing in rats was infected with Candida albicans. مشاهده
473 فارسی تغییرات بافتی ناشی از تغذیه با جیره های حاوی مقادیر مختلف آفلاتوکسین B1در میگوی سفید هندی... Histological alterations in Fenneropenaeus indicus fed diets containing different doses of Aflatoxin... 1393 2014 چکیده هدف از این مطالعه بررسی تغییرات بافتی ناشی از تغذیه با جیره های حاوی مقادیر در میگوی سفید هندی میباشد. در این مطالعه میگوهای B مختلف آفلاتوکسین 1 11 ) با جیره های /79 ± 1/ با وزن (گرم 76 (Fenneropenaeus indicus) سفید هندی B 1600 آفلاتوکسین 1 ppb 800 و ،400 ،200 ،100 ،50 ،20 ، غذایی حاوی مقادیر 0 بمدت 8 هفته تغذیه شدند. تغییرات آسیبشناسی بافتی در هپاتوپانکراس، (AFLB1) بافت عضله و روده میانی در پایان هفته چهارم و هشتم بررسی شد. تغییرات بافت شناسی در هپاتوپانکراس، شامل تغییر شکل مقطع ستاره ای توبول های هپاتوپانکراس و کاهش سلول های پوششی و تغییرات دژنراتیو و آتروفی سلول های ترشحی پوششی این توبول ها، نکروزه شدن بافت هپاتوپانکراس و تجمع سلول های فیبروبلاست در دیواره توبولهای هپاتوپانکراس مشاهد شد. در بافت عضله، جدا شدن دستجات عضلانی از یکدیگر و ایجاد فاصله بین آنها مشاهد گردید که تایید کننده 800 می باشد. در بافت روده میانی نکروزه و ppb کاهش وزن و لاغری در تیمارهای 1600 آفلاتوکسین ppb کنده شدن مخاط روده در میگوهای تغذیه شده با جیره های در پایان هشتم مشاهده گردید. چکیده هدف از این مطالعه بررسی تغییرات بافتی ناشی از تغذیه با جیره های حاوی مقادیر در میگوی سفید هندی میباشد. در این مطالعه میگوهای B مختلف آفلاتوکسین 1 11 ) با جیره های /79 ± 1/ با وزن (گرم 76 (Fenneropenaeus indicus) سفید هندی B 1600 آفلاتوکسین 1 ppb 800 و ،400 ،200 ،100 ،50 ،20 ، غذایی حاوی مقادیر 0 بمدت 8 هفته تغذیه شدند. تغییرات آسیبشناسی بافتی در هپاتوپانکراس، (AFLB1) بافت عضله و روده میانی در پایان هفته چهارم و هشتم بررسی شد. تغییرات بافت شناسی در هپاتوپانکراس، شامل تغییر شکل مقطع ستاره ای توبول های هپاتوپانکراس و کاهش سلول های پوششی و تغییرات دژنراتیو و آتروفی سلول های ترشحی پوششی این توبول ها، نکروزه شدن بافت هپاتوپانکراس و تجمع سلول های فیبروبلاست در دیواره توبولهای هپاتوپانکراس مشاهد شد. در بافت عضله، جدا شدن دستجات عضلانی از یکدیگر و ایجاد فاصله بین آنها مشاهد گردید که تایید کننده 800 می باشد. در بافت روده میانی نکروزه و ppb کاهش وزن و لاغری در تیمارهای 1600 آفلاتوکسین ppb کنده شدن مخاط روده در میگوهای تغذیه شده با جیره های در پایان هشتم مشاهده گردید. مشاهده
474 فارسی پراکندگی ژن انتروتوکسین Aدر استافیلوکوکوس اورئوسهای جدا شده از پنیر سفید سنتی آب نمکی... Distribution of staphylococcal enterotoxin A gene among Staphylococcus aureus isolates from traditio... 1393 2015 چکیده مصرف مواد غذایی حاوی انتروتوکسینهای استافیلوکوکی، اغلب موجب مسمومیت شایعترین سم در مسمومیت های استافیلوکوکی A غذائی می شوند. انتروتوکسین شناخته شده است. هدف از این مطالعه تعیین میزان آلودگی پنیرهای سفید آب نمکی تهیه شده به روش سنتی به استافیلوکوکوس اورئوس و شناسایی ژن کد کننده بود. در مجموع تعداد 120 نمونه پنیر آزمایش شدند که از این (sea) A انتروتوکسین 9) نمونه جداسازی شد. نتایج شمارش در /1) تعداد استافیلوکوکوس اورئوس از 11 8/6 متغیر بود. هیچکدام از نمونهها از نظر شاخص × 1/5 تا 104 × 101 cfu/g محدوده 105 ) نبود. از هر نمونه cfu/g) مسمومیت با استافیلوکوکوس اورئوس در حد بحرانی پنیر پنج کلونی مشکوک با آزمایش های بیوشیمیایی تأیید شدند . شناسایی 23 ، ژن ترمونوکلئاز و S rRNA استافیلوکوکوس اورئوس در سطح گونه براساس ژن چندگانه ارزیابی شدند. در مجموع 55 جدایه مورد PCR به روش A ژن انتروتوکسین مطالعه قرار گرفتند. همه جدایهها بعنوان استافیلوکوکوس اورئوس تأیید شدند . ژن sea 10 ) جدایه مشاهده شد. طبق نتایج این مطالعه ژن /9) در 6 (sea) A انتروتوکسین در استافیلوکوکوس اورئوسهای پنیر سفید سنتی آب نمکی وجود دارد و درصورتیکه شرایط مساعد برای رشد و تولید انتروتوکسین فراهم شود میتواند بعنوان یک مخاطره بالقوه مطرح شود. The consumption of food containing staphylococcal enterotoxins is regularly identified as the cause of intoxication. Enterotoxin A is considered as the most common toxin in staphylococcus– related food poisoning. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of S. aureus in traditional white–brined cheese and distribution of enterotoxin A gene (sea) among them. A total of 120 samples was examined and S. aureus was isolated from 11 (9.1) of the samples. According to the results, load of S. aureus was estimated from 1.5×101 to 8.6×104 cfu/g. No sample was in the critical cell density of 105 cfu/g. From each sample, five suspected colonies were confirmed by biochemical tests. S. aureus isolates were further identified based on 23S rRNA, themonuclease and enterotoxin A genes using multiplex PCR. Based on multiplex PCR results all 55 isolates were identified as S. aureus. The enterotoxin A gene (sea) was detected in 6 (10.9) of the isolates. In conclusion, S. aureus and sea gene was found in traditional white– brined cheese. It seems that if the favorable growth conditions are provided, S. aureus could proliferate and produce enterotoxin and could be regarded as a potential risk for human health. مشاهده
475 فارسی اثر محافظتی چای سیاه ایرانی بر مسمومیت کبدی القاء شده بوسیله کلرید کادمیوم در موش صحرایی... Protective effects of black Iranian tea on cadmium- induced hepatotoxicity in rats 1393 2014 تأثیرات مفید چای سیاه در درمان بسیاری از بیماری ها نشان داده شده است . اثرات محافظتی چای احتمالاً مربوط به ویژگی های آنتی اکسیدانی و یا اثر مهاری آن بر اکسیداسیون لیپیدها می باشد . هدف از مطالعه حاضر ارزیابی اثرات محافظت کبدی چای سیاه ایرانی در مسمومیت کبدی ناشی از کادمیوم می باشد. برای این منظور 30 سر موش صحرایی نر نژاد ویستار بطور تصادفی به شش - گروه 1- کنترل منفی، 2- کنترل تیمار(دریافت کننده دمنوش 10 چای سیاه )، 3 - 5بصورت خوراکی)، 4 تا 6 mg/kg کنترل مثبت (دریافت کننده روزانه کادمیوم ، گروه های تیمار (دریافت کننده دمنوش های چای سیاه به ترتیب با غلظت های 2 5 و 10 بعنوان آب آشامیدنی علاوه بر کادمیوم) تقسیم شدند. پس از چهار هفته موش ها آسان کشی شده و نمونه خون آنها جهت سنجش بیومارکرهای عملکرد کبد جمع آوری گردید. نمونه های بافتی کبد جهت مطالعه آسیب شناسی در فرمالین بافر 10 تثبیت و سپس به روش رایج بلوک های پارافینی تهیه و با هماتوکسیلین ائوزین رنگ آمیزی و مورد مطالعه قرار گرفتند. نتایج نشان دهنده در گروه کنترل مثبت و ALP و ALT,AST افزایش معنی دار فعالیت آنزیم های القاء موفق آسیب کبدی بواسطه کادمیوم بود. در بررسی آسیب شناسی بافت کبد تغییرات دژنراتیو گرانولر، متراکم شدن کروماتین ها و هسته و همینطور نکروز هپاتوسیت ها در این گروه مشاهده شد . در مقابل تجویز خوراکی چای در غلظت های 5 و 10 بطور معنی دار از افزایش فعالیت آنزیم های سرمی مذکور جلوگیری کرد و نتایج آسیب شناسی نیز مؤید آنها بود . ولی چای 2 تأثیر محافظتی معنی دار ی ایجاد نکرد. نهایتاً نتایج مطالعه حاضر نشان می دهد که نوشیدن روزانه چای سیاه می تواند در پیشگیری از بروز ضایعات کبدی القاء شده بوسیله کادمیوم در موش صحرایی مؤثر باشد. Useful effects of black tea in treatment of many diseases have been shown . the protective effects of tea are possibly related to its antioxidant properties or its inhibition of lipid oxidation. The aim of the present study was to investigate hepatoprotective effects of black Iranian tea on cadmium(cd)-induced hepatotoxicity .For this purpose 30 male wistar rats were randomly divided to six study groups including 1-negative control, 2-treatment control (received 10 black tea brewed drink (BTBD)),3-positive control which received cd(5 mg/kg body weight (bw.)/day) and 4 to 6-treatment groups in which BTBD was administered orally (2,5 and 10) with oral cd(5mg/kg bw./day). The rats were sacrificed after 4 weeks and blood samples were collected to assess liver biomarkers. liver samples were fixed in buffered formalin solution . They were then conventionally embedded in paraffin and stained with Hematoxilin - Eosin for pathology studies as well. In positive control group, activities of alanine transaminase(ALT), aspartate transaminase(AST) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) significantly increased in compare with negative control group. Granular degeneration, chromatin and nucleus concentration and necrosis were evidenced in pathological study of the liver sections of this group. On the other hand, 5 and 10 BTBD administration significantly prevented ALT,AST and ALP increasing activity. Pathological study confirmed the latter serological results. Whereas, 2 BTBD administration didnt have any significant protection. in conclusion, our results suggest that daily black tea drinking may prevent cd-induced hepatic lesions. مشاهده
476 فارسی مقایسه اثردگزامتازون، متوکلوپرامید و ترکیب دگزامتازون- متوکلوپرامید در جلوگیری از تهوع واستفراغ متعا... Comparative effect of dexamethasone, metoclopramide and combination of dexamethasone-metoclopramide ... 1393 2014 چکیده زایلازین داروی پیشبیهوشیمیباشد که دارای اثرات استفراغی است. این مطالعه به منظور ارزیابی اثر دگزامتازون، متوکلوپرامید و ترکیب دگزامتازون- متوکلوپرامید در جلوگیری از تهوع متعاقب تزریق زایلازین انجام شد. 18 کیلوگرم درسه گروه /9 ± 15 قلاده سگ نر نژاد مخلوط با متوسط وزن 5 1)، گروه متوکلوپرامید وریدی mg/kg ) پنج تایی شامل گروه دگزامتازون وریدی ) mg/ ) 0/5 ) و ترکیب دگزامتازون- متوکلوپرامید mg/kg 0/5 ) متعاقب بیهوشی -1 kg سگها، به صورت تصادفی انتخاب شدند. در تمام گروهها ابتدا توسط دیازپام ) mg/ ) 0/2 ) وریدی به عنوان آرام بخش، سپس زایلازین mg/kg 2) وریدی و kg 2) وریدی استفاده شد. بلافاصله داروهای دگزامتازون، mg/kg) بالاخره مورفین متوکلوپرامید درگروههای مذکور تزریق و تحت عمل لاپاراتومی قرارگرفتند. ،4 ، زمان بیهوشی، زمان بازیابی و علائم مربوط به تهوع در زمانهای 30 دقیقه، 2 ANOVA 8 و 24 ساعت پس از بیهوشی ارزیابی و نتایج با استفاده ازآزمون آماری معنی دار در نظر گرفته شد. (P 0/ بررسی و ( 50 48 دقیقه، درگروه متوکلوپرامید /2±2/ در گروه دگزامتازون طول دوره بیهوشی 8 45 دقیقه بود. /7± 51/7±2/3 دقیقه و درگروه دگزامتازون- متوکلوپرامید 5 اختلاف آماری معنیداری بین سه گروه از لحاظ طول دوره بیهوشی مشاهده در هیچ یک از سه گروه تهوع واستفراغ مشاهده نشد. تجویز .( P 0/ نشد( 05 داروهای دگزامتازون و متوکلوپرامید به صورت تنها یا ترکیب با یکدیگر به طور کامل رخداد استفراغ را در طول بیهوشی و زمان بازیابی کنترل میکند. Xylazine is preanesthetic drug that have nausea and vomiting effects. This study was done in order to assessment of the effects of dexamethasone, metoclopramide and the combination of dexamethasone - metoclopramide administrations in prophylaxis of nausea and vomiting after xylazine administration in dogs. 15 mixed breed dogs with average weight 18.9±5 Kg were randomly selected in 3 groups including intravenous (I.V) dexamethasone 1mg/kg , I.V metoclopramide 0.5 mg/kg and combination of dexamethasone - metoclopramide (0.5 -1 mg/kg). For induction of anesthesia in all groups, initially I.V diazepam (0.2 mg/kg) then I.V xylazine ( 2 mg/kg) and I.V morphine (2 mg/kg) were administrated and dexamethasone, metoclopramide and combination of dexamethasone-metoclopramide were injected and dogs were underwent the laparotomy technique. Anesthetic and recovery times, also nausea and vomiting effects at 30 min, 2, 4, 8 and 24 h after anesthesia were recorded and results were analyzed by ANOVA and (P 0.05) were considered significant. Duration of anesthesia at dexamethasone group were 48.2±2.8 min, metoclopramide group 51.7±2.3 min and in dexamethasone-metoclopramide group 45.7±2.3 min, respectively. Significant difference was not seen at duration of anesthesia between three groups (P 0.05) none was seen nausea and vomiting. Single or co-administration of dexamethasone and metoclopramide prevents nausea and vomiting in operation and recovery period. مشاهده
477 فارسی مطالعه هیستوآناتومی عدسی و جسم مژگانی در چشم شتر تک کوهانه... 1393 2014 عدسی و جسم مژگانی 20 چشم شتر تک کوهانه بالغ سالم مورد بررسی کالبدشناسی و بافتشناسی قرار گرفت. لام های بافتی بعد از رنگ آمیزی به روش های هماتوکسیلین ائوزین، ورهوف، تریکروم ماسون و پاس مورد بررسی ریزبینی قرارگرفتند. نتایج مشخص کرد که تحدب عدسی در بخش جلویی نسبت 1 و ضخامت /82 ±0/ به بخش خلفی کمتر می باشد. میانگین قطر عدسی برابر 01 1 سانتیمتر اندازه گیری گردید. میانگین پهنای /14 ±0/ (جلو- خلفی) آن برابر 02 0 سانتیمتر اندازه گیری گردید. همچنین جسم مژگانی / 7 ±0/ جسم مژگانی برابر 01 ±0/ 2 و قطربیرونی (عمودی) برابر 02 /9 ±0/ دارای میانگین قطر بیرونی( افقی) 07 2/5 سانتیمتر است. بافت پوششی سطح عدسی مکعبی و کپسول عدسی شدیدا پاس مثبت می باشد. همچنین کپسول در جلو ضخیمتر از بخش خلفی است. تراکم رشته های داخل عدسی در زیر کپسول فشرده و در مرکز کمتر می شود. رشته های الاستیک در عدسی مشاهده نشد. اپیتلیوم روی چین های زواید مژگانی دو لایه بوده که لایه سطحی فاقد رنگدانه و مکعبی و در بعضی نواحی استوانه ای شکل می باشند. زیر اپیتلیوم فاقد رنگدانه، ملانوسیت ها با رنگدانه های فراوان قرار دارند. بافت همبند زیر زوائد مژگانی شامل عضله صاف با مقاطع طولی می باشد. رشته های الاستیک در داخل بافت همبند جسم مژگانی به طرف زوائد مژگانی بصورت ضخیم و با مقدار بیشتری مشاهده می شوند. نهایتا می توان چنین نتیجه گیری کرد که به غیر از تفاوتهای موجود در ابعاد و اختلافات جزئی ریزبینی، عدسی و جسم مژگانی در شتر تقریبا شبیه همتای خود در نشخوارکنندگان بزرگ می باشد. مشاهده
478 فارسی دینامیک میان کنش اسپرم گوسفند با پلاسمید حاوی ژن لیزوزیم انسانی در انتقال ژن به واسطه اسپرم... 1393 2014 مطالعات قابلیت اسپرم برای انتقال ژن خارجی به تخم را ثابت کرده است. گزارش های بر میزان جذب و پارامترهای DNA مربوط به اثرات زمان گرمخانهگذاری و میزان اسپرم متفاوت و گاه متناقض بوده است . هدف از این مطالعه بررسی اثر زمان بر سرعت، میزان DNA خارجی و مقدار این DNA گرمخانهگذاری اسپرم گوسفند با جذب و تحرک اسپرم و مقایسه اسپرم انزالی و اپیدیدیمی از این نظر بود. برای این با مدت زمان متفاوت( 15 تا 90 دقیقه) (N= و اپیدیدیمی ( 6 (N= منظور اسپرم انزالی ( 4 حامل ژن لیزوزیم انسانی ( 5 تا 500 pEGFPN و مقادیر متفاوت با پلاسمید نانوگرم/ 106 اسپرم/ 25 میکرولیتر) گرمخانهگذاری شده و میزان ورود پلاسمید به اسپرم 65 درصد / و تحرک اسپرم ها ارزیابی گردید. نتایج نشان داد که تا متوسط 33 اسپرم ها توانستند پلاسمید حاوی ژن لیزوزیم انسانی را جذب کنند . افزایش میزان DNA خارجی و زمان انکوباسیون به خصوص تا 60 دقیقه باعث افزایش مقدار DNA خارجی شد اگرچه DNA جذب شده توسط اسپرم و افزایش اسپرم های حاوی DNA بیشترین سرعت جذب در 15 دقیقه اول رخ داد. به نظر می رسد هرچه مقدار خارجی بیشتر باشد سرعت جذب بیشتر و زمان رسیدن به حداکثر تعداد اسپرم های دارای جذب کوتاه تر باشد. کاهش اندکی در تحرک تام و پیش رونده اسپرم های گروه تیمار با گروه شاهد به استثنای 5 دقیقه انکوباسیون مشاهده شد. هیچ اسپرم متحرکی که در ناحیه پشت آکروزوم باشد مشاهده نشد . به نظر می رسد DNA دارای جذب خارجی بیش از 30 DNA ( گرمخانه گذاری اسپرم با مقادیر متوسط( 20 تا 200 نانوگرم دقیقه و در مقادیر کم( 5 نانوگرم) بیش از 60 دقیقه لازم نباشد. مشاهده
479 فارسی بکارگیری روشHRMدر شناسایی و تفریق جدایه های ایرانی ویروسبیماری نیوکاسل از سویه های واکسینال... 1393 2014 چکیده برای کنترل همه گیری ها لازم است تا حضور ویروس های حاد از واکسن در کمترین زمان ممکن و با بیشترین دقت تشخیص داده شود. هدف از این مطالعه، بکارگیری در شناسایی و تفریق HRM (High-Resolution Melting-Curve Analysis) روش جدایه های بومی ویروس بیماری نیوکاسل از سویه های واکسن بود. در این مطالعه 5 همراه با 6 نمونه از واکسن های نیوکاسل موجود در بازار ایران مورد NDV جدایه حاد برای (A – H) 8 جفت پرایمر ،F استفاده قرار گرفتند. بر اساس توالی نوکلئوتیدی ژن طراحی و ساخته شدند. در مرحله نخست 2 ویروس واکسن و یک HRM آنالیز ویروس حاد با هر 8 جفت پرایمر آنالیز شدند. بر اساس نتایج حاصله، در مرحله بعد 3 جفت پرایمر از بین آنها انتخاب و تمام ویروسها مورد بررسی قرار گرفتند. با استفاده از نرم افزار، الگوهای بدست آمده از ویروس های وحشی با الگوهای حاصل از واکسن دمای ذوب سویه های H و F ،C ،B ،A مقایسه شدند. با استفاده از جفت پرایمرهای این حالت G و E ،D واکسن بالاتر از جدایه های حاد به دست آمد، اما با پرایمرهای H و B در این مطالعه، جفت پرایمرهای HRM دیده نشد. بر اساس آنالیز منحنی های توانستند بهتر از سایرجفت پرایمرها سویه های واکسن را از یکدیگر و از جدایه حاد تفکیک کنند. براساس یافته های حاصل از این مطالعه می توان نتیجه گرفت که با و انتخاب پرایمرهای مناسب می توان در مدت زمان کوتاه و با HRM استفاده از آنالیز دقت بالا در مقایسه با سایر روش های رایج قبلی نظیر انجام آزمایش های تعیین و تعیین توالی نوکلئوتیدی اقدام به تفکیک RT-PCR شاخص های بیماری زایی، آزمون و تعیین حدت ویروس های نیوکاسل و تشخیص ویروس های حاد از ویروس های واکسن کرد. مشاهده
480 فارسی تأثیر مصرف دراز مدت سیلدنافیل سیترات بر روی شاخصهای سرمی آسیب قلبی در موش صحرایی... 1393 2014 چکیده امروزه افزایش بیماریهای قلبی و به دنبال آن ایجاد ناتوانی جنسی، منجر به افزایش مصرف داروهای افزایش دهنده قوای جنسی شده است. در نارساییهای قلبی به علت کاهش خونرسانی به عروق جسم غاری، نعوظ کامل اتفاق نمیافتد که این امر میتواند منجر به نارضایتی جنسی گردد. یکی از مهمترین داروهایی که برای درمان این بیماری مصرف میشود، سیلدنافیل سیترات به عنوان مهار نوع 5 است. هدف از این مطالعه بررسی اثرات جانبی cGMP کننده انتخابی برای مصرف دراز مدت این دارو بر روی شاخصهای سرمی آسیب قلبی در موش صحرایی بود. بدین منظور تعداد 20 سر موش صحرایی نر نژاد ویستار انتخاب و به دو گروه شاهد و تیمار تقسیم شدند. سپس به گروه تیمار داروی سیلدنافیل 100 به صورت خوارکی به مدت 30 روز متوالی و به mg/kg سیترات با دوز قلبی، I گروه شاهد فقط آب مقطر تجویز شد. در پایان، مقادیر سرمی تروپونین لاکتات دهیدروژناز و آسپارتات آمینوترانسفراز مورد سنجش ،MB کراتین کیناز قرار گرفت. نتایج به دست آمده نشان داد که سیلدنافیل سیترات دارای اثر محافظتی بر آنزیم های قلبی است که میتواند ناشی از آزاد سازی نیتریک اکساید باشد. (NO) مشاهده
481 فارسی اثر ضد دیابتی عصاره اتانولی بخش های هوایی گیاهSalvia syriacaدرهای صحرایی دیابتی شده توسط استرپتوزوتو... 1393 2014 چکیده گیاهان جنس سالویا در تهیۀ فرآورده های غذائی و نیز در پزشکی کاربرد دارند. در اثر عصاره اتانلی ،Salvia syriaca تحقیق حاضر به منظور تعیین اثر ضددیابتی گیاه بخش های هوایی گیاه در موش های صحرایی دیابتی شده توسط استرپتوزوتوسین مورد بررسی قرار گرفت. جهت القاء دیابت، موش های صحرایی به صورت درون 70 دریافت نمودند. عصاره الکلی mg/kg صفاقی استرپتوزوتوسین را به مقدار 100 و 200 میلی گرم بر ، در مقادیر 50 Salvia syriaca بخش های هوایی گیاه کیلوگرم وزن بدن بصورت خوراکی به مدت 30 روز به حیوانات سالم و دیابتی شده تیمار گردید. پس از گذشت 30 روز، حیوانات بیهوش شده و نمونه های خون جمع آوری گردید. میزان گلوکز، انسولین، کلسترول، تری گلیسرید، اوره، کراتینین، سرم اندازه گیری گردید. تیمار خوراکی AST و ALT اسید اوریک و آنزیم های به مدت 30 روز موجب کاهش Salvia syriaca عصاره الکلی بخش های هوایی گیاه معنی داری بر سطح گلوکز، تری گلیسرید، کلسترول تام، اوره، اسید اوریک، و افزایش معنی داری بر سطح انسولین در AST و ALT کراتینین و فعالیت آنزیم های موش های دیابتی گردید. تیمار عصاره موجب تغییر معنی داری بر سطح پارامترهای Salvia فوق در موش های سالم نگردید. نتایج تحقیق حاضر نشان داد که گیاه دارای اثر ضددیابتی در موش های صحرایی است و می تواند جهت مقاصد syriaca درمانی مورد توجه قرار گیرد. مشاهده
482 فارسی مطالعه آلودگی جوندگان به لیشمانیازیس احشایی با روش هایپارازیتولوژی، سرولوژی ومولکولی(PCR)درمنطقه سرا... 1393 2014 چکیده لیشمانیازیس احشائی یکی از بیماری های عفونی انگلی و مشترک در کشورهای حوزه مدیترانه و خاورمیانه از جمله ایران می باشد. عامل اصلی لیشمانیازیس احشائی در ایران لیشمانیا اینفانتوم و مخزن اصلی بیماری، سگ و سگ سانان می باشد. عفونت هایی از لیشمانیا اینفانتوم در جوندگان نیز به اثبات رسیده است. این تحقیق جهت بررسی عفونت لیشمانیازیس احشائی در میان جوندگان شهرستان سراب و نقش احتمالی جوندگان در انتقال بیماری به انسان با روش پارازیتولوژی ،سرولوژی و 90 انجام گرفت. در این مطالعه 100 جونده از چهار گونه و - مولکولی در سال 91 جنس مختلف بوسیله تله های زنده گیر صید شد که قبل از کشته شدن، نمونه های خون جوندگان داخل ویال های پلی پروپیلن جمع آوری شده و با استفاده از تست مورد آزمایش قرار گرفت. 1 جونده ( 1) دارای تیتر (DAT) آگلوتیناسیون مستقیم سرمی مثبت و 6 جونده ( 6) دارای تیترهای سرمی پائین تر از مثبت و 93 جونده سرم منفی بودند. تمام گسترشهای تماسی تهیه شده از بافت کبد و طحال مورد مطالعه قرار گرفتند که در نهایت در هیچ کدام از آنها جسم لیشمن مشاهده نشد. کشت RPMI و 1640 NNN قسمتی از بافت طحال و کبد جوندگان در محیط کشت داده شدند، اما انگل لیشمانیا از محیط کشت ها جدا نشد. در نهایت از بافت طحال k- صورت گرفت و با استفاده از پرایمرهای اختصاصی DNA 100 جونده استخراج انجام شد و در آزمایش مولکولی باند مربوط به جنس لیشمانیا PCR آزمایش DNA مشاهده نگردید. مشاهده
483 فارسی آسیب شناسی بافتی پانکراس در موش های صحرایی دیابتی شده با استرپتوزوتوسین و تحت درمان با عصاره اتانولی... 1393 2014 چکیده بیماری دیابت شیرین شامل مجموعه ای از اختلالات متابولیک است که روی هم باعث افزایش قند خون می شوند و عواملی چون ژنتیک، عوامل محیطی، عادات و سبک زندگی در ایجاد آن دخالت دارند. در این مطالعه به منظور بررسی اثر عصاره الکلی گیاه خرفه بر آسیب شناسی بافتی پانکراس در موش های صحرایی دیابتی از 36 سر موش صحرایی نر بالغ نژاد ویستار استفاده گردید که در شش گروه به ترتیب شامل: 1- کنترل سالم، 2- دیابتی با عصاره mg/kg استرپتوزوتوسین، 3- دیابتی با استرپتوزوتوسین و درمان با دوز 200 mg/kg -4 دیابتی با استرپتوزوتوسین و درمان با دوز 400 ،(T خرفه به مدت 4 هفته( 1 به mg/kg -5 درمان با عصاره خرفه با دوز 200 ،(T عصاره خرفه به مدت 4 هفته( 2 -6 درمان با ،(T مدت 4 هفته و سپس دیابتی کردن موش ها با استرپتوزوتوسین( 3 به مدت 4 هفته و سپس دیابتی کردن موش ها با mg/kg عصاره خرفه با دوز 400 مطالعه شدند. پس از پایان دوره آزمایش تمام موش ها پس از (T استرپتوزوتوسین( 4 بیهوشی، آسان کشی شده و پانکراس آنها به منظور تهیه مقاطع هیستوپاتولوژی در فرمالین بافر 10 قرار داده شد. نتایج آسیب شناسی بافتی نشاندهنده تخریب جزایر لانگرهانس و نکروز سلول های جزایر و نفوذ سلول های التهابی در گروه دیابتی بود که شدت این جراحات در گروه های درمان با عصاره خرفه کاهش معنی داری را نشان داد. این کاهش در نسبت به بقیه بیشتر بود. T و 4 T گروه های 3 نتایج این مطالعه نشاندهنده اثرات ضد دیابتی عصاره گیاه خرفه می باشد که احتمالاً این نقش را از طریق خاصیت آنتی اکسیدانی خود ایفا می کند. مشاهده
484 فارسی بررسی تجربی فعالیت ضدقارچی موضعی اسانس رزماری بر زخم جلدی عفونی شده با کاندیدا آلبیکنس در موش صحرایی... 1393 2014 کیده امروزه اثرات جانبی و توسعه مقاومت دارویی بویژه در آزول ها و مشتقات آنها که به منظور درمان عفونت های کاندیدا در هر دو شکل موضعی و دهانی به کار میروند، منجر به استفاده از مواد بیولوژیک گردیده است. یکی از گیاهان دارویی که به شکل (Rosmarinus officinalis) رایج از دیر باز مورد استفاده قرار گرفته است، رزماری می باشد. در این مطالعه که بر روی 75 سر موش صحرایی نژاد نر ویستار (با محدوده 1/ 210±10 ) انجام شد، بعد از بیهوشی عمومی، یک زخم مربع شکل به ابعاد 5 g وزنی (Candida 1سانتیمتر، محل زخم بلافاصله توسط مخمر کاندیدا آلبیکنس / در 5 آلوده گردید. سپس موش های صحرایی آزمایش در سه گروه 25 تایی albicans) 1 و 3 درصد) به طور تصادفی توزیع و / (کنترل و گروه های تحت درمان با پمادهای 5 هرگروه خود به 5 زیرگروه 5 تایی (گروه های نمونه برداری در روزهای مختلف) 16 و 20 از زخم های ،12 ،8 ، تقسیم شدند. در طول اجرای طرح، در پایان روزهای 4 گروه های مختلف، به منظور بررسی های آسیب شناختی، توسط پانچ مخصوص 1 و 3 حاصل از / بیوپسی، نمونه اخذ گردید. بررسی ها نشان داد بکارگیری پماد 5 اسانس رزماری، در مقایسه با گروه کنترل موجب کاهش قابل ملاحظهای در میزان عفونت و افزایش حجم کلاژن و تولید بافت پوششی شده است. براساس نتایج بدست آمده روند بهبود زخم در پماد درمانی 3 در مقایسه با دوز پایینتر و کنترل بهتر بوده است. مشاهده
485 فارسی پاتوژن های باکتریایی غالب مراکز تکثیر و پرورش میگوی کشور... 1393 2014 مشاهده
486 فارسی در مقایسه با برخی بیومارکرهای معمول آسیب NGAL بررسی تغییرات حاد کلیه متعاقب تجویز سیسپلاتین در سگ... 1393 2014 مشاهده
487 فارسی مکانیسم اثر کشندگی برخی سویه های قارچ های انتوموپاتوژن بر کنه ی ریپیسفالوس آنولاتوس... 1393 2013 مشاهده
488 فارسی اتقال ژن Enhanced green florescent protein به کلونیاسپرماتوگونی گوساله با استفاده ازTurbofect... 1393 2014 مشاهده
489 فارسی بررسی و مقایسه میزان اسیدهای آمینه موجود در پوست سگ های مبتلا به درماتوفیتوزیس نسبت به سگ های سالم... 1393 2014 مشاهده
490 فارسی مطالعه اثر محافظتی ملاتونین در پیشگیری از آسیب های تراتوژونیک داروی لاموتریژین در مخچه نوزادان موش س... 1393 2014 مشاهده
491 فارسی ارزیابی استرس اکسیداتیو در اسب های مبتلا به گورم 1393 2014 مشاهده
492 فارسی اثر کاربرد پروبیوتیکPediococcus acidilacticiبر شاخص های رشد وپارامترهای خونی ماهی زینتی گرین ترورAnd... 1393 2014 مشاهده
493 فارسی تأثیر نانوکیتوزان حاوی اسانسهای گیاه درمنه و مرزه روی گونههای آسپرژیلوس جدا شده از پودر ماهی تولیدی ... 1393 2014 مشاهده
494 فارسی بررسی میزان آلودگی سرمی به ویروس بلوتانگ در گوسفندان شهرستان خوی با استفاده از روش الایزای رقابتی... 1393 2014 مشاهده
495 فارسی بررسی خواص آنتی اکسیدانی پروتئین آبکافت بدست آمده از ضایعات، (Salmo salar) در فرآیند فیله کردن ماهی ... 1393 2014 مشاهده
496 فارسی و پلاسمید حدت در سویه های I بررسی فراوانی اینتگرون های کلاس بالینی سالمونلا تیفی موریوم... 1393 2014 مشاهده
497 فارسی بررسی کلونی زایی سلول های اسپرماتوگونی منجمد- ذوب شده بره قزل پس از هم کشتی با سلول های سرتولی... 1393 2014 مشاهده
498 فارسی آسیب شناسی بافتی ناشی از مسمومیت تحت حاد علف کش پاراکوات دربافت کبد ماهی بنی انگشت(Barbus sharpeyi)... 1393 2014 مشاهده
499 فارسی مطالعه وبررسی تغییرات ژن 53pدرآدنوماتوز ریوی گوسفند به روش ایمونوهیستوشیمی... 1393 2014 مشاهده
500 فارسی مطالعه تجربی اثرات مهاری پالپ گوجه فرنگی بر استرس اکسیداتیو در سرطان پوست القاء شده توسط دیمتیل بنزآ... 1393 2014 مشاهده
501 فارسی کلونینگ ژن 40pمایکوپلاسما آگالاکتیه در سیستم پروکاریوتی... 1398 2014 مشاهده
502 فارسی گزارش وقوع سنگ مثانه و درمان جراحی آن در اسبچه خزر 1393 2014 مشاهده
503 فارسی تنوع ژنتیکی آنتی ژنB2در ایزوله های حیوانی اکینوکوکوسگرانولوزوس در شهر تبریز... 1393 2013 مشاهده
504 فارسی شیوع هایپوکلسمی تحت بالینی بعد از زایش در گاوهای شیری و ارتباط آن با بروز بالانس منفی انرژی درحومه ش... 1393 2014 مشاهده
505 فارسی رسی تأثیر داروی متفورمین بر گلوکز و پروفایل های چربی و استرس اکسیداتیو سرم در موش های صحرایی دیابتی ... 1393 2014 مشاهده
506 فارسی تاثیر غلظت های مختلف پروتئین هیدرولیز شده ماهی ساردین و ضایعات کشتارگاهی طیور بر سطح باکتری های روده... 1393 2014 مشاهده
507 فارسی بررسی میزان شیوع آندومتریت تحت بالینی در گاوهای شیری با استفاده از سایتوبراش... 1393 2014 مشاهده
508 فارسی رات پیشگیرانه پودر زردچوبه خوراکی از ابتلا به کبد چرب در موش های صحرایی تغذیه شده با جیره غذایی پرچر... 1393 2014 مشاهده
509 فارسی تفکیک سریع سویه های ویروس برونشیت عفونی طیور به روش آنالیزHRM... 1393 2013 مشاهده
510 فارسی بررسی آلودگی های انگلی ماکیان بومی شهرستان ایلام 1393 2013 مشاهده
511 فارسی ژنوتیپینگ استافیلوکوک های کواگولاز منفی جدا شده از نمونه هایکلینیکی با استفاده از ژنtufبا تکنیکPCR-S... 1392 2013 مشاهده
512 فارسی بررسی آلودگی میکروبیولوژیکی جوانههای خوراکی شبدر، ماش و گندم در شهر تهران... 1392 2013 مشاهده
513 فارسی اثرات افزودن رافینوز و تره هالوز بر شاخص های کیفیت اسپرم گاومیش بعد از ذوب... 1392 2013 مشاهده
514 فارسی اثرات القا مسمومیت آبستنی تحت بالینی در میش بر سطح سرولوپلاسمین سرم... 1392 2013 مشاهده
515 فارسی مقایسه غلظت سرمی هورمون های تیروئیدی در بزهای آبستن نژاد آمیخته پاکستانی (بیتال) و نژاد بومی... 1392 2013 مشاهده
516 فارسی شناسایی سارکوسیستیس تنلا و سارکوسیستیس آریتیکانیس جدا شده از گوسفندان کشتاری در کشتارگاه تبریز به وس... 1392 2013 مشاهده
517 فارسی ردیابی متاپنوموویروس پرندگان در گله های ماکیان استان های آذربایجان شرقی و آذربایجان غربی... 1392 2013 مشاهده
518 فارسی اثرات هیستوپاتولوژیکی آمونیاک در آبشش، کبد و کلیه بچه تاسماهیAcipenser persicus ایرانی... 1392 2013 مشاهده
519 فارسی بررسی اثر تغییرات ژنتیکی در ژن هماگلوتینین ویروسهای آنفلوانزاH9N2در تشخیص آنها توسطRT-PCR... 1393 2013 مشاهده
520 فارسی مقایسه میزان آلودگی به مایکوپلاسما آگالاکتیهMycoplasmaagalactiae)در گوسفندان و بزهای مبتلا به آگالاک... 1392 2013 مشاهده
521 فارسی ارزیابی شاخص های رشد و تغذیه ماهی شهری گوش قرمز(lentijanLethrinusدر آب های ساحلی استان هرمزگان... 1392 2013 مشاهده
522 فارسی مطالعه همبستگی بین نکروز با میزان آنژیوژنز و پرولیفراسیون در مدل زنوگرافت هتروتاپیک سرطان پستان... 1392 2013 مشاهده
523 فارسی بررسی تغییرات بیوشیمیایی خون گوسفند ناشی از هیپرمنیزیمی تجربی... 1392 2013 مشاهده
524 فارسی بررسی ژنGRA در تفریق ژنوتیپ های توکسوپلاسما گوندیی با استفادهاز روشPCR- RFLPدر جنین های سقط شده گوسف... 1393 2013 مشاهده
525 فارسی ارزیابی هیستوپاتولوژیک تأثیر پودر نانوهیدروکسیآپاتیت/ زیرکونیای پایدارشده با ایتریا در التیام استخوا... 1392 2013 مشاهده
526 فارسی بررسی پارازیتولوژیکی و مولکولی بابزیا میکروتی در جوندگان شهرستان سراب (آذریایجان شرقی)... 1393 2013 مشاهده
527 فارسی بررسی وقوع لینگواتولوزیس در نشخوارکنندگان کوچک کشتار شده در کشتارگاه شهریار... 1392 2013 مشاهده
528 فارسی آنالسال های 1389 و 13یز فیلوژنتیکی ژنFویروس های نیوکاسل جدا شده در ایران طی... 1392 2014 مشاهده
529 فارسی بررسی اثرات ضد باکتریایی عصاره الکلی گیاه ناخنک(hamosus)Astragalusبر روی باکتری های گرم مثبت و گرم م... 1392 2013 مشاهده
530 فارسی اولین گزارش و شناسایی مولکولی گونهAcanthocephala)Rhadinorhynchus spبر اساس توالی ژن18SrDNA... 1392 2013 مشاهده
531 فارسی شیوع آلودگی سارکوسیستیس درگاوهای کشتاری تبریز 1392 2013 مشاهده
532 فارسی شناسایی گونه های کمپیلوباکتر در مدفوع سگ ها و گربه های به ظاهر سالم با استفاده از واکنش زنجیره ای پ... 1392 2013 مشاهده
533 فارسی مطالعه هیستوپاتولوژیک و ایمونوهیستوشیمیایی الگوهای رایج تومورهای فولیکولی مو و اپیدرمال در سگ و گربه... 1393 2014 مشاهده
534 فارسی بررسی اثر سیستئامین بر تکوین آزمایشگاهی اووسیتهای گاو 1392 2013 مشاهده
535 فارسی شیوع سپتی سمی ناشی از سودوموناس آئروژینوزا در گله گوشتی در استان مازندران... 1392 2013 مشاهده
536 فارسی ارزیابی اثر آنتی کاتالپتیک لوودوپا کاربی دوپا به همراه سرترالین در موش های صحرائی پارکینسونی... 1392 2013 مشاهده
537 فارسی خواص ضد فشارخون و ضد اکسیدان پنج نوع پروتئین آبکافت حاصل از (Penaeus indicus) ضایعات میگوی سفید هندی... 1392 2013 مشاهده
538 فارسی ارزیابی بیومکانیکی و هیستوپاتولوژیکی دو روش انتقال تاندون و آناستوموز عصبی در کارایی اندام حرکتی خرگ... 1392 2013 مشاهده
539 فارسی بررسی حضور آنتی بادی های سرمی ضد ویروس آنفلوانزای مرغی تحت تیپH9N درجمعیت انسانی منطقه اردبیل... 1392 2013 مشاهده
540 فارسی بررسی حضور آنتی بادی های سرمی ضد ویروس آنفلوانزای مرغی تحت تیپH9N درجمعیت انسانی منطقه اردبیل... 1391 2012 مشاهده
541 فارسی اثر بیهوش کنندگی بلوکرهای گیرنده های گلوتامات به صورت انفرادی و به همراه آلپرازولام در تجویز از راه ... 1391 2012 مشاهده
542 فارسی بررمختلف چرایی بر سالمونلا انتریتیدیسسی اثر ضد میکروبی درمنه دشتیArtemisia Sieberiتحت شرایط(Salmonel... 1391 2012 چکیده درمنه دشتی گیاهی است از خانواده کاسنی، بوتهای به رنگ سبز متمایل به خاکستری و از عناصر رویشی ایران و تورانی و از عناصر غالب مراتع استپی ایران میباشد. کاربرد غیر علوفهای این گیاه به دلیل محتوای اسانس و عصاره آن بسیار متنوع است. از خاصیت آنتیبیوتیکی این گیاه در طب سنتی برای درمان سوء هاضمه و دفع انگلهای رودهای استفاده میشود. هدف از این پژوهش بررسی تاثیر ضد میکروبی اسانس و عصاره این گیاه تحت شرایط مختلف چرایی بر روی باکتری بیماریزای سالمونلا انتریتیدیس میباشد. این باکتری از عوامل مهم عفونتهای رودهای است. در این پژوهش رشد سال 1390 گیاه درمنه دشتی از محلهای قابل برداشت در دو سایت متفاوت، تحت دو شرایط چرا شده و چرا نشده جمعآوری گردید. پس از تهیه اسانس و عصاره اثر ضد میکروبی 6 تیمار مختلف اسانس و عصاره گیاه دارویی درمنه دشتی که به صورت رقت سازی متوالی تهیه شده بودند با استفاده از روش انتشار دیسک بر روی باکتری بیماریزای سالمونلا ارزیابی گردید. نتایج این تحقیق نشان داد عامل چرا بر ترکیبات ضد باکتری اسانس درمنه دشتی بی تاثیر بوده اما اثر ضد میکروبی عصاره گیاه تحت تاثیر متغیر چرا قرار دارد. نتایج این پژوهش کاربردهای زیادی در صنایع غذایی و داروسازی می تواند داشته باشد. مشاهده
543 فارسی بررسی اثر ضد میکروبی درمنه دشتی(Artemisia Sieberi)تحت شرایطمختلف چرایی بر سالمونلا انتریتیدیس(Salmon... 1391 2012 چکیده درمنه دشتی گیاهی است از خانواده کاسنی، بوتهای به رنگ سبز متمایل به خاکستری و از عناصر رویشی ایران و تورانی و از عناصر غالب مراتع استپی ایران میباشد. کاربرد غیر علوفهای این گیاه به دلیل محتوای اسانس و عصاره آن بسیار متنوع است. از خاصیت آنتیبیوتیکی این گیاه در طب سنتی برای درمان سوء هاضمه و دفع انگلهای رودهای استفاده میشود. هدف از این پژوهش بررسی تاثیر ضد میکروبی اسانس و عصاره این گیاه تحت شرایط مختلف چرایی بر روی باکتری بیماریزای سالمونلا انتریتیدیس میباشد. این باکتری از عوامل مهم عفونتهای رودهای است. در این پژوهش رشد سال 1390 گیاه درمنه دشتی از محلهای قابل برداشت در دو سایت متفاوت، تحت دو شرایط چرا شده و چرا نشده جمعآوری گردید. پس از تهیه اسانس و عصاره اثر ضد میکروبی 6 تیمار مختلف اسانس و عصاره گیاه دارویی درمنه دشتی که به صورت رقت سازی متوالی تهیه شده بودند با استفاده از روش انتشار دیسک بر روی باکتری بیماریزای سالمونلا ارزیابی گردید. نتایج این تحقیق نشان داد عامل چرا بر ترکیبات ضد باکتری اسانس درمنه دشتی بی تاثیر بوده اما اثر ضد میکروبی عصاره گیاه تحت تاثیر متغیر چرا قرار دارد. نتایج این پژوهش کاربردهای زیادی در صنایع غذایی و داروسازی می تواند داشته باشد. مشاهده
544 فارسی بررسی ایمونوهیستوشیمی یک مورد سرطان سلول های سنگفرشی واژن گاو... 1391 2012 چکیده یک گاو ماده 6 ساله نژاد هولشتاین به وزن 457 کیلوگرم به دلیل وجود یک 7/5 سانتی متری در ناحیه واژن ارجاع ×5× زائده خونریزی دهنده و زخمی 8 گردید. زائده مورد نظر با عمل جراحی برداشته و به آزمایشگاه پاتولوژی ارسال شد. گزارش هیستوپاتولوژیک نمونه دال بر کارسینومای سلول خاردار بود. جزایر (Squamous eddies) سلول های خاردار بصورت دوار و اغلب بدون ماده شاخی در عمق بافت همبندی نفوذ کرده بودند.در بررسی ایمنوهیستوشیمی مثبت بودن دال بر خاستگاه کراتینوسایتی تومور بود. ولی CK5/ و 6 AE1/AE مارکرهای 3 به میزان 50 درصد)به درجه بالای بدخیمی استناد )PCNA و Ck مثبت شدن 8 می کرد. بنابراین تومور باتفکیک و تمایز اندک مهاجم تشخیص داده شد.این نشان می دهدکه استفاده ازمارکرهای ایمنوهیستوشیمی تا چه اندازه در بیان پیش آگهی و نوع برخورد درمانی با آن تاثیر گذاراست. مشاهده
545 فارسی تمایز سارکوسیستیس هومینیس در گوشت گاو به روشPCR 1391 2012 چکیده مطالعه حاضر با هدف بررسی فراوانی سارکوسیستیس هومینیس در گاوهای کشتار شده در کشتارگاه های اصفهان طراحی شد . در مجموع 768 نم ونه بافت ماهیچه ای قلب و دیافراگم از 384 لاشه گاو مورد آزمایش میکروسکوپی قرار گرفته و نمونه های آلوده جهت تمایز سارکوسیستیس هومینیس با استفاده از روش واکنش زنجیره ای پلی مراز آزمایش شدند. بر پایه آزمون های میکروسکوپی 62 درصد بدست آمد و بر پایه / میزان شیوع کیست های سارکوسیستیس در گاو 8 48 درصد) از نظر / 207 نمونه از 431 نمونه آلوده ( 1 ،PCR آزمون سارکوسیستیس هومینیس مثبت بود . بررسی آماری بیانگر آن است که اختلاف آماری معنی داری بین شیوع آلودگی در بافت های ماهیچه قلب و دیافراگم وجود نتایج مطالعه حاض ر نشان داد میزان آلودگی گوشت گاو در .(P ندارد( 0.05 اصفهان به کیست ها سارکوسیستیس هومینیس بالاست و مصرف گوشت نیمه پز می تواند منجر به سارکوسیستیس موردی در انسان شود. مشاهده
546 فارسی بررسی آسیب شناسی آبشش ماهی بیاحLiza Abu)تحت تاثیرلودگی آب خور موسی... 1391 2012 مشاهده
547 فارسی مطالعه اثرات بی دردی و ضد التهابی عصاره گیاه گل ابریشم در موش صحرائی... 1391 2012 چکیده عصاره پوست گل ابریشم که از طریق حل کردن آن در نسبت برابری از پترولیوم اتر، اتیل استات و متانول به دست می آید، در غربالگری های فارماکولوژیک به کار می رود. هر گروه درمانی حاوی 6 موش رت بود. در تست ادم پنجه موش عصاره گیاه به میزان ، (Carrageenan) صحرایی در اثر تزریق ماده کاراگینان 36 درصد کاهش داد / 400 در پایان 4 ساعت، حجم ادم را به میزان 68 mg/kg ناشی از تزریق استیک اسید، عصاره گیاه به میزان writhing test در .(p 0/01) 52/ 39 درصد و 4 / باعث مهار حرکات پیچشی به میزان 9 mg/kg 200 و 400 به روش حرارت تابشی، 30 دقیقه بعد از تجویز tail-flick درصد شد. در تست از عصاره خام گیاه باعث طولانی شدن زمان mg/kg خوراکی 200 و 400 (p0/ 61 درصد ( 01 / و 48 (p0/ 40 درصد ( 01 / حرکات دم موش به میزان 74 شد. مطالعه حاضر نشان داد گیاه گل ابریشم اثر قابل توجهی در کاهش درد و التهاب در روش های استاندارد آزمایشگاهی در موش رت دارد. مشاهده
548 فارسی بررسی اثرات محافظتی ملاتونین روی تغییرات هیستولوژیک روند اسپرماتوژنز در موش صحرایی تحت درمان با جمسی... 1391 2012 چکیده اثرات سیتوتوکسیک شیمی درمانی و اشعه درمانی با تغییرات ز یادی در دستگاه تناسلی مردان همراه است. ملاتونین یکی از ترشحات غده اپی فیز بوده که به عنوان آنتی اکسیدان شناخته شده است. هدف از تحقیق حاضر بررسی اثرات محافظتی ملاتونین روی اختلالات اسپرماتوژنز ناشی از درمان با جمسیتابین به کمک ارزیابی های بافت شناسی بیضه می باشد. مطالعه حاضر برروی 48 سر موش نر بالغ 8 هفته انجام شد حیوانات در 6 گروه شامل گروه کنترل دریافت کننده نرمال سالین، گروه 2 و 3 به ترتیب دریافت 50mg/kg 20 و 10 ملاتونین و گروه 4، دریافت کننده تک دوز mg/kg کننده 50 mg/kg جمسیتابین به صورت داخل صفاقی و گروه 5 و 6 به دنبال تجویز 20 و 10 دریافت می کرد، 14 روز mg/kg جمسیتابین به مدت 14 روز ملاتونین پس از شروع درمان بیضه همه حیوانات جدا شد و پس ازفیکس کردن در فرمالین بافر 10 و تهیه اسلایدهای هیستولوژی ارزیابی ها از طریق مطالعات لوله های سمی نیفروس و شمارش سلول های زایا و سوماتیک انجام گرفت . آنالیزهای آماری با کمک روش ناپارامتری کروسکال والیس انجام گرفت و سطح معنی دار در نظر گرفته شد. P آماری 0.05 موش های تحت درمان با جمسیتابین در مقایسه با گروه کنترل، کاهش معنی پارامترهای کمی . (p داری در ارزیابی ها و کیفیت اسپرماتوژنز نشان دادند ( 0.01 لوله های سمی نیفروس در گروه چهارم در مقایسه با کنترل کاهش معنی داری در حالی که ملاتونین در گروه 6، باعث طبیعی شدن قابل .(p نشان داد ( 0.01 در مقایسه با گروه 4 شد . (p توجه پارامترهای لوله های سمی نیفروس ( 0.05 ملاتونین، تعداد همه سلول های زایا و سوماتیک را در گروه 6 و 3 در مقایسه با افزایش داد (p گروه 4 به صورت معنی دار ( 0.05 (افزایش کیفیت اسپرماتوژنز ) و در گروه 6 منجر به خنثی نمودن عوارض ناشی از جمسیتابین شد.نتایج حاصل از این مطالعه نشان می دهد که ملاتونین دارای اثر محافظتی روی آسیب های بیضه القاء شده با جمسیتابین است هر چند که مکانیسم نامشخص است، احتمالاً این عمل از طریق کاهش آسیبهای اکسیداتیو صورت می گیرد. مشاهده
549 فارسی تأثیر پرلیت بر ریخت شناسی خمل های روده کوچک جوجههای گوشتی... 1391 2012 چکیده خنثی بوده و در pH پرلیت جز سنگ های آتشفشانی سیلیسی است که دارای دستورالعمل شیمیا